The Letter to the Hebrews
Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Ridgefield,
The first chapter[ 1 ] of Hebrews recounts the spectacular revelation of God through
His Son Jesus Christ. It teaches that Jesus is God the Son, that He is superior to
angels and prophets such as Moses. He created the worlds. He is eternal. He
purged our sins via the cross (see chart HEBREWS 1 OUTLINE).
HEBREWS 1 OUTLINE
1. God speaks through His Son Jesus Christ
(Heb 1:1, 2a).
2. Jesus is superior to prophets (Heb 1:1b).
3. Jesus created and is owner of the worlds
(Heb 1:2, 10-12).
4. Continues to uphold the universe (Heb 1:3).
5. Made purification for man's sins (Heb 1:3, 4).
6. Above angels who worship Him (Heb 1:4-7).
7. He is eternal (Heb 1:10-12).
GOD HAS SPOKEN BY HIS SON
1:1, 2 God, who at various times and in various ways spoke in time past to
the fathers by the prophets, 2 has in these last days spoken to us by His Son,
whom He has appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the
God.[ 2 ] The God who spoke to the fathers by OT prophets is the same God who
is the author of His final revelation through Jesus Christ. The divine Author of
the OT is also the Author of the NT (see 2Ti 3:16, 17). The next several verses
show the very high regard that God had for His Son Jesus Christ in creation,
redemption and His heavenly reign.
Who at various times [having of old time, in many ways of old, who at
sundry times, in former times].[ 3 ] The Holy Spirit recalls how revelation was
given in the distant past. Those who say the old is not best are right in this
instance. Although both testaments are inspired, the NT of Christ is much better
than the OT.
And in various ways [and many ways, in, by, divers manners, portions, in
many parts, various ways].[ 4 ] The Greek actually implies that OT revelation to
the patriarchs and prophets was given in many parts. The same idea was
expressed by Isaiah.
For precept must be upon precept, precept upon precept, line upon line, line
upon line, here a little, there a little" (Isa 28:10).
God's message through the prophets varied according to circumstances, the
degree of faithfulness of the hearers and their ability to receive it. It was given
by many different methods and procedures and styles. Some of His revelation was
non-verbal. For example, he communicated with signs (Ex 4:8; 8:23), by a flood,
a rainbow, a pillar of salt, a pillar of cloud and fire (Ex 13:21, 22).
Spoke in time past to the fathers [having spoken, spoken unto our, the,
fathers].[ 5 ] The Jews probably understood the "fathers" to begin with father
Abraham (compare Lu 3:8; 16:24, 30; 19:9) and come down to Malachi (about
450 BC) or perhaps or even to Simon the Just (about 300 BC). God spoke by the
prophets, sometimes using angels.[ 6 ] The word "spoken" implies verbal inspiration
(see notes on 1Co 2:13; 2Ti 3:16, 17). God spoke words to the prophets. The
fact that He spoke tells us that He is much more than a force. He is an intelligent,
personal Being. It is marvelous beyond comprehension that He spoke to mankind!
Suppose He had not. What darkness there would be in the world if He had
forgotten His creatures and never communicated with them?
CHRIST FORETOLD IN VARIOUS WAYS
1. Seed of woman to bruise serpent's head (Ge 3:15).
2. Through Abraham's seed all nations to be blessed
3. Scepter not to depart from Judah until Shiloh
(the Pacificator) would come (Ge 49:10).
4. A Prophet like Moses to require obedience
5. Would suffer (Ps 22:11-21; Isa 53).
6. Would be raised (Ps 16:7-11).
7. Would reign as King and Priest (Ps 110; Zec 6:13).
By the prophets [in the prophets].[ 7 ] The prophets were "forth-tellers"[ 8 ] of
what God spoke. We may infer from Jeremiah 23:18, 22 that the prophets, at
least at times, stood in the heavenly council and then announced God's words to
Surely the Lord GOD does nothing, unless He reveals His secret to His
servants the prophets (Am 3:7).
REVELATION IN VARIOUS WAYS (A)
1. Angels speaking (Ge 19:11).
2. Dreams (Ge 28:10-17).
3. Visions (Ge 46:2; Da 10:7).
4. Speaking out of burning bush (Ex 3:2-4).
5. Audible words from God to Moses in storm and
thunder (Ex 19:19; De 5:22-24).
6. Urim and Thummim (Ex 28:30; Le 8:8).
REVELATION IN VARIOUS WAYS (B)
1. An animal speaking (Nu 22:28-30).
2. Trance (Nu 24:3, 15).
3. Writing on stone (De 10:2, 4).
4. To Elijah in a still small voice (1Ki 19:12).
5. In "the waters of Shiloah that flow softly" and
"the waters of the River, strong and mighty
(Isa 8:6, 7).
6. Type and antitype (1Pe 3:21).
Has in these last days [hath at the end of these days, in, but in, these last
days].[ 9 ] The book of Hebrews alludes to both the OT period and the NT period
(see charts TIME DESIGNATIONS A and B). The phrase "in these last days"
means more than "recently."[ 10 ] It is a literal rendering of the Hebrew phrase used
in the OT to denote the epoch when the words of the prophets would be fulfilled.
The appearance of Christ "once at the end of the ages" began the time of
fulfillment (Heb 9:26). It is significant that the prophecies were being fulfilled at
the very time when God was still revealing His word to mankind. Soon after that,
prophecies were done away. That is, after the first century they ceased to be
revealed to inspired men (1Co 13:8).
TIME DESIGNATIONS (A)
(Heb 1:1, 2)
1. These last days (Heb 1:2; compare 8:13).
2. The present time, the present season (Heb 9:9).
1. The world to come (Heb 2:5).
2. The age to come (Heb 6:5).
3. Time of reformation (Heb 9:10).
4. A continuing city, the one to come (Heb 13:14).
TIME DESIGNATIONS (B)
THE ETERNAL FUTURE
(Heb 1:1, 2)
1. Eternal salvation (Heb 5:9).
2. This hope both sure and steadfast and
which enters the Presence within the veil
3. A better and enduring possession in heaven
Spoken to us [spake, hath, has, he has, spoken unto us].[ 11 ] Christ's personal
ministry occurred during the latter years that the OT Law was in force (see Col
2:14-16). He gave the words of God to the apostles (Joh 17:8). Through their
writings and those of other inspired men, He speaks to us throughout the present
age (Joh 16:13; Heb 2:1-4; 3:5-8; 4:8; 12:25; 1Pe 1:25).
By His Son [in His Son, by a son, by the Son].[ 12 ] Much of Hebrews deals
with Christ as high priest (see Heb 4:14-10:18) but He was first a Son (see Ro
8:17; Ga 4:7; Heb 4:14-10:18). As a Son, He has a Father. A basic
characteristic of the Father is Deity. The Son also possesses that. The Son is
greater than the OT prophets. The Father said on the mount of Transfiguration,
"This is my beloved Son, hear Him" (Mt. 17:5). Nevertheless, numerous Jews
rejected Christ. Some of them said in derision, "We know that God spoke to
Moses; as for this fellow, we do not know where He is from" (Joh 9:29).
There have been two basic types of God's revelation: (1) OT revelation to the
fathers by the prophets, and (2) NT revelation by His Son. Although God spoke
in many ways, disclosure of His will in the OT was primarily a prophet-revelation.
The NT is a Son-revelation. The revelation of the Light of the world in the NT
is brighter and better (see Joh 8:12; 9:5). The Holy Spirit guided the apostles into
all truth (Joh 16:13).
WHO IS THE SON OF GOD? (A)
1. Heir of all things (Heb 1:2).
2. Through him God made the worlds (Heb 1:2).
3. The brightness of God's glory (Heb 1:3).
4. Express image of the Father's person (Heb 1:3).
5. Upholds all things by word of His power
WHO IS THE SON OF GOD? (B)
1. Made purification for sins (Heb 1:3).
2. Sits at right hand of Majesty on high (Heb 1:3).
3. Anointed with oil of gladness; Spirit without
measure; King on His heavenly throne
(Heb 1:9; Joh 3:34).
4. Eternal, before creation and after world's end
Whom He has appointed heir of all things [whom he appointed, hath
appointed, heir of everything].[ 13 ] God said to Christ:
Ask of Me, and I will give You the nations for Your inheritance, and the
ends of the earth for Your possession" (Ps 2:8).
Christ has all authority (Mt 28:18). In His prayer to the Father, He
acknowledged that He possessed all things.
And all Mine are Yours, and Yours are Mine, and I am glorified in them
(Joh 17:10; see also Mk 12:7; Ro 8:17).
In the present context, particular attention is called to His possession of what is
termed "the world to come" (Heb 2:5; see chart TIME DESIGNATIONS).
Through whom also He made the worlds [by whom also, and through whom,
he created the world].[ 14 ] The AIOONAS worlds include everything mentioned
in Hebrews 11:3.[ 15 ] Christ made at least the entire space-time universe. Many
students think the wisdom the LORD possessed "at the beginning of His way
before His works of old" was none other than Christ Jesus (see Pr 8:22).
CHRIST MADE THE WORLDS (A)
1. Let us make man (Ge 1:26; 3:22).
2. The Lord by wisdom founded the earth: by
understanding He established the heavens
3. He is the Maker of all things . . . the LORD
of hosts is His name (Isa 40:28).
4. The everlasting God, the LORD, the Creator of
the ends of the earth (Jer 10:16).
CHRIST MADE THE WORLDS (B)
1. All things were made through Him, and without
Him nothing was made that was made (Joh 1:3).
2. For by Him all things were created that are in
heaven and that are on earth (Col 1:16).
3. The Amen, the Faithful and True Witness, the
Beginning of the creation of God (Re 3:14).
1. The glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud
2. The sight of the glory of the LORD was like
a consuming fire on the top of the mountain
(Ex 24:17; see Le 9:23).
3. The glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle
(Ex 40:34; see Nu 14:10; 16:19, 42).
4. Surely the LORD our God has shown us His
glory and His greatness, and we have heard
His voice from the midst of the fire
THE GLORY OF CHRIST
1:3 Who being the brightness of His glory and the express image of His
person, and upholding all things by the word of His power, when He had by
Himself purged our sins, sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high.
Who being [He reflects, He is, and he is].[ 16 ]
The brightness [the effulgence, the radiance].[ 17 ] Some say Christ radiates
from within the glory of God. Others say He only reflects it. Since He is the
exact image of God's substance, no doubt, the former view is correct. F. F.
Just as the radiance of the sun reaches this earth, so in Christ the glorious
light of God shines into the hearts of men.[ 18 ]
Christ, the very brightness and radiance of God, has power to create and sustain.
He also made purification for sins.
Of His glory [of God's glory, the glory of God][ 19 ] (see charts GOD'S GLORY;
GLORY OF GOD AND CHRIST).
GLORY OF GOD AND CHRIST
1. Like the appearance of a rainbow in a cloud
on a rainy day, so was the appearance of the
brightness all around it. This was the
appearance of the likeness of the glory of
the LORD (Eze 1:28; compare 3:23).
2. Then the glory of the LORD went up from the
cherub, and paused over the threshold of the
temple; and the house was filled with the
cloud, and the court was full of the
brightness of the LORD'S glory
(Eze 10:4; see 43:4, 5).
3. And now, O Father, glorify Me together with
Yourself, with the glory which I had with
You before the world was
(Joh 17:5; compare 17:1, 24).
And the express image of His person [and the likeness, very image, bears the
very stamp, exact representation, of his substance, nature, essence].[ 20 ] Jesus
obtained purification for sins. He sat down on the right of the Majesty on high.
Christ, Immanuel, God with us, serves as the foundation of all that is God to His
people (see Mt 16:18; 1Co 3:11). When folk saw Jesus, they saw the Father, for
He revealed Him (Joh 14:7-11). In a limited understanding of deity, one may say
that Jesus is just like His Father. He is an eternal clone of Him. He is, literally,
the imprint of the Father.[ 21 ] He is the impress of His being. This nearly
describes what CHARAKTEER image means. Another word EIKON image is
used of Christ being the image of God (see 2Co 4:4; Col 1:15). W. E. Vine
The words of Hebrews 1:3, "Who being the effulgence of His [God's]
glory, and the very image of His [God's] substance" are a definition of what
is meant by "Son of God." Thus absolute Godhead, not Godhead in a
secondary or derived sense, is intended in the title.[ 22 ]
Man was made in the image of God ("Our image" Ge 1:26). "Our" suggests
something of the plural nature of God. This, compared with Hebrews 1:3, implies
that Christ and the Father are of the same image. Jesus said to Philip:
Have I been with you so long, and yet you have not known Me, Philip? He
who has seen Me has seen the Father; so how can you say, "Show us the
Father"? (Joh 14:9).
HUPOSTASEOOS may be translated "nature" or "substance." "Hypostasis" is
an anglicized form. The plural is "hypostases." The anglicized word is sometimes
used to describe the Father, the Son or the Holy Spirit. The use of the
transliterated Greek word may be confusing to the student but person, personality
and manifestation may be just as perplexing. Probably none of these words
absolutely and correctly expresses a flawless explanation. An example of an
attempt to explain God follows:
God, by the testimony of Scripture, is one divine Being in three eternal, co-essential, yet distinct hypostases, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.[ 23 ]
And upholding all things [and upholds, He is bearing, the universe].[ 24 ] Not
only is Christ the Creator, he actively bears up or upholds the universe.
Continually and developmentally He sustains it as well as His people.
By the word of His power [by his word of power, by the power of his
word].[ 25 ] Not only were the worlds "framed" by the word of God (Heb 11:3),
the universe is maintained by the word of His power. "And He is before all
things, and in Him all things consist" (Col 1:17). All things in the universe
consist, hold together or maintain their concord and coherence in Him. He moves
and guides all parts of the cosmos toward a defined end (see Ro 8:32; 11:36; 1Co
8:6; Eph 1:10; Col 1:16, 17; Heb 2:10). The second law of thermodynamics[ 26 ]
does not always apply in closed systems, especially with respect to living
organisms (see Ps 103:5; 104:30; Isa 40:31). It does not apply to the continued
care of our Savior nor of the final resurrection.
When He had by Himself purged our sins [when he had made, having
obtained the, purification of, for, sins].[ 27 ] The greatest disorder and confusion
in the created world is due to sin. The same Christ who guides and upholds all
things dealt with that great problem when He died on the cross. The Greek
emphasizes that He Himself personally accomplished the work of purification of
sins. He made one sacrifice. He then presented to God the life that represented
His own blood (see Heb 9:24). In heaven, He continues to intercede (Heb 7:25)
but He does not continue to make purification for sins. That was done once and
for all and for all time. By it, Christians are continually forgiven (1Jo 1:7).
Christ is the only one who can save from sin (Ac 4:12). No one is redeemed
apart from His blood. E. A. Hoffman asked a pertinent question when he wrote
Have you been to Jesus for the cleansing pow'r?
Are you washed in the blood of the Lamb?
Are you fully trusting in His grace this hour?
Are you washed in the blood of the Lamb?
PREMILLENNIALISM VERSUS BIBLE
1. Christ is not now
1. Christ is now reigning
2. Christ will begin His
reign at His return.
3. Christ will establish a
kingdom at His return.
(Woods 2.116, 117)
Sat down at the right hand [he sat down on the right, on the right hand].[ 28 ]
In a magnificent psalm, Christ's return to heaven is foretold.
Lift up your heads, O you gates! Lift up, you everlasting doors! And the
King of glory shall come in. 10 Who is this King of glory? The LORD of
hosts, he is the King of glory (Ps 24:9, 10).
Another psalm gives the duration of His reign.
The LORD said to my Lord, "Sit at My right hand, till I make Your
enemies Your footstool" (Ps 110:1).
After Christ ascended, He sat down on the right hand of God (Ps 110:1; see also
Mk 16:19; Lu 22:69; Ac 7:55; Ro 8:34; Eph 1:20; Col 3:1; Heb 8:1; 10:12;
12:2; 1Pe 3:22; Re 3:21). By way of summary, Christ is the spokesman for God.
He is Creator and Sustainer of the universe. He gave His life's blood for the
purification of sins where He also reigns at the right hand of God. In heaven also
as high priest He intercedes for His people.
Of the Majesty on high.[ 29 ] Christ, the agent of creation through whom God
speaks today, is reintroduced (see note on verse 2). His greatness is discussed
further in Hebrews 1:4-4:13. That He should sit on the right hand of the Majesty
on high implies the very highest possible glorification for Him.
THE MAJESTY ON HIGH
1. A description of God the Father.
b. The Majesty in the heavens (Heb 8:1).
c. To God our Savior, who alone is wise, be
glory and majesty, dominion and power, both
now and forever (Jude 25).
2. Hereafter the Son of Man will sit on the right
hand of the power of God (Lu 22:69; compare
3. After His ascension, Christ resumed the
glorious position He had with the Father prior
to His incarnation (Joh 17:1, 5).
4. But this Man, after He had offered one sacrifice
for sins forever, sat down at the right hand of
God (Heb 10:12).
EXALTATION OF CHRIST
1. God has made this Jesus, whom you crucified, both
Lord and Christ (Ac 2:36).
2. Ascended far above all the heavens, that He might
fill all things (Eph 4:10).
3. Therefore God also has highly exalted Him and
given Him the name which is above every name,
that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of
those in heaven, and of those on earth, and of
those under the earth, 11 and that every tongue
should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the
glory of God the Father (Php 2:9-11).
BETTER THINGS (A)
1. Christ is so much better than the angels (Heb 1:4).
2. Convinced of better things concerning you
3. Lesser is blessed by the greater (Heb 7:7).
4. Bringing in of a better hope (Heb 7:19).
5. A surety of a better covenant (Heb 7:22).
BETTER THINGS (B)
1. Better covenant established on better promises
2. Better sacrifices (Heb 9:23).
3. Better possession, an abiding one (Heb 10:34).
4. A better, that is, a heavenly country. Therefore
God is not ashamed to be called their God, for
He has prepared a city for them (Heb 11:16).
5. A better resurrection (Heb 11:35).
CHRIST BETTER THAN ANGELS
1. He has by inheritance obtained a more excellent
name than they (Heb 1:4).
2. Angels worship Him (Heb 1:6).
3. Christ is superior to angels who are winds or spirits,
pure, immune to human weaknesses (Heb 1:7).
4. Christ excels angels who are so strong that enemies
melt like wax before fire (Heb 1:7).
5. The Father called Christ "God" [not angels]
6. Angels are sent forth to minister; Christ reigns
at the right hand of God (Heb 1:7, 8, 13, 14).
BETTER THAN ANGELS
1:4 Having become so much better than the angels, as He has by inheritance
obtained a more excellent name than they.
Having become [being, being made].[ 30 ] Prior to His incarnation, Jesus was
superior to the angels. During His pilgrimage on earth, He was made lower than
they (see note on Heb 2:7).[ 31 ]
ANGELS AND THE NATIVITY
1. An angel appeared to Joseph in a dream
(Mt 1:20; 2:13, 19).
2. The angel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias
before John was born (Lu 1:11-20).
3. Gabriel appeared to Mary in Nazareth
4. An angel appeared to the shepherds (Lu 2:8-12).
5. A multitude of the heavenly host praised God
(Lu 2:13, 14).
ANGELS AND CHRIST
1. Ministered to Him after the temptation (Mt 4:11).
2. Strengthened Him in the garden (Lu 22:43).
3. Rolled away the stone from tomb (Mt 28:2-7).
4. Hereafter you shall see heaven open, and the
angels of God ascending and descending upon
the Son of Man (Joh 1:51).
4. At His ascension (Ac 1:11).
So much better than the angels [by so much greater than the angels, as much
superior to angels].[ 32 ] After His ascension to heaven Christ was exalted to a
position higher than any angel. He resumed His superiority over the angels (see
Because God was His Father, Jesus Christ was, by inheritance, given a more
excellent name than the angels. "Inheritance" from the Father also suggests the
deity of Christ.
A more excellent name than they [the name is than theirs].[ 33 ] The name of
Christ represents His dignity, power, deity and all that He is. The writer of
Hebrews now introduces seven quotations from the OT to prove the superiority of
Christ. This documentation would surely appeal to the Jewish mind. The first
part of verse 5 contains a quotation from Psalm 2:7. The second part of verse 5
is from 2 Samuel 7:14.
GOD NEVER TOLD AN ANGEL
1. You are my Son (see Ps 2:7).
2. Today I have begotten You (Ps 2:7).
3. I will be his Father (2Sa 7:14).
4. And he shall be My son (2Sa 7:14).
5. To You, O LORD, I will sing praises (Ps 101:1).
6. The LORD said to my Lord, "Sit at My right hand,
till I make Your enemies Your footstool"
(Ps 110:1; compare Jos 10:24; Heb 1:13).
WHAT GOD NEVER SAID TO ANGELS
1:5 For to which of the angels did He ever say: "You are My Son, today I
have begotten You"? And again: "I will be to Him a Father, and He shall be
to Me a Son"?
For to which of the angels [for unto which, for to what, angel].[ 34 ] The
answer to this rhetorical question is that no angel was ever told "Thou art my
Did He ever say [said he at any time, did God ever say?]. The question is
about something God said. Did He ever make such a statement as "You are My
Son" to an angel? The answer is that He never did. Some have recently argued
that nothing can be proved from the silence of Scripture. Well, here is an
argument from silence used by the Spirit Himself.
Thou art my Son [You are my Son].[ 35 ] The sons of God came to present
themselves before the Lord. Satan also came among them (Job 1:6). Were the
sons of God angels (compare Job 2:1)? Later, the Lord asked Job where he was
"When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?"
(Job 38:7). Were these sons of God angels? It is generally conceded that angels
were called "mighty ones" or even "sons of the Mighty" (Ps 29:1; 89:6).[ 36 ] Were
the "sons of God," in all of these passages angels? Regardless of what they were
called as a group, and in spite of their importance in God's service, the Father
never singled out any one of them to say, "Thou art my Son, this day have I
begotten thee."[ 37 ] Jesus Christ is unique in this.
The quotation from OT passages speaks of Solomon as a type of Christ. The
original statement quoted by the Spirit from Psalm 2:7 had to do with David's son
Solomon or some other king. To limit this prophecy to him is a very narrow view
of the passage. Beyond doubt it is a poetic and typological prophecy of Christ.
The same thing may be said of Nathan's words to David in 2 Samuel 7:14. Of
course, there was a primary fulfillment. It is true that Solomon did build a house
(temple) for God's name (see 2Sa 7:13) but, more importantly, Jesus Christ built
the church of Christ, the house of God (see 1Ti 3:15).
Today I have begotten You [this day have I begotten thee].[ 38 ] Jesus was
glorified when the Father said, "Thou art My Son." Then He was declared,
powerfully declared, to be the Son of God by the resurrection. He was begotten
from the dead when He was raised. The writer does not believe it refers to the
time when the Holy Spirit overshadowed Mary. Officially, being begotten may
refer to His heavenly coronation after His ascension (see charts TODAY HAVE
I BEGOTTEN THEE A and B).
TODAY I HAVE BEGOTTEN THEE (A)
1. God begat Jesus in that He raised Him up "as it is
also written in the second Psalm: 'You are My Son,
today I have begotten You'" (Ac 13:33).
2. The beginning, the firstborn from the dead
3. The faithful witness, the first-born from the dead,
and the ruler over the kings of the earth (Re 1:5).
TODAY I HAVE BEGOTTEN THEE (B)
1. So also Christ did not glorify Himself to become High
Priest, but it was He who said to Him: "You are My
Son, today I have begotten You" (Heb 5:5).
2. He was to be a priest on His throne (Zec 6:13).
3. As high priest, He is seated at the right hand of the
throne of the Majesty in the heavens (Heb 8:1).
4. On earth He could not be a priest (Heb 8:4).
THE SON OF DAVID (A)
1. Would build God's house (2Sa 7:11-14; Heb 3:3).
a. Solomon did not fulfill this because
b. The Most High does not dwell in temples made
with hands (Ac 7:48).
2. The Child with five names: Wonderful,
Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince
of Peace (Isa 9:6).
3. The one who "comes whose right it is"
4. The Bethlehem-born peaceful ruler (Mic 5:2-5).
5. The king who would come "lowly and riding on
a donkey, a colt, the foal of a donkey"
THE SON OF DAVID (B)
1. According to the sure mercies of David: a
witness, leader and commander (Isa 55:3, 4).
2. I will raise to David a Branch of righteousness
(Jer 23:5; 33:15).
3. He will be great, and will be called the Son of
the Highest; and the Lord God will give Him
the throne of His father David. 33 And He will
reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of His
kingdom there will be no end (Lu 1:32, 33).
4. Has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the
house of His servant David (Lu 1:69).
And again: I will be to Him a Father [Or again, I will be a Father to
Him].[ 39 ] This quotation is from 2 Samuel 7:14 (compare Ps 89:19-37; 132:11-18).
And He shall be to Me a Son [and He will be a Son to Me].[ 40 ] (see note
above on Thou art my son).
WHAT GOD SAID TO ANGELS
1:6 But when He again brings the firstborn into the world, He says: "Let all
the angels of God worship Him."
But when He again brings [and, but, again, when he again, and when, and
again when, he brings, when he brings, bringeth in, into].[ 41 ] The aorist tense
suggests a single act of bringing. I doubt that the subjunctive mood alludes to the
future when Christ shall come again.[ 42 ]
JESUS THE FIRSTBORN
1. First-born of all creation (Col 1:15; Ps 89:27).
2. First-born from the dead (Ac 13:33, 34; Col 1:18).
3. First-born among many brethren (Ro 8:29).
4. And from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness,
the firstborn from the dead, and the ruler over
the kings of the earth. To Him who loved us and
washed us from our sins in His own blood (Re 1:5).
The first-born [the firstbegotten, the Firstborn].[ 43 ] "First-born" does not
always mean the first in order of time to be born. Sometimes it is used of
preeminence of station (Ex 4:22; De 21:16, 17). It is so used of Christ. Early
Jewish writers even used the title "firstborn" to apply to God, giving Him firstborn
status and honor. Note that the "brethren" are "the church of the first-born"
[plural] (Heb 12:23).
Into the world.[ 44 ] (see note on The world to come, Heb 2:5).
1. Wise men "fell down and worshipped Him"
2. Those in the boat worshipped Him, saying,
"Truly You are the Son of God (Mt 14:33).
3. Disciples held Him by the feet and worshipped
Him (Mt 28:9).
4. And they worshipped Him (Lu 24:52 KJV, ASV).
5. The four living creatures and the twenty-four
elders fell down before the Lamb (Re 5:8).
He says: "Let all the angels of God worship Him" [he saith, All the angels
of God, all God's angels, are to worship Him].[ 45 ] All the millions of angels
worship Jesus Christ. It does not seem important to settle the point as to the exact
time when, He is so worshipped. He was praised at His first advent (Lu 2:13-15),
surely at His resurrection,[ 46 ] and continues to be praised by angels in heaven All
today are privileged to pay Him homage. All people and angels shall bow before
Him at His second advent (see De 32:43; quoted in Ro 15:10;[ 47 ] see also Php 2:10;
chart CHRIST WORSHIPPED).
1. Rejoice, O Gentiles, with His people
(De 32:43; quoted in Ro 15:10).
2. Worship Him, all you gods [angels, rulers?]
(Ps 97:7; compare 82:6).
ANGEL SERVANTS SPIRITS AND FIRE
1:7 And of the angels He says: "Who makes His angels spirits and His
ministers a flame of fire."
And of the angels He says: Who makes His angels spirits [and of the angels
he saith, He makes, Who maketh, his angels winds].[ 48 ] According to Barclay,
there is an old Jewish theory that angels were created for the task of the moment.
Then they dissolved or disappeared. This idea may have come about from the
occurrence of angels seeming to appear in human form and then disappear.[ 49 ] I
need more evidence than that to cause me to believe angels are created and
dissolved daily. However, the fact that He makes His angels indicates His
superiority over them. The meaning is probably not "who makes winds His
messengers and flames of fire His servants"[ 50 ] because the articles in the Greek
imply that angels and ministers are the subjects, not winds and flames. In
Hebrew, "spirit" and "wind" are translated from similar Greek words, depending
on the context. Sometimes it is difficult to determine from the context which
rendering is proper.
Angels and ministers are the same (see chart HUMAN ANGELS
[MESSENGERS]). The Hebrew writer is showing that angels are powerful
ministers, servants or messengers. They are mighty like an irresistible wind or an
unquenchable flame. They may be given power over such things as storms. Jesus
rebuked them. Some think Satan's angels were responsible for the tempest (see
Job 1:19; Mk 4:39). If so, surely good angels have equal or greater power.
There is something imperceptible and mysterious about wind. Effects are seen but
not the wind itself (see Joh 3:8). He who rebukes the wind is stronger than the
wind. Christ is more powerful than angels.
And His ministers a flame of fire [and his servants flames of fire].[ 51 ] Were
angels involved in the thunder and lightning flashes at the giving of the Law (see
Ex 19:16)? Do angels praise Jehovah through "Fire and hail, snow and clouds;
Stormy wind, fulfilling His word" (Ps 148:8)?
1. Destroying Sodom and Gomorrah (Ge 19:1-26).
2. Death of firstborn in Egypt (Ex 12:29, 30).
3. Punishment of Israelites (2Sa 24:15-17).
4. Upsetting armies of Benhadad (2Ki 6:8-23).
5. Overthrow of Sennacherib (2Ki 19:35).
6. Foes melt like wax before them
(compare Mt 13:30, 41; Heb 10:27).
Just how are angelic ministers a flame of fire? Flame has a purifying effect.
Obedience to the word purifies by the precious blood of Christ (1Pe 1:22).
Although angels do not preach the gospel, at least one of them arranged a meeting
between a teacher and a sinner who subsequently obeyed the truth (Ac 8:34-39).
Our God is a consuming fire (Heb 12:29; compare Ps 97:3; see chart
POWERFUL ANGELS). Angels, like flame, are powerful. Fire may refer to the
judgment of God in which angels have a part (Mt 13:39, 40).
GOD ADDRESSED CHRIST: "O GOD"
1:8 But to the Son He says: "Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; a
scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your Kingdom."
But to the Son He says: "Your throne, O God" [but of, but unto, the Son he
saith, said, Thy throne, O God].[ 52 ] Angels are sent as ministers (verses 7, 14).
They are servants. As surely as flame burns stubble, they faithfully carry out
assignments for Christ who "is over all, God blessed for ever" (Ro 9:5; compare
Ps 45:2).[ 53 ] Christ as "Mighty God" sits on the throne of the universe (Isa 9:6).
A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom. 7 You love
righteousness and hate wickedness; therefore God, Your God, has anointed
You with the oil of gladness more than Your companions (Ps 45:6, 7; see
footnote "or, Thy throne is the throne of God."[ 54 ]
Why do certain people become upset with a plain statement that Christ is God?
Apparently the rejection of Christ as God the Son has given rise to various
interpretations that are weak and pointless such as: "Thy throne (which is a throne)
of God;" "Thy throne is (a throne) of God;" and "God is thy throne." The latter
suggestion by Vincent,[ 55 ] "Or, Thy throne is God" (ASV footnote), and "God is
thy throne for ever and ever" (NEB footnote) are not consistent. If God is Christ's
throne and since He who sits on the throne is greater than the throne, then,
according to that, Christ would be greater than the Father (compare Mt 23:16-22;
Since the Greek is nominative, let us grant that the translation "God is thy
throne" may be correct. If it is, words must be supplied in order to make sense.
Those words might be, "God is the strength of thy throne" or "God is the blessing
of thy throne" or God is the power behind thy throne" or "God is the guarantor
of Thy throne."
Arndt, Liddell, Thayer and Vine all understand the throne to be Christ's own.
The throne of Christ is not God, but is on God's right hand (verse 13). Christ is
now reigning on His throne. His throne is forever and ever. Note that God the
Father called His only begotten Son God! His deity is not in question (see notes
on Joh 1:1; 8:58; 20:28; Ac 20:28; Ro 9:5; 1Co 15:28; Php 2:6; Col 2:9; Tit
2:13; 2Pe 1:1; 1Jo 5:20).
Is forever and ever.[ 56 ] It may be argued that "forever" does not always mean
without end. For example, "the earth abides forever" (Ec 1:4). Does that mean
it will never be burned up (see 2Pe 3:10)? Jonah said, "The earth with its bars
closed behind me forever" (Jonah 2:6). Is he still in the belly of the fish and will
he be so eternally?
God foretold the duration of Christ's reign when He said, "Your throne shall be
established forever" (2Sa 7:16). It is generally thought that the throne of Christ
is forever in the sense that He will reign until after the general resurrection and
the judgment. He began His kingdom on Pentecost (Ac 2:33-36). He will reign
until the last enemy (death) is destroyed. Thus, His kingdom will last until all the
dead have been raised (1Co 15:25). It may be that during His present reign He
maintains His humanity but after the general resurrection He will be separated
Now when all things are made subject to Him, then the Son Himself will
also be subject to Him who put all things under Him, that God may be all
in all (1Co 15:28).
A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your Kingdom [and the sceptre
of uprightness, the righteous scepter, is the sceptre of thy kingdom].[ 57 ] A
scepter is a symbol of kingly authority. It has been erroneously said, "The king
can do no wrong." That statement has not been true of any king but Christ. He,
as the King of kings, never did wrong (see Isa 53:9; Ac 3:14; 2Co 5:21; Heb
4:15; 7:26; 1Pe 2:22; 1Jo 3:5). "Righteousness and justice are the foundation of
His throne" (Ps 97:2).
THE REIGN OF CHRIST
(Heb 1:8, 9)
1. For ever and ever.
4. Hatred of iniquity.
Some have classified Psalm 45 (from which the Hebrew writer quotes) as a
marriage psalm about Solomon. Several things that do not fit such a simple
interpretation as that (see chart A GREATER THAN SOLOMON).
GREATER THAN SOLOMON
1. Christ's throne is for ever and ever.
After 40 years, Solomon's kingdom came to
an end and was divided (1Ki 14:30; 2Ch 10:16).
2. Christ loved righteousness.
Solomon had 700 wives and 300 concubines
3. Christ hated iniquity.
Solomon worshipped idols (1Ki 11:4-6).
LOVED RIGHTEOUSNESS AND HATED LAWLESSNESS
1:9 "You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness; therefore God,
Your God, has anointed You with the oil of gladness more than Your
You have loved righteousness [You loved, Thou hast loved, righteousness].[ 58 ]
Love of the truth is important (Ps 119:47, 48, 97, 127, 159; 2Th 2:10). "All
Your commandments are righteousness" (Ps 119:172). Because of Jesus'
obedience to the Father's commandments, God highly exalted Him (Php 2:8, 9).
John's Baptism was a command of God (implied in Mk 11:30; Lu 20:4). Jesus'
love for righteousness was shown when John baptized him "to fulfill all
righteousness" (Mt 3:15).
And hated lawlessness [and hated iniquity, and hated lawlessness].[ 59 ]
Therefore God, Your God [because of this, God, thy God, even thy God].
In His humanity, Christ called the Father His God (see note on Joh 20:17).
1. The stone Jacob used for a pillow (Ge 28:18).
2. The tabernacle and its furniture (Ex 30:22-29).
3. Prophets (1Ki 19:16; 1Ch 16:22).
4. Priests (Ex 28:41; 29:7; Le 8:12, 30).
5. King Saul (1Sa 9:16; 10:1).
6. David (1Sa 16:1, 12, 13; 2Sa 2:7).
7. Solomon (1Ki 1:34).
8. Jehu (1Ki 19:16).
Has anointed You [hath anointed thee].[ 60 ] Kings and others were anointed
when dedicated or appointed to service (see chart SACRED ANOINTINGS).
They were set apart for the work of God. "The Lord's anointed" was commonly
used for A king of God's people (see 1Sa 12:3; Lam 4:20).
Messiah (Hebrew MASHIAH; Aramaic MESHIHA; Greek MESSIAS) and Christ
(Greek CHRISTOS) all mean "the anointed one" (see Ps 2:2; Da 9:25, 26). Christ
was not anointed with literal oil as were other kings. After His baptism He was
anointed with the Holy Spirit (Lu 3:22; Joh 1:32, 33; compare Isa 61:1-3; Ac
10:38). He was thus designated as the Messiah of the OT (Lu 4:18, 21; Ac 9:22;
17:2, 3; 18:5, 28). Following His resurrection and ascension Jesus was designated
as King. In that sense, He was "anointed" on that glad day when the Father made
Him to sit down on His throne (Eph 1:20).
With the oil of gladness [with the oil of gladness].[ 61 ] Perfumed oil with which
kings were anointed was called "the oil of gladness." The coronation ceremony
was accompanied by festivity, joy and gaiety.[ 62 ] There was great joy in heaven
following Jesus' ascension when He first occupied His throne. There was joy
because of the accomplishment of redemption and the salvation of many souls (see
notes on Lu 15:7, 10; Heb 12:2).
More than Your companions [above, beyond, thy fellows, comrades].[ 63 ] The
"companions" or Christ or His "fellows" were not heathen rulers. Likely they are
partakers of the heavenly calling, Christians, the "kings and priests," or "a
kingdom and priests" (Re 5:10; compare Heb 2:10, 11; 3:14). Christ is above
men and angels, above the kings in David's lineage, above all other kings and
above every name (Eph 1:21). Some suppose that His "companions" or "fellows"
were angels though they are substantially lower in rank than He. GOD ADDRESSED CHRIST AS "LORD"
1:10 And: "You, Lord, in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth, and
the heavens are the work of Your hands."
And: You, Lord, in the beginning [and, also, Thou, Lord, in the
beginning].[ 64 ] This verse begins a quotation from Psalm 102:25-27.
Laid the foundation of the earth [didst found, lay, hast laid, the foundation
of, the earth, founded the earth]. [ 65 ] The very beginning of the creation was
accomplished through the agency of Christ (see Joh 1:1-3; Col 1:16-20).
And the heavens are the work of Your hands [and the heavens are the works
of thy, thine, hands].[ 66 ]
By faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so
that the things which are seen were not made of things which are visible
THE CHANGELESS CHRIST
1:11, 12 "They will perish, but You remain; and they will all grow old like
a garment; 12 Like a cloak You will fold them up, and they will be changed.
But You are the same, and Your years will not fail."
They will perish [they shall perish].[ 67 ] The antecedent of "they" is "heavens."
The heavens will perish.
They will perish, but You will endure; yes, they will all grow old like a
garment; like a cloak You will change them, and they will be changed (Ps
The earth also is stored up for fire. To God, the heavens and earth seem to be
as dispensable and disposable as a throw-away paper plate.
But the heavens and the earth which are now preserved by the same word,
are reserved for fire until the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men
(2Pe 3:7; see also verse 10; Re 20:11).
Ignorant men have worshipped the temporal sun, moon, stars and various idols
constructed from materials of the earth. All idolatry essentially is the worship of
something that will perish. To worship created things is idolatry. It is also absurd
But You remain [but thou remainest, continuest, endurest, will remain].[ 68 ]
The creation is transient; the Son is eternal. Christians worship the eternal Christ.
They to the Father through Him.
He stood and measured the earth; he looked and startled the nations. And
the everlasting mountains were scattered, the perpetual hills bowed. His
ways are everlasting (Hab 3:6).
And they will all grow old [they all, and they all, and they shall, all will,
wax, become, old].
All the host of heaven shall be dissolved, and the heavens shall be rolled up
like a scroll; all their host shall fall down as the leaf falls from the vine, and
as fruit falling from a fig tree (Isa 34:4).
Like a garment [as, as doth, a garment].[ 69 ]
Lift up your eyes to the heavens, and look on the earth beneath. For the
heavens will vanish away like smoke, the earth will grow old like a
garment, and those who dwell in it will die in like manner; but My salvation
will be forever, and My righteousness will not be abolished (Isa 51:6;
compare Mt 24:35).
[1:12] Like a cloak [and as a mantle, a coat, like a garment, a vesture].[ 70 ]
A cloak was generally a large outer garment. It may have been sleeveless or with
sleeves (see Isa 3:22). It was sometimes called a mantle (see 1Ki 19:18, 19; 2Ki
2:8, 13, 14). When a man went indoors, he usually removed it, folded it or rolled
it up.[ 71 ]
You will fold them up [shalt thou, thou wilt, roll them up].[ 72 ] Before the
advent of coat-hangers and walk-in closets, people often rolled up their robes and
laid them on a table or shelf. When Christ returns, the end of the universe will
be like that. A mantle may be stored while its owner lives on. The physical
universe will be laid aside but Christ will live on eternally (see 2Pe 3:10).
And they will be changed [and they shall be changed, and like a garment
they shall be changed].[ 73 ] An alternate reading is, "And as a mantle thou wilt
But You are the same [but thou art the same, and your years shall never
cease.[ 74 ]
And Your years will not fail [and thy years shall not fail, will never end, will
not come to an end, have no end, shall never cease].[ 75 ] As deity, Christ is
eternal. He is without end. His life does not stop or cease. It will not be
abbreviated or terminated. Worship Him!
1. Were created (Ps 148:2-5; Col 1:16).
2. Were present when stars were created
3. Like man, were created good (Ge 1:31).
4. Spirits (Heb 1:14).
5. Innumerable (Heb 12:22).
6. 10,000 x 10,000 (Re 5:11).
SIT AT MY RIGHT HAND
1:13 But to which of the angels has He ever said: "Sit at My right hand, till
I make Your enemies Your footstool"?
1. Mighty, but not all-powerful (Ps 103:20; 2Th 1:7;
2. Stand in God's presence (Mt 18:10; Re 5:11).
3. Do not marry; do not die
(Mt 22:30; Lu 20:34-36).
4. Intelligent, but not all-knowing
(Mt 24:36; 1Pe 1:12).
5. Do you not know that we shall judge angels?
6. Some sinned (2Pe 2:4).
7. Some abandoned their proper abode (Jude 6).
JESUS AT RIGHT HAND OF GOD (A)
1. So then, after the Lord had spoken to them, He was
received up into heaven, and sat down at the right
hand of God (Mk 16:19).
2. Stephen "saw the glory of God, and Jesus
standing at the right hand of God"
3. And furthermore is also risen, who is even at the
right hand of God, who also makes intercession for
us (Ro 8:34).
JESUS AT RIGHT HAND OF GOD (B)
1. Seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places
2. Seek those things which are above, where Christ is,
sitting at the right hand of God (Col 3:1).
3. Who has gone into heaven and is at the right hand
of God, angels and authorities and powers having
been made subject to Him (1Pe 3:22).
4. As I also overcame and sat down with My Father on
His throne (Re 3:21).
JESUS AT RIGHT HAND OF GOD (B)
1. And seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly
places (Eph 1:20).
2. Seek those things which are above, where
Christ is, sitting at the right hand of God
3. Who has gone into heaven and is at the right
hand of God, angels and authorities and powers
having been made subject to Him (1Pe 3:22).
4. As I also overcame and sat down with My Father
on His throne (Re 3:21).
But to which of the angels has He ever said [but of which of the angels, to
what angel, said he, hath he said, at any time, did he ever say?] The question
was not asked of an angel, but of the Lord Christ. David spoke of the Lord God
calling Christ "Lord." During His earthly ministry, Jesus asked, "How then does
David in the Spirit call Him 'Lord'?" (Mt 22:42-46). Even though Jesus was the
son (descendant) of the psalmist, David called Christ his Lord because He was
The LORD said to my Lord, "Sit at My right hand, till I make Your
enemies Your footstool" (Ps 110:1).
Sit at My right hand [sit, sit thou, on my right hand].[ 76 ] The invitation to
"Sit at My right hand" to rule in heaven was never said to an angel but only to
God's Son.[ 77 ] He is the One "sitting at the right hand of Power" (Mk 14:62).
Till I make Your enemies [until I make thy, Thine, enemies].[ 78 ] Christ's
"eternal" reign will last until after the final resurrection of the dead. The last
enemy to be destroyed is death. When death ends, Christ will turn the kingdom
over to the Father. For a list of other enemies, see note on 1 Corinthians 15:26.
Your footstool [a, thy, the, footstool of, a stool for, thy feet].[ 79 ] When
Joshua had five conquered kings brought out of a cave, he instructed the chiefs of
the men of war to put their feet upon their necks (Jos 10:24). Afterward they
were put to death. Just as Joshua completely vanquished his foes, so at last Christ
will be completely victorious over His enemies.
1:14 Are they not all ministering spirits sent forth to minister for those who
will inherit salvation?
Are they not all ministering spirits?].[ 80 ] By asking, "Are they not?" I
understand that the writer here expresses certainty. Only the good angels are
contemplated here. There are also bad angels (Jude 6). The latter do not render
service for the sake of Christians. The angels are beneath Jesus in power as well
as in every other way. They are simply ministering spirits who serve God's
people (see Ps 104:4). All the angels are LEITOURGIKA ministering, liturgically
serving, spirits. No matter how exalted they may be, they are merely servants.
Even Michael the archangel is a servant to Christ. Though higher in order of
creation, all angels are serving spirits for the heirs of salvation,
Sent forth [sent out].[ 81 ] Angels are sent forth by Christ, their Master (1Pe
HUMAN ANGELS (MESSENGERS)
1. Men sent to Achan's tent (Jos 7:22).
2. Prophets (Isa 44:26).
3. Haggai (Hag 1:13).
4. John the baptizer (Isa 42:19; Mal 2:7; 3:1;
Mt 11:10; Mk 1:2; Lu 7:67).
5. John's disciples (Lu 9:52).
4. Angels of the churches
(Re 1:20; 2:1, 8, 12, 18; 3:1, 7, 14).
1. Behold, I send an Angel before you to keep you
in the way and to bring you into the place
which I have prepared (Ex 23:20).
2. The Angel of His presence saved them (Isa 63:9).
3. Take heed that you do not despise one of these little
ones, for I say to you that in heaven their angels
always see the face of My Father who is in heaven
4. Are they not all ministering spirits sent forth
to minister for those who will inherit
salvation? (Heb 1:14).
To minister [to serve, do, render, service].[ 82 ] The work of angels is not to sit
upon thrones of authority but they are EIS DIAKONIAN for service. Will the
angels be for you, dear reader, servants that aid toward your eternal salvation?
Or will they be a flame of destruction in unquenchable fire (see verse 7)? Are you
one who will inherit salvation? Or, as His enemy, will you become a footstool for
For those who will inherit [for the sake of those, of, for, them that shall, are
to, obtain, shall be heirs].[ 83 ] In OT days, angels were frequent visitors to men
and women. In the NT period, perhaps less frequently, angels have been known
to attend Christians and those non-Christians who were near the kingdom. There
is no record of an angel preaching the gospel or saving anyone from sin. That
work was assigned to mankind only.
WORK OF ANGELS (A)
1. To punish wicked (Ge 19:1-26; 2Ki 19:35;
2. Minister to living saints (2Ki 6:15-23;
Ps 34:7; 91:11; Da 3:25-28; 6:22; Mt 18:10;
Ac 5:19; 12:7-10).
3. Influence governments, preside over councils
and courts of princes
(Dan 10:20, 21; 11:1; 12:1).
(Adapted from Milligan 84)
WORK OF ANGELS (B)
1. Care for little children (Mt 18:10).
2. Comfort dying saints, bear their spirits home to glory
3. Aid providentially in bringing men to Christ
4. Frustrate Satan's wiles and devices (Jude 6).
(Adapted from Milligan 84)
LIMITATIONS OF ANGELS
1. Do not preach the gospel.
2. Do not marry.
3. Not to be worshipped (Col 1:18).
4. Do not mediate between man and God
(see 1Ti 2:5).
Does each individual Christian have a guardian angel? J. W. McGarvey and B.
W. Johnson thought so. However, Guy N. Woods has some interesting
observations on this. He wrote:
In spite of these strong affirmations by great and good men, I can only state
that, in my view, the premises do not fully support the conclusions they
have drawn and that the doctrine is beset by much difficulty. (1) Neither
in the foregoing passages (Ps 34:7; Mt 18:10; Ac 12:15; 27:23; Heb 1:13),
nor elsewhere in the scriptures, is it said that each person has a guardian
angel. (2) Neither here, nor elsewhere is it affirmed that there is actually
present with each disciple an angel; `their angels,' are said to be `in
heaven,' where they `always behold the face of' the Father. Inasmuch as
angels serve in the administration of God's plan to save (Heb 1:13), "their
angels" belong to all who inherit salvation.[ 84 ]
Salvation [of salvation].[ 85 ] Salvation, in this verse, has to do with that which
is heavenly and eternal. It is the "salvation ready to be revealed in the last time"
(1Pe 1:5). "For now our salvation is nearer than when we first believed" (Ro
To those who eagerly wait for Him He will appear a second time, apart
from sin, for salvation" (Heb 9:28).
[ 1 ]The basic text in this chapter is the NKJV. Scripture taken from the New King James Version.
Copyright 1979, 1980, 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved.
Alternate phrases in brackets are from ASV, ESB, KJV, RSV and occasionally another version. Greek
transliteration tends to follow the BibleSoft method.
[ 2 ]HO THEOS, God (Marshall); the God.
[ 3 ]POLUMEROOS, in many portions (Marshall 853; Lenski 29); [POLUS many, MEROS a part],
in many parts or portions (Vine 865); in many parts (Vincent 4.377); in many different ways
[ 4 ]POLUTROPOOS, in many ways (Marshall 853); [POLUS much, TROPOS a manner, way], in
many ways (Vine 318; Vincent 4.377; Lenski 29).
[ 5 ]PALAI LALEESAS TOIS PATRASIN, of old having spoken to the fathers (Marshall 853);
LALEESAS is the first aorist active participle, nominative singular masculine of LALEOO (Han 394);
[from a root signifying a nourisher, protector, upholder], plural (Vine 411); used words in order to
declare [His] mind and disclose [His] thoughts, spoke, of the declarations and prophetic announcements
of God (Thayer 368); in olden times having spoken to the fathers (Lenski 29); in olden times spoke to
our forefathers (Williams).
[ 6 ]Compare Ga 3:19; Heb 2:2).
[ 7 ]EN TOIS PROPHEETAIS, by the prophets (Marshall 853); in the prophets themselves as
instruments of divine inspiration, Vincent 4.378); in the person of the prophets (Lenski 29); through
the prophets (Williams).
[ 8 ]PRO forth, PHEMI to speak.
[ 9 ]EP' ESCHATOU TOON HEEMEROON TOUTOON, in [the] last days of these (Marshall 853);
literally, at the last of these days (Vincent 4.378); at the end, during these days (Lenski 29); adjective
used as a noun, at the end of these days, that is, at the end of the period under the Law (Vine 358;
compare Nu 24:14); but in these latter days (Williams).
[ 10 ]The Greek in this phrase is a Septuagintalism, reflecting the Hebrew BE'AHARITH
HAYYAMIM ("in the latter end of the days"), which according to the context may mean "hereafter",
"ultimately" or "in the end-time" (compare Ge 49:1; Nu 24:14; De 4:30; 31:29; Isa 2:2; Jer 23:20;
30:24; 48:27; 49:39; Eze 38:16; Da 10:14; Ho 3:5; Mic 4:1). The use of the phrase here implies an
inaugurated eschatology (Bruce 3).
[ 11 ]ELALEESEN HEEMIN, spoke to us (Marshall 853; Lenski 29); ELALEESEN is third person
singular, first aorist active indicative of LALEOO (Han 594); spake, referring to the time of Christ's
teaching in the flesh (Vincent 4.379); He has spoken to us (Williams).
[ 12 ]EN HUIO, in a Son (Marshall 853); literally, in a son; note the absence of the article (Vincent
4.379); in the person of (his) Son (Lenski 29); through a Son (Williams); an eternal relation subsisting
between the Son and the Father in the Godhead is to be understood. That is to say, the Son of God,
in His eternal relationship with the Father, is not so entitled because He at any time began to derive
His being from the Father [in which case He could not be co-eternal with the Father], but because He
is and ever has been the expression of what the Father is (Vine 1061; compare Joh 14:9; Heb 3:6; 5:8;
7:28). Vine appears to have assumed the doctrine of the eternal Sonship of Christ. Although He
certainly was co-eternal with the Father and ever has been the expression of what the Father is, at this
point in time, I remain unconvinced that He was always known as the Son of God.
[ 13 ]HON ETHEEKEN KLEERONOMON PANTOON, whom he appointed heir of all things
(Marshall 853); whom he placed as heir of all things (Lenski 29); KLEERONOMON is the second
aorist middle participle, nominative singular masculine of GINOMAI (Han 394); God eternally
predestined the Son to be the possessor and sovereign of all things (Vincent 4.380); hath made, of the
Son of God, as appointed Heir of all things (Vine 60); whom He had appointed lawful owner of
[ 14 ]DI' HOU KAI EPOIEESEN TOUS AIOONAS, through whom indeed he made the ages
(Marshall 853); EPOIEESEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of POIEOO (Han
394); through whom he made the eons (Lenski 29); the aggregate of things contained in time (Thayer
19); Christ is here represented as a mediate agency (a cooperating agent) in creation (Vincent 4.380;
compare Joh 5:19); and through whom He had made the worlds (Williams).
[ 15 ]See a similar usage of this word in the Septuagint, "The Lord [BASILEUON TON AIOONA
shall reign over the world] forever and ever" (Ex 15:18).
[ 16 ]HOS OON, who being (Marshall 853); OON is the present active participle, nominative singular
masculine of EIMI (Han 394); who, as being (Lenski 29); representing absolute being (Vincent 4.381).
[ 17 ]APAUGASMA, [the] radiance (Marshall 853); [APO from, AUGEE brightness]. The word
"effulgence" exactly corresponds [in its Latin form] to APAUGASMA. The glory of God expresses
all that He is in His nature and His actings and their manifestation. The Son, being one with the Father
in Godhood, is in Himself, and ever was, the shining forth of the glory, manifesting in Himself all that
God is and does, all, for instance, that is involved in His being "the very image of His substance," and
in His creative acts, His sustaining power, and in His making purification of sins, with all that pertains
thereto and issues from it (Vine 350); effulgence or outraying; interpretation is divided between
effulgence and reflection (Vincent 4.381, 382); radiance of his glory (Arndt 82); reflected brightness
. . . inasmuch as he perfectly reflects the majesty of God; so that the same thing is declared here of
Christ metaphysically, which he says of himself in an ethical sense in Joh 12:45 [19:9] (Thayer 55);
the reflection (Williams); effulgence (Lenski 29).
[ 18 ]Bruce 5.
[ 19 ]TEES DOXEES AUTOU, of the (his) glory (Marshall 853); of God's glory (Vincent 4.381);
of the nature and acts of God in self-manifestation, that is, what He essentially is and does, as exhibited
in whatever way he reveals Himself in these respects, and particularly in the Person of Christ, in whom
essentially His glory has ever shone forth and ever will do (Vine 483).
[ 20 ]CHARAKTEER TEES HUPOSTASEOOS AUTOU, [the] representation of the reality of him
(Marshall 853); the very image [or impress] of his substance (Vincent 4.382); denotes, firstly, a tool
for graving [from CHARASSOO to cut into, to engross], then, a stamp or impress, as on a coin or a
seal, in which case the seal or die which makes an impression bears the image produced by it, and, vice
versa, all the features of the image correspond respectively with those of the instrument producing it.
In the NT it is used metaphorically in Heb 1:3, of the Son of God as "the very image [margin, `the
impress'] of His substance." The phrase expresses the fact that the Son "is both personally distinct
from, and yet literally equal to, Him of whose essence He is the adequate imprint" [Liddon]. The Son
of God is not merely His image [His CHARAKTEER], He is the image or impress of His substance
or essence. It is the fact of complete similarity which this word stresses in comparison with
HOMOIOOMA likeness, EIDOS a shape, form, SKIA a shadowed resemblance, MORPHEE the form
indicative of the inner being (Vine 577); that which stands under, supports, serves as a foundation
(Littrell); and the perfect [Greek word means exact imprint; so the Son is the perfect representation of
God's being] representation of His being (Williams); his being's impress (Lenski 29).
[ 21 ]Woods 2.157.
[ 22 ]Vine 1061.
[ 23 ]Statement of Beliefs of the Worldwide Church of God, Worldwide Church of God, Pasadena,
1993, page 2.
[ 24 ]PHEROON TE TA PANTA, and bearing all things (Marshall 853); PHEROON is the present
active participle, nominative singular masculine of PHEROO (Han 394); maintaining (Vincent 4.383);
bearing, carrying, upholding (Vine 1189); continues to uphold (Williams); and as bearing all the
(existing) things (Lenski 29).
[ 25 ]TOO RHEEMATI TEES DUNAMEOOS AUTOU, by the word of the power of him (Marshall
853); his refers to Christ; the word is that in which his power manifests itself (Vincent 4.384); that
which is spoken, what is uttered in speech or writing (Vine 1242); by means of the uttered word of his
power (Lenski 29); by His mighty word (Williams).
[ 26 ]Briefly stated, the second law of thermodynamics says that all things tend toward randomness
and disorder, that the universe is running down.
[ 27 ]KATHARISMON TOON HAMARTIOON POIEESAMENOS, cleansing of sins having made
(Marshall 853); KATHARISMON POIEESAMENOS literally, having made purification of sins, middle
voice, the work of purification was done by Christ personally (Vincent 4.384); having wrought for
himself cleansing from the sins (Lenski 29); a cleansing (Vine 904); after He had procured man's
[implied] purification from sins (Williams); the Greek aorist participle POIEESAMENOS was rendered
by the Latin Vulgate as PURGATIONEM PECCATORUM FACIENS (present tense). This may
account for the introduction of the erroneous teaching that Christ continues to make purification for
[ 28 ]EKATHISEN EN DEXIA sat on [the] right [hand] (Marshall 853); EKATHISEN is third person
singular, first aorist active indicative of KATHIZOO (Han 394); a solemn, formal act, the assumption
of a position (Vincent 4.384); literally, on the right hand, that is, in that position (Vine 1271); He took
His seat at the right hand (Williams); sat down at the right hand (Lenski 29).
[ 29 ]TEES MEGALOOSUNEES EN HUPSEELOIS, of the greatness in high places (Marshall 853);
of dignity and authority (Vincent 4.384); [from MEGAS great], denotes greatness, majesty; used of
God the Father, signifying His greatness and dignity (Vine 701); of God's majesty (Williams); of the
majesty on high (Lenski 29).
[ 30 ]GENOMENOS, becoming (Marshall 853); the second aorist middle participle, nominative
singular masculine of GINOMAI (Han 394); became (Thayer 115); having gotten to be (Lenski 43);
thus proving [implied] (Williams).
[ 31 ]This may refer to His suffering for sin or, possibly, to the risk of eternal separation from God
if He succumbed to temptation or otherwise failed in His mission.
[ 32 ]TOSOUTOO KREITTOON TOON ANGELOON, by so much better [than] the angels (Marshall
853); [KRATOS strong, which denotes power in activity and effect], excellent (Vine 114); as much
superior to angels (Williams); having become as better, superior, indicating dignity and power (Vincent
44.385, 366); more excellent (Thayer 359); superior, becoming superior (Harrison 905; see note on Ga
3:9); by so much better than the angels (Lenski 43).
[ 33 ]DIAPHOROOTERON PAR' AUTOUS ONOMA, a more excellent than them name (Marshall
853, 854); literally, beside or in comparison with them (Thayer 4.386); the Name represents "the title
and dignity" of the Lord (Vine 772; see Eph 1:21); the comparative of a comparative conception. The
Son's name differs from that of the angels, and is more different for good (Vincent 4.386); the title is
superior to theirs (Williams); by how much more superior a name (Lenski 43); comparative degree of
DIAPHOROS, excellent, "more excellent name" (Vine 386; compare "more excellent ministry," Heb
[ 34 ]TINI GAR, for to which (Marshall 854); note the author's characteristic use of the question to
express denial, verse 14; 2:3; 3:17; 7:11; 12:7 (Vincent 4.387); for to what (Williams); for to whom
[ 35 ]HUIOS MOU EI SU, Son of me art thou (Marshall 854); EI is second person singular, present
active indicative of EIMI (Han 394); refers to the birth of Christ, not to His resurrection . . . confirmed
by the contrast in verse 6 (Vine 1062; see Heb 5:5). Note the emphatic position of HUIOS son. In
the OT, son[s] is applied to angels collectively, but never individually . . . Similarly, son is applied to
the chosen nation [Ex 4:22; Ho 11:1], but to no individual of the nation (Vincent 4.387); You are my
Son (Williams);; Son of mine art thou! (Lenski 45). Apparently Vincent was not familiar with 1
Chronicles 22:10; 28:6 where both David and Solomon were called "My Son" by God.
[ 36 ]Genesis 6:2 tells about the sons of God taking wives of the daughters of men. This is construed
by some denominational interpreters to be angels cohabiting with human women. Most true scholars
repudiate this fanciful speculation.
[ 37 ]The passage where Nebuchadnezzar looked into the fiery furnace and saw a fourth "man" like
the Son of God (NKJV) may be translated "a son of the gods," that is, a divine being, possibly an angel
(Da 3:25 ASV, NASB).
[ 38 ]EGOO SEEMERON GEGENNEEKA SE, I today have begotten thee (Marshall 854);
GEGENNEEKA is first person singular, perfect active indicative of GENNAOO (Han 394); recognized
thee publicly as sovereign; established thee in an official sonship-relation (Vincent 4.387); used of the
act of God in the Birth of Christ, Ac 13:13; Heb 1:5; 5:5, quoted from Ps 2:7, none of which indicate
that Christ became the Son of God at his Birth (Vine 101) today I have become your Father (Williams);
I on my part have begotten thee (Lenski 45).
[ 39 ]EGOO ESOMAI AUTOO EIS PATERA, I will be to him for a father (Marshall 854); ESOMAI
is first person singular, future middle indicative of EIMI (Han 394); literally, for or as a father (Vincent
4.388); of God as the Father of the Lord Jesus Christ (Vine 412); God is called the Father (Thayer
495); I will become His Father (Williams); I on my part will be to him Father (Lenski 45).
[ 40 ]KAI AUTOS ESTAI MOI EIS HUION, and he shall be to me for a son (Marshall 854); ESTAI
is third person singular, future middle indicative of EIMI (Han 394); literally, for or as a son (Vincent
4.388); and He shall become my Son (Williams); and he will be to me Son (Lenski 45).
[ 41 ]HOTAN DE PALIN EISAGAGEE, and whenever again he brings in (Marshall 854);
EISAGAGEE is third person singular, second aorist active subjunctive of EISAGOO (Han 394); aorist
subjunctive, shall again bring in (Lenski 50); construe again with bringeth in: when he a second time
bringeth the first-begotten into the world (Vincent 4.388); points to His Second Advent, which is set
in contrast to His first Advent, when God brought His Firstborn into the world the first time (Vine
1062); but when He brings again (Williams); moreover, when he shall again bring in (Lenski 47).
[ 42 ]Bruce (15) argues strongly that the translation should be "And when, again, he bringeth the
firstborn into the world." He says the adverb "again" marks this as a further quotation setting forth
the preeminence of Christ. He cites 1 Corinthians 15:27 as an example where the aorist subjunctive
does not point to an event in the future.
[ 43 ]TON PROOTOTOKON, the firstborn (Marshall 854); [PROTOS first, TIKTOO to beget],
describes the relation of the risen Christ in his glorified humanity to man, (Vincent 4.389); Christ . .
. came into being through God prior to the entire universe of created things (Thayer 555); this
expression, which is admirably suited to describe Jesus as the one coming forth from God to found the
new community of saints, is also used in some instances where it is uncertain whether the force of the
element -TOKOS [begotten] is still felt at all (Arndt 726); in His relationship to the Father, expressing
His priority to, and preeminence over, creation, not in the sense of being the first to be born (Vine
434); His first-born Son (Williams); the First-begotten (Lenski 47).
[ 44 ]EIS TEEN OIKOUMENEEN, into the inhabited [earth] (Marshall 854; Lenski 47); the inhabited
earth, the world (Arndt 561); into the world (Williams).
[ 45 ]KAI PROSKUNEESATOOSAN AUTOO PANTES ANGELOI THEOU, and let worship him
all angels of God (Marshall 854); PROSKUNEESATOOSAN is third person plural, first aorist active
imperative of PROSKUNEOO (Han 394); [PROS] towards, KUNEOO to kiss], make obeisance, do
reverence to, the most frequent word rendered worship; a quotation from the Septuagint of De 32:43,
referring to Christ's Second Advent (Vine 1247); originally kiss the hand to: thence, do homage to, not
necessarily of an act of religious reverence; usually translated worship (Vincent 4.389); and let all the
angels worship Him (Williams); and let all God's angels worship him! (Lenski 47).
[ 46 ]Others assign a meaning of God bringing back the Son into the inhabited realm again after death
(see Bruce 17).
[ 47 ]According to Vine 1247, Deuteronomy 32:43 which is quoted in Romans 15:10 refers to Christ's
[ 48 ]HO POIOON TOUS ANGELOUS AUTOU PNEUMATA, the [one] making the angels of him
spirits (Marshall 854); POIOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of
POIEOO (Han 394); winds is supported by the context of Psalm 103:4, and by John 3:8 (Vincent
4.389); render or make one . . . anything, or cause a person or thing to become . . . the wind (Vine
702, 1075); the One making his messengers winds (Lenski 52); imperfect tense, who made (Macknight
511); He turns His angels into winds (Williams). Note that Han assigns present tense to the verb while
Macknight assigns the imperfect tense. The imperfect tense denotes continued action in past time
[ 49 ]"Some believed that the angels lived only one day. There was a rabbinic belief in some schools
that `every day God creates a new company of angels who utter a song before Him and are gone.' `The
angels are renewed every morning and after they have praised God they return to the stream of fire
from whence they came.' 4 Esdras 8:21 speaks of the God `before whom the heavenly host stand in
terror and at Thy word change to wind and fire.' A rabbinic homily makes one of the angels say: `God
changes us every hour . . . . Sometimes He makes us fire, at other times wind'" (Barclay 10).
[ 50 ]Bleek, Ebrard, Lunemann, Toy.
[ 51 ]KAI TOUS LEITOURGOUS AUTOU PUROS PHLOGA, and the ministers of him of fire a
flame (Marshall 854); one who discharged a public office at his own expense, then, in general, a public
servant, minister], in the NT . . . of the holy angels as his ministers, of the holiness of God, which
consumes all that is inconsistent therewith; compare Re 1:14; 2:18; 10:1; 15:2; 19:12; similarly of the
holy angels as His ministers, [Ps 104:4] (Vine 432, 744); relating to the performance of service,
employed in ministering . . . of angels executing God's behests (Thayer 376); of heavenly beings as
servants of God (Arndt 471; see Ps 14:4); and His attendants into flames of fire (Williams); and his
officials fire-flame (Lenski 52).
[ 52 ]HO THRONOS SOU HO THEOS, The throne of thee[,] - God [articular vocative; see verse 10]
(Marshall 854); nominative was often used by the Attics for the vocative (Macknight 511); I retain the
vocative, although the translation of the Hebrew is doubtful (Vincent 4.390); a throne, a seat of
authority, of the throne of Christ (Vine 1146); the divine power belonging to Christ (Thayer 292);
throne of Christ, who occupies the throne of his ancestor David . . . an eternal throne (Arndt 364);
Your throne, O God (Williams); thy throne, God (Lenski 54).
[ 53 ]The Targum paraphrases Psalm 45:2: "Thou, O King Messiah, art fairer than the children of
[ 54 ]The RSV loosely paraphrases Psalm 45:6, "Your divine throne endures for ever and ever." The
Watchtower Society has further clouded the issue in an effort to dethrone and make Christ just another
created being. The New World translation with "God is your throne" (both in Ps 45:6 and Heb 1:8)
is without support. Be wary of any Society that has an agenda to discount the deity of Christ. Most
translations have "Thy throne, O God" or "Your throne, O God" (see ASV, Beck, Confraternity, ERV,
KJV, Moffatt, NASB, NEB, NIV, NKJV, Weymouth, Williams).
[ 55 ]Vincent 4.390.
[ 56 ]EIS TON AIOONA TOU AIOONOS, [is] unto the age of the age (Marshall 854); literally, unto
the aeon of the aeon, Vincent 4.390; literally, unto the age of the age, for ever and ever, Vine 377; will
stand forever and ever (Williams); is for the eon of the eon (Lenski 54); see note on 2 Thessalonians
[ 57 ]HEE RHABDOS TEES EUTHUTEETOS, the rod of uprightness (Marshall 854); the scepter
of [literally] straightness (Vincent 4.391); a ruler's staff, "a scepter" of straightness, uprightness [akin
to EUTHUS straight, right] (Vine 971, 974; see Ps 45:6); a righteous scepter (Williams) and the scepter
of straightforwardness (Lenski 54).
[ 58 ]EGAPEESAS DIKAIOOSUNEEN, Thou lovedst righteousness (Marshall 854); EGAPEESAS
is second person singular, first active indicative of AGAPAOO (Han 394); you loved the right
(Williams); Thou didst love righteousness (Lenski 54).
[ 59 ]KAI EMISEESAS ANOMIAN, and hated lawlessness (Marshall 854); EMISEESAS is second
person singular, first aorist active indicative of MISEOO (Han 394); literally, lawlessness, (Vincent
4.391); of a right feeling of aversion from what is evil; said of iniquity (Vine 528); and hated wrong
(Williams); and didst hate lawlessness (Lenski 54).
[ 60 ]ECHRISEN SE, anointed thee (Marshall 854); ECHRISEN is third person singular, first aorist
active indicative of CHRIOO (Han 394); the thought includes the royal anointing and the fullness of
blessing and festivity which attend the enthronement (Vincent 4.391); confined to sacred and symbolical
anointings, used metaphorically in connection with "the oil of gladness" (Vine 51); anointed you
(Williams); did anoint thee (Lenski 54).
[ 61 ]ELAION AGALLIASEOOS, [with] oil of gladness (Marshall 854); exultant joy (Vincent 4.391);
exultation, exuberant joy (Vine 481); with oil of exultation (Williams); with oil of gladness (Lenski 54).
[ 62 ]"The phrase is symbolic for `gladdened thee with prosperity'" (Bruce 20).
[ 63 ]PARA TOUS METOCHOUS SOU, above the partners of thee (Marshall 854); literally,
partakers, here applied to angels (Vincent 4.391); properly an adjective, signifying sharing in, partaking
of . . . of those who share in a heavenly calling, or have held, or will hold, a regal position in relation
to the earthly, Messianic Kingdom (Vine 419); beyond thy associates (Lenski 54); beyond all your
companions (Williams). Note the biased comment by Vine on the "earthly;, Messianic Kingdom"
revealing his millennial stance. Such deviations from true scholarship by Vine are indeed rare.
[ 64 ]KAI . . . KAT' ARCHAS, and: Thou at (Marshall 854); and: Thou, down in the beginning
(Lenski 57); and connects what follows with unto the Son he saith [verse 8]; in the beginning (Vincent
4.391; see Ge 1:1; Ps 102:25; Joh 1:1-3).
[ 65 ]ETHEMELIOOSAS, didst found (Marshall 854; Lenski 57); second person singular, first aorist
active indicative of THEMELIOOO (Han 394); [did] lay a foundation, found, used literally (Vine 458);
[did] lay a foundation, found (Thayer 287); founded (Williams).
[ 66 ]KAI ERGA TOON CHEIROON SOU EISIN HOI OURANOI, and works of the hands of thee
are the heavens (Marshall 854); EISIN is third person plural, present active indicative of EIMI (Han
394); and the heavens are the works of your hands (Williams); and works of thy hands (Lenski 58).
[ 67 ]AUTOI APOLOUNTAI, they will perish (Marshall 854; Williams); APOLOUNTAI is third
person plural, future middle indicative of APOLLUMI (Han 394); middle voice, perish (Vine 848);
AUTOI, the heavens: not heaven and earth (Vincent 4.391); they shall perish (Lenski 58).
[ 68 ]SU DE DIAMENEIS, but thou remainest (Marshall 854); DIAMENEIS is second person
singular, present active indicative of DIAMENOO (Han 394); present tense, not shalt remain.
Permanency is the characteristic of God in the absolute and eternal present (Vincent 4.391); of the
eternal permanency of Christ (Vine 228); but you always remain (Williams); but thou, thou dost
continue on (Lenski 58).
[ 69 ]HOOS HIMATION, as a garment (Marshall 854); just like a robe (Williams); and all they as
a robe (Lenski 58).
[ 70 ]KAI HOOSEI PERIBOLAION, and as a mantle (Marshall 854; Lenski 58); [from
PERIBALLEIN to throw around], a wrapper, mantle (Vincent 4.392); literally, that which is thrown
around (Vine 712); like a coat (Williams).
[ 71 ]See Zondervan 508.
[ 72 ]HELIXEIS AUTOUS, thou wilt roll up them (Marshall 854); HELIXEIS is second person
singular, future active indicative of ELISSOO (Han 394); [shall] roll them up, a scribal error for
ALLAXEIS shalt change (Vincent 4.392); of the rolling up of a mantle, illustratively, of the heavens
(Vine 975); and you will fold them up (Williams); thou wilt roll them up (Lenski 58).
[ 73 ]KAI ALLAGEEOONTAI, also they will be changed (Marshall 855); and they will be changed
(Williams); also they shall be exchanged (Lenski 58).
[ 74 ]SU DE HO AUTOS EI, but thou the same art (Marshall 855); but you are the same (Williams);
but thou, the same art thou (Lenski 58).
[ 75 ]KAI TA ETEE SOU OUK EKLEIPSOUSIN, and the years of thee will not fail (Marshall 855);
shall not be ended (Vincent 4.392); [EK out, LEIPOO to leave], to leave out, used intransitively, [not]
leave off, cease, fail; it is said of the cessation of the years of Christ (Vine 398); will never cease
(Williams); shall not fail (Lenski 58).
[ 76 ]KATHOU EK DEXIOON MOU, sit at [the] right of me (Marshall 855); of Christ's position of
authority on the throne of God (Vine 1049); sit at my right (Lenski 60).
[ 77 ]Non-biblical writings give us a name of an angel Raphael who stands in God's presence (see
Tobit 12:15). According to Cohen (50), four of the angels who surround God's throne are Michael,
Gabriel, Uriel and Raphael. He pictures Michael as on His throne. Gabriel is one of the seven angels
who stand before God (see Lu 1:19; Re 8:2).
[ 78 ]HEOS AN THOO TOUS ECHTHROUS SOU, until I put the enemies of thee (Marshall 855);
THOO is first person singular, second aorist active subjunctive of TITHEEMI (Han 394); an adjective,
primarily denoting hated or hateful, hence, in the active sense, denotes hating, hostile; used as a noun
signifying enemies, adversaries, said of men who are opposed to Christ (Vine 360); until I place thine
enemies (Lenski 60).
[ 79 ]HUPOPODION TOON PODOON SOU, a footstool of the feet of thee (Marshall 855); [HUPO
under, POUS a foot], of the foes of the Lord, the literal rendering, "the footstool of My (Thy, His)
feet" (Vine 445; see Mt 22:44; Mk 12:36; Lu 20:43; Ac 2:35; 7:49; Heb 10:13); enemies a footstool
for your feet (Littrell; Williams); as a footstool for thy feet (Lenski 60).
[ 80 ]OUCHI PANTES EISIN LEITOURGIKA PNEUMATA, not all are they ministering spirits
(Marshall 855); service, ministry, of the ministry of angels; angels are spirits, that is, they have not
material bodies as men have; they are either human in form, or can assume the human form when
necessary (Vine 47, 746; compare Lu 24:4, 23; Ac 10:3, 30); attending spirits (Williams); are they not
all only officiating spirits (Lenski 51).
[ 81 ]APOSTELLOMENA, being sent forth (Marshall 855); [APO from], of angels, sent on service,
or with a commission (Vine 1015); sent forth (Williams); commissioned (Lenski).
[ 82 ]EIS DIAKONIAN, for service (Marshall 855); [to do] service, spirits sent out for service (Arndt
184); to serve (Williams); [again and again, iterative present] for ministry (Lenski 61).
[ 83 ]KLEERONOMEIN, to inherit (Marshall 855; Lenski 51); KLEERONOMEIN is the present
active infinitive of KLEERONOMEOO (Han 394); [KLEEROS a lot, NIMOMAI to possess], that
which is received as a gift, in contrast with that which is received as the reward of law-keeping (Vine
588); acquire, obtain, come into possession of (Arndt 434); who are going to be unceasing possessors
[ 84 ]Woods 1.263.
[ 85 ]SOOTEERIAN, salvation (Marshall 855; Lenski 61); to partake of eternal salvation in the
Messiah's kingdom (Thayer 349); deliverance from the wrath of God destined to be executed upon the
ungodly at the end of this age (Vine 588); of salvation (Williams).
Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Ridgefield, Washington,
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without the copyright
owner's written permission.
This copyright notice must be included on all copies
The basic text, and all quotations not designated otherwise,
are from the New King James Version, copyrighted ©1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc.
All rights reserved. Used by permission. Bracketed alternatives are drawn from various
sources such as the ASV, Darby, KJV and RSV.
Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.
Published in The Old Paths Archive
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