The Letter to the Hebrews
Chapter 13
Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Ridgefield, Washington

The final chapter[ 1 ] of Hebrews instructs about love, remembering the prisoners, the respect due marriage and trust in God's care. Readers are instructed to remember those who rule. Jesus Christ is always the same. Christians are not to be carried about with strange teachings. The offerings of the high priest were burned without the camp. In like manner, Jesus suffered outside the gate of Jerusalem. Christians are seeking the city to come. They continually offer the sacrifice of praise, do good, share and obey those who rule over them. The Hebrew writer requests prayers. He invokes the blessing of God who brought from the dead "that great Shepherd of the sheep." He relates the news that Timothy had been released. He requests that greetings be given to all the saints and sends greetings from those in Italy (see chart HEBREWS 13 OUTLINE).


    1. Personal instructions about love, prisoners, marriage, God's care (Heb 13:1-6).
    2. Remember those who rule, Christ the same, not carried about with strange teachings (Heb 13:7-9).
    3. Offerings burned without the camp; Jesus suffered outside the gate (Heb 13:10-13).
    4. We seek the city to come; continually offer sacrifice of praise, do good and share (Heb 13:14-16).
    5. Obey those who rule (Heb 13:7-17).
    6. Hebrew writer requests prayers (Heb 13:18, 19).
    7. Final blessing invoking God who raised that great Shepherd of the sheep; Timothy released; regards
    to all saints; greetings from Italians (Heb 13:20-24).


13:1, 2 Let brotherly love continue. 2 Do not forget to entertain strangers, for by so doing some have unwittingly entertained angels.

Let brotherly love continue [let love of the brethren abide].[ 2 ] Like prayer, love for the brethren should never cease (see 1Th 5:17). It is a debt never paid (Ro 13:8). It must be continued always. Only one who is in darkness withholds love from a brother (1Jo 2:11). The Hebrew Christians already loved their brethren. They are encouraged to continue it.

Do you love your brother? Whatever color, rememnber he is made in the image of God. He has been cleansed by the blood of Christ and is an heir of eternal life. Love reaches out in fullness of heart. Is he perfect? No, and neither am I. He lives in a sinful world. He is sorely tempted to disbelieve, to be covetous, to lie and to commit sexual sins. He is frustrated with worldly pursuits, has loved ones who are weak or who have drifted into sin. He moves toward eternity's shore with many concerns.


    (Heb 13:2)

    1. Distributing to the needs of the saints, given to hospitality (Ro 12:13).
    2. A bishop then must be blameless, the husband of one wife, temperate, sober-minded, of good behavior, hospitable, able to teach (1Ti 3:2; Tit 1:8).
    3. Do not forget to entertain strangers (Heb 13:2).
    4. Be hospitable to one another without grumbling
    (1Pe 4:9).


    (Heb 13:1)

    1. Encourage one another (Heb 3:13).
    2. Minister to the saints (Heb 6:10).
    3. Consider how to stir up to love and good works
    (Heb 10:24).
    4. Strengthen hands that are week and knees that are feeble (Heb 12:12)
    5. Looking diligently lest anyone fall short of the grace of God (Heb 12:15).


[13:2] Do not forget to entertain strangers [forget not, be not forgetful, do not neglect, to show love, hospitality, of hospitality, being hospitable, unto strangers].[ 3 ] The Hebrew writer was concerned that weakened faith might be accompanied, not only by a tendency to forsake the assembly (Heb 10:25), but by a tapering off of love toward one another (Heb 10:1) and possibly a neglect to show hospitality toward strangers (see chart SHOWING HOSPITALITY).

For by so doing some have unwittingly entertained angels [for thereby, for by it, for by this, some have entertained angels unawares, without knowing it].[ 4 ] Christian, watch out for a stranger but not because of danger. Without fail, show him hospitality. You will receive a blessing for so doing.


Angels are spirits (Heb 1:14). They may appear as men[ 5 ] (Lu 24:4, 23; Ac 10:3, 30). In ancient times, God was about to promise a son to Abraham and Sarah.[ 6 ] Abraham saw three "men" standing opposite him. He ran and greeted them. Then he ran to the herd where he selected "a tender and good calf" and entertained them. They warned Abraham of the destruction of Sodom (see Ge 18:1-8). A similar event occurred when God sent two angels to warn Lot to escape from Sodom (Ge 19:1-3).


Another meaning of the word ANGELOUS is "messengers" [from ANGELLOO to deliver a message]. According to this general definition, Christians may entertain angels unawares. When they come to the aid of the unfortunate, they are said to do acts of kindness to Christ Himself (Mt 25:34-46).


13:3 Remember the prisoners as if chained with them-- those who are mistreated-- since you yourselves are in the body also.

Remember the prisoners [remember prisoners, them that are, those in, who are in, prison, bonds].[ 7 ] The Hebrew writer reminded His readers that in the past they had shown sympathy toward prisoners. He had said before, "For you had compassion on me in my chains" (Heb 10:34; see note there). Likely, He had in mind Christians who at that very time were falsely imprisoned because of their faith in Christ. It is implied that at that very moment there were Christians somewhere who were suffering ill-treatment in prisons.

As if chained with them [as bound, as though, as being, in prison with them].[ 8 ] Paul reminded the Corinthians of the warm relationship of all Christians to one another when he said, "For in fact the body is not one member but many" (1Co 12:14). He continued, "And if one member suffers, all the members suffer with it" (1Co 12:26). His own heart was deeply touched by the troubles of others. Hear his question:

Those who are mistreated [and those, them, that, which, are afflicted, evil-treated, ill-treated, suffer adversity].[ 9 ] Moses chose to "suffer affliction" or be "basely treated" with the people of God (Heb 11:25, 26). Sensitive Christians have empathy for holy people who are being ill-treated as well as for others (see Heb 11:37).

Since you yourselves are in the body also [as being yourselves also, also yourselves, since you also are, in the body].[ 10 ] Some versions paraphrase what the Holy Spirit revealed so much that they change the original intent of His words. Here are some examples: "For you like them are still in the world" (NEB), and "As though you yourselves were suffering" (NIV). Although not teraching error per se these paraphrases completely miss the allusion to the suffering endured by the original readers of the letter (see Heb 10:32-34) as well as the commonality of all Christians in the one body of Christ implying the care they have one for another (see 1Co 12:14, 20).


13:4 Marriage is honorable among all, and the bed undefiled; but fornicators and adulterers God will judge.

Marriage is honorable among all [marriage, let marriage be had, be held, must be kept in honor, in all, with everyone, every way].[ 11 ] Besides avoiding fornication, marriage deserves many other honors (see 1Co 7:2). The wife should be honored as the weaker vessel (1Pe 3:7). The husband should be honored as head of the family (1Pe 3:5, 6).[ 12 ] Husbands are to love their wives (Eph 5:25). Wives are to love their husbands and children (Tit 2:3, 4). Sexual sins by married people always dishonor their marriage. Dishonor may also come about by denying material needs, speaking critically of a mate in the presence of others and by refusing conjugal or other privileges (see chart MARRIAGE HELD IN HONOR).

One reason it is so important to hold marriage in honor is that the marriage bond mirrors the relationship of Christ and the church (see Eph 5:31, 32). This is briefly stated but is a strong and meaningful point. Think about it.


    (Heb 13:4)

    1. Let your fountain be blessed, and rejoice with the wife of your youth (Pr 5:18).
    2. He who finds a wife finds a good thing, and obtains favor from the LORD (Pr 18:22).
    3. So husbands ought to love their own wives as their own bodies (Eph 5:28).
    4. Elders and deacons to be husbands of one wife
    (1Ti 3:2, 12).
    5. Younger widows marry, bear children, manage the house, give no opportunity to the adversary to
    speak reproachfully (1Ti 5:14).

And the bed undefiled [and the marriage relationship, and let the bed, the marriage bed, be undefiled].[ 13 ] The mention of the marriage "bed" is specific. The marriage bed should be undefiled by any sin, but the context indicates sexual sins. To be especially avoided are sins of fornication and adultery.

But fornicators and adulterers [for the whoremongers, immoral, sexually immoral, and adulterous, and adulterous people].[ 14 ] Adultery is unlawful sexual intercourse between partners one or both of whom is married. Fornication is a more general word and includes adultery plus other forms of sexual uncleanness. The marriage bed may be defiled by adultery committed by one or both partners. When fornication or adultery is committed by a married person, a great stress is placed upon the marriage. When this happens, it is always dishonors God, one's mate and the marriage itself (see note on Heb 12:16).[ 15 ]

God will judge.[ 16 ] Those who practice adultery and fornication "shall not inherit the kingdom of God" (Ga 5:19-21).


    (Heb 13:4)

    1. Abstain from fornication (Ac 15:29; 1Th 4:3).
    2. If you live according to the flesh you will die
    (Ro 8:13).
    2. Flee sexual immorality (1Co 6:18).
    3. Nor let us commit sexual immorality, as some of them did, and in one day 23,000 fell (1Co 10:8).
    4. But fornication and all uncleanness or covetousness, let it not even be named among you (Eph 5:3).
    5. Put to death your members which are on the earth: fornication, uncleanness, passion, evil desire,
    and covetousness, which is idolatry (Col 3:5).


13:5, 6 Let your conduct be without covetousness; be content with such things as you have. For He Himself has said, "I will never leave you nor forsake you." 6 So we may boldly say: "The Lord is my helper; I will not fear. What can man do to me?"

Let your conduct be without covetousness [be ye, keep your life, conversation, free from love, the love, of money, do not be avaricious].[ 17 ] The love of money and the love of what money can buy are materialism and border on, if not outright, idolatry.[ 18 ] "You cannot serve God and mammon"[ 19 ] (Mt 6:24).

Be content with such things as you have [content, and be content, be satisfied, with what you have, with your present circumstances].[ 20 ] During part of Peter's life he had a fishing business but after the church was established, he apparently was not a rich man (see Ac 3:6). Paul recognized that "godliness with contentment is great gain" (1Ti 6:6). He did not always possess that contentment. He learned it (Php 4:12). Godliness is of untold value. It is spiritual and eternal.


    (Heb 13:5)

    1. To Jacob: Behold, I am with you and will keep you wherever you go, and will bring you back to this land; for I will not leave you until I have done what I have spoken to you (Ge 28:15).
    2. To Israel: Be strong and of good courage, do not
    fear nor be afraid of them; for the LORD your God, He is the One who goes with you. He will not leave you nor forsake you (De 31:6).
    3. To Joshua: I will not leave you nor forsake you
    (Jos 1:5).


    (Heb 13:5)

    1. To Israel: When you pass through the waters, I will be with you; and through the rivers, they shall not overflow you (Isa 43:2).
    2. To Zion: Can a woman forget her nursing child, and not have compassion on the son of her womb? Surely they may forget, yet I will not forget you
    (Isa 49:15).
    3. To disciples: And lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age (Mt 28:20).

For He Himself has said [for he, for himself, said, hath said].[ 21 ] The Hebrew writer respected the word of God. The particular quotation here is from Deuteronomy (see charts GOD WILL NEVER FORSAKE A and B).

I will never leave you nor forsake you [I will not leave thee, in no wise, neither will I in any wise, fail thee, or forsake you].[ 22 ] The Lord "sticks closer than a brother" (Pr 18:24). He has promised to remain with His faithful ones.

Sadly, the converse is not always true. Sometimes God's people forget Him.

[13:6] So we may boldly say [hence, so that, therefore, taking courage, with good courage, we, we may, we can, confidently, say].[ 23 ] The Holy Spirit is about to quote from one of the Psalms of thanksgiving:

The Lord is my helper [the Lord is my helper].[ 24 ] There may be a time when no human being will be here to aid us. Paul was once in position like that when on trial in Rome. Every person he knew had deserted him. He wrote:

I will not fear [and I will not be afraid].[ 26 ] Jesus said, "Fear not."

What can man do to me? [what shall, will, man do, shall do, unto me?].[ 27 ] What can man do? He can murder, kidnap and rape. He can slander, lie and blacken character. He can discharge a Christian from his job. He can steal, embezzle and cheat one out of his assets.


13:7 Remember those who rule over you, who have spoken the word of God to you, whose faith follow, considering the outcome of their conduct.

Remember those who rule over you [remember your leaders, them that had, which have, the rule over you, who led you].[ 28 ] "Rule" suggests elders of the church (see 1Ti 5:17). The Hebrew Christians could remember faithful elders who had taught them the truth.

Who have spoken the word of God to you [men that spake, and who spoke, unto you the word of the Lord].[ 29 ] Speakers of the word might include apostles, prophets, evangelists and teachers as well as elders (1Co 12:28; Eph 4:11). However, the present context primarly suggests elders of the church.


    (Heb 13:7)

    1. Therefore I urge you, imitate me (1Co 4:16).
    2. Imitate me, just as I also imitate Christ (1Co 11:1).
    3. The things which you learned and received and heard and saw in me, these do, and the God of peace will be with you (Php 4:9).
    4. You also became imitators of us and of the
    Lord (1Th 1:6).


    (Heb 13:7)

    1. Ourselves an example of how you should follow us (2Th 3:9).
    2. That you do not become sluggish, but imitate those who through faith and patience inherit the promises (Heb 6:12).
    3. Remember those who rule over you, who have spoken the word of God to you, whose faith follow, considering the outcome of their conduct
    (Heb 13:17).

Whose faith follow [imitate, and imitate, their faith, the faith of such].[ 30 ] The Hebrew writer previously exhorted his readers to be imitators (see Heb 6:12; charts BE IMITATORS A and B).
Considering [and considering].[ 31 ] Good examples and dedication to truth shown by elders and other faithful men and women have a power beyond belief in the lives of Christians who take time to give them consideration. Their patience, firmness and love is passed on to others.

The outcome of their conduct [the issue, the end, of their life, way of life, conversation].[ 32 ] Do not forget the words of faithful leaders, even after they have gone on to their reward. Take time to remember their good counsel and advice.


13:8 Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, today, and forever.

Jesus Christ is the same [Jesus Christ the same].[ 33 ] In chapter 1, the Holy Spirit repeated several OT quotations about Christ. One of them that alluded to His continuity, constancy and unchangeableness is quoted below.

Jesus Christ is the same because He is unchangeable God (see Heb 1:8; compare Mal 3:5). He is changeless because He is perfect. What mere man can say that he is the same yesterday, today and forever? What a comfort it is to hold to His unchanging hand! Nonetheless, the heavens and earth that Christ made will be changed.

Yesterday, today [yesterday and today].[ 34 ] Jesus was with God "yesterday" in the beginning (Joh 1:1-3). The prophecy of His birth indicated He was "from everlasting."

Jesus spoke of Himself when He said, "Most assuredly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I AM" (Joh 8:58). He prayed:

Christ "is before all things" (Col 1:17). He is the same "today" in His mercy, goodness and love. He is the same today as He lives and reigns in heaven.

And forever [yea and for ever, and to the ages to come].[ 35 ] Note the unending nature of our Lord in these verses.

In describing Melchizedek, the Holy Spirit alluded to the eternal Christ:

Not only did He exist prior to the creation, He lives on for ever. He said:


    (Heb 13:9)

    1. Do not harden your hearts as in the rebellion, in the day of trial in the wilderness (Heb 3:8).
    2. Therefore I was angry with that generation, and said, "They always go astray in their heart, and they have not known My ways" (Heb 3:10).
    3. Beware, brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief in departing from the living God (Heb 3:12).


13:9 Do not be carried about with various and strange doctrines. For it is good that the heart be established by grace, not with foods which have not profited those who have been occupied with them.

Do not be carried about [be not carried away, do not be led away].[ 36 ] Christians are not to be carried about (see chart STRAYING HEARTS).

Jude described false teachers as raging waves and wandering stars.

With various and strange doctrines [by varied, divers, diverse, and strange teachings].[ 37 ] Many deceitful teachings are abroad today. Beware of anything promising prosperity or "good feelings" without dedication to obeying the will of God and suffering for His name. Beware of "change agents" who are willing to compromise plain Bible truth for the "good of the church."

For it is good that the heart be established [for it is well, a good thing, for the heart to be, strengthened, confirmed].[ 38 ] Peter was advised by the Lord:

In his epistles, Peter tried to carry out the Lord's instruction (see 1Pe 5:10; 2Pe 1:5-12). Paul traveled through the Galatian region and Phrygia, "strengthening all the disciples" (Ac 18:23; compare Ro 1:11; Eph 3:16; 2Th 2:17; Jas 5:8; Re 3:2). In order to be estanblshed, He urged the Thessalonians to increase and abound in love.

Blameless hearts come about from both positive and negative efforts on the part of Christians.


    (Heb 13:9)

    1. Today, if you will hear His voice, do not harden your hearts (Heb 3:15; 4:7).
    intents of the heart (Heb 4:12).
    2. I will put My laws in their mind and write them on their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people (Heb 8:10).
    3. Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water (Heb 10:22).

By grace, not with foods [with, in, grace, not, not by, not in, meats, eating].[ 39 ] Eating of ceremonial or sacrificial meat furnishes the backdrop for the figure used here. Grace, in this verse, stands for the entire system of Christianity as revealed in the NT (see Tit 2:11, 12). Meats stands for the OT system. The Law had rules about eating the sacrifices as well as general rules about clean and unclean meats. Today, various man-made rules about foods have caused many a person to fall into the trap of thinking that following such will make him holy in God's sight (see Mk 7:19; Col 2:16; 1Ti 4:3).


    (Heb 13:9)

    1. Through whom also we have access by faith into this grace in which we stand (Ro 5:2).
    2. For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though He was rich, yet for your sakes He became poor, that you through His poverty might become rich (2Co 8:9).
    3. Even when we were dead in trespasses, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved) (Eph 2:5).
    4. That in the ages to come He might show the exceeding riches of His grace in His kindness
    toward us in Christ Jesus (Eph 2:7)


    (Heb 13:9)

    1. Now may our Lord Jesus Christ Himself, and our God and Father, who has loved us and given us everlasting consolation and good hope by grace
    (2Th 2:16).
    2. But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, for the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, that He, by the grace of God,
    might taste death for everyone (Heb 2:9).
    3. Let us therefore come boldly to the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy and find grace to help in time of need (Heb 4:16).

Which have not profited those who have been occupied with them [wherein they that occupied themselves, their adherents, those who have walked, those thus, that have been, occupied in, by, them, therein, were not profited, which did not profit, have not benefited].[ 40 ] It seems that everyone is "occupied" with something--work, education, hobbies, entertainment, pleasure, a diet or man-made creeds and humanly concocted doctrines. According to Christ, high priority should be given to His kingdom and His righteousness with sincere love of God and neighbor (see Mt 6:33; Lu 10:42; 12:31; Joh 6:27).


    (Heb 13:10)

    1. I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that you present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your reasonable service (Ro 12:1).
    2. And walk in love, as Christ also has loved us and given Himself for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling aroma (Eph 5:2).
    3. Yes, and if I am being poured out as a drink offering on the sacrifice and service of your faith, I am glad and rejoice with you all (Php 2:17).
    4. I am full, having received from Epaphroditus the things sent from you, a sweet-smelling aroma, an acceptable sacrifice, well pleasing to God
    (Php 4:18).


    (Heb 13:10)

    1. We have an altar, from which those who serve the tabernacle have no right to eat (Heb 13:10).
    2. Therefore by Him let us continually offer the
    sacrifice of praise to God, that is, the fruit of
    our lips, giving thanks to His name (Heb 13:15).
    3. Offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ (1Pe 2:5).
    4. And he was given much incense, that he should offer it with the prayers of all the saints upon
    the golden altar which was before the throne
    (Re 8:3).


13:10 We have an altar from which those who serve the tabernacle have no right to eat.

We have an altar.[ 41 ] The altar of the NT is not some object of stone, metal or wood (see chart GOD'S ALTARS OF OT WORSHIP).[ 42 ] It does not purify hearts by foods and drinks but God's priceless grace through the merit of the precious blood of Jesus. This altar is used to obtain the blessings of the sacrifice of Christ. When one obeys the gospel, he partakes of salvation. When he complies with gospel terms and receives remission of sins. In doing so, he has made use of the NT altar (see Ac 2:38; 8:22). In this manner, he figuratively "eats" of the altar of Christ. One can easily see why many think the altar is Christ Himself (see charts NT OFFERINGS A and B). The NT altar is also used to worship the Lord.


    (Heb 13:10)

    1. Leave your gift there before the altar, and go your way. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift (Mt 5:23).
    2. Fools and blind! For which is greater, the gift or the altar that sanctifies the gift? (Mt 23:19).
    3. To the blood of Zechariah, son of Berechiah, whom you murdered between the temple and the altar
    (Mt 23:35; Lu 11:51).
    4. Those who serve at the altar partake of the offerings of the altar (1Co 9:13).
    5. Are not those who eat of the sacrifices partakers of the altar? (1Co 10:18).

From which those who serve the tabernacle [whereof, of which, they that serve, which serve the, in the, tent].[ 43 ] When Jewish people brought sacrifices to the altar, portions were returned for them to eat (see 1Co 9:13; 10:18; charts PARTAKING OF OFFERINGS A and B). Others invited could also partake, especially Levites and the poor.

Jesus spoke of eating and drinking at His table (Lu 22:30). He also spoke of eating His flesh and drinking His blood (Joh 6:56). To do this is more than to partake of the Lord's Supper. It is to completely dedicate oneself to Him, to partake of the blessings He offers in His kingdom, the church of Christ, and live faithfully with a genuine hope of heaven.


    (Heb 13:10)

    1. The priest who offers it for sin shall eat it. In a holy place it shall be eaten, in the court of the tabernacle of meeting. All the males among the priests may eat it. It is most holy (Le 6:26, 29).
    2. And the priest shall burn the fat on the altar, but the breast shall be Aaron's and his sons (Le 7:31).
    3. Also the right thigh you shall give to the priest as a heave offering from the sacrifices of your peace offerings (Le 7:32).


    (Heb 13:10)

    1. And there you shall eat before the LORD your God, and you shall rejoice in all to which you have put your hand, you and your households, in which the LORD your God has blessed you (De 12:7).
    2. You shall offer peace offerings, and shall eat there, and rejoice before the LORD your God (De 27:7).
    3. Solomon offered a sacrifice of peace offerings, which he offered to the LORD, 22,000 bulls and 120,000 sheep. So the king and all the children of Israel dedicated the house of the LORD (1Ki 8:63).

Those who served the tabernacle were, specifically, Jewish priests. Only in a secondary sense were other Jews included.

Have no right to eat [whereof, of which, they have no right to eat].[ 44 ] Jews ate of sacrifices they brought to the altar (see charts PARTAKING OF OFFERINGS A and B). Priests had a right to partake of the sacrificial meat (see Le 6:26; Nu 18:9, 10). If there was Jewish arrogance because of an exclusive right to eat the sacrifices, there should not have been. Christians have an altar of which the Jews have no right to eat. Christians have the exclusive right to eat of the altar of Christ, but not to be arrogant about it.

The distinction between Judaism and Christianity is very plain. Christ is our sacrifice. Figuratively, Christians eat His flesh (Joh 6:54-56). Jews "who serve the tabernacle" have "no right" to the salvation of Jesus unless they believe in Him and are baptized (see Mk 16:16). They do not automatically partake of the blessings of the Savior just because they may believe in God or in the OT system. Christians who return to Judaism likewise miss out on all the blessings of the altar of Christ. Those who think that sincerity is all that is necessary to please God need to ponder this Scripture. A sincere Jew, or any non-Christian, for that matter, has no right to eat of the NT altar. While following Judaism, a person, priest or otherwise,[ 45 ] has no right to partake of the blessings of salvation in Christ Jesus.


13:11-13 For the bodies of those animals, whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high priest for sin, are burned outside the camp. 12 Therefore Jesus also, that He might sanctify the people with His own blood, suffered outside the gate. 13 Therefore let us go forth to Him, outside the camp, bearing His reproach.

For the bodies of those animals [for of, for the bodies of, those beasts].[ 46 ] The Hebrew writer alludes to the animals sacrificed as sin offerings at whatever time. Sin offerings were always offered on the Day of Atonement.

Whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high priest [whose blood is carried into the Holy Place, the holy of holies, by the high priest].[ 47 ]

For sin [as an offering, as a sacrifice, as sacrifices, for sin].[ 48 ] Sin offerings are particularly alluded to.


    (Heb 13:11)

    1. But the flesh of the bull, with its skin and its offal, you shall burn with fire outside the camp. It is a sin offering (Ex 29:14).
    2. But the bull's hide and all its flesh, with its head and legs, its entrails and offal-- the whole bull he shall carry outside the camp to a clean place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn it on wood with fire (Le 4:11, 12, 21).
    3. The flesh and the hide he burned with fire outside the camp (Le 9:11).
    4. The bull for the sin offering and the goat for the
    sin offering, whose blood was brought in to make atonement in the Holy Place, shall be carried outside the camp. And they shall burn in the fire their skins, their flesh, and their offal (Le 16:27).

Are burned outside the camp [are, of these the bodies are, burned without the camp].[ 49 ] When the Israelites were in the wilderness the tabernacle housed the holy place and the most holy place. The "camp" was the encampment of the people. Bodies, hides and refuse of the sin offerings were burned outside that area. After the temple was erected in Jerusalem, the same rule held, except "outside the camp" became "outside the gate" of the city. The animals were burned outside the camp. When worship became centered in the temple, they were burned outside the walls of the city of Jerusalem (see chart SIN OFFERINGS BURNED OUTSIDE CAMP). Sin offerings were made on the Day of Atonement (see Le 23:27, 28). The red heifer was also taken outside the camp, slaughtered and burned (see Nu 19:3-7).


[13:12] Therefore Jesus also [so, wherefore, also Jesus].[ 50 ] The death of Jesus conformed to the type or shadow of animal sacrifices. As the body of the animal of the sin offering was carried outside the camp, Jesus suffered outside the gate of Jerusalem to make atonement for sins.


    (Heb 13:12)

    1. Sanctify them by Your truth (Joh 17:17).
    2. That the offering of the Gentiles might be acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit (Ro 15:16).
    3. Who became for us wisdom from God-- and righteousness and sanctification and redemption
    (1Co 1:30).
    4. That He might sanctify and cleanse her with the washing of water by the word (Eph 5:26).
    5. Therefore if anyone cleanses himself from the latter, he will be a vessel for honor, sanctified and useful for the Master (2Ti 2:21; ;compare 1Pe 1:2).

That He might sanctify the people [in order to sanctify the people].[ 51 ] John the baptizer was to make ready "a people prepared[ 52 ] for the Lord" (Lu 1:17). He taught them to repent and believe on Christ who was to come. They were baptized for the remission of sins. In a sense, they were sanctified and consecrated, that is, set apart for the Lord (see Mk 1:15; chart SANCTIFYING THE PEOPLE).


    (Heb 13:12)

    1. As for the people, so also for himself, to offer sacrifices for sins (Heb 5:3).
    2. Therefore, if perfection were through the Levitical priesthood (Heb 7:11).
    3. Who does not need daily, as those high priests, to offer up sacrifices, first for His own sins and then for the people's (Heb 7:27).
    4. Not without blood, which he offered for himself and for the people's sins committed in ignorance
    (Heb 9:7).


    (Heb 13:12)

    1. You shall call His name Jesus, for He will save His people from their sins (Mt 1:21).
    2. Good tidings of great joy which will be to all people (Lu 2:10).
    3. There remains therefore a rest for the people of God (Heb 4:9).
    4. I will be their God, and they shall be My people
    (Heb 8:10).
    5. Who once were not a people but are now the
    people of God, who had not obtained mercy but
    now have obtained mercy (1Pe 2:10).


    (Heb 13:13)

    1. On Day of Atonement, blood was carried into most holy place.
    2. Jews found benefit of that blood in tabernacle, "within the camp."
    3. To benefit from Christ's blood one must go "outside the gate" where He suffered.
    4. To benefit from Christ, Jews must leave Judaism.

With His own blood [through, by, his own blood].[ 53 ] What Jesus accomplished on the cross was much more than John or any human being could do. He actually bore the "sins of many" and " obtained "eternal redemption" by virtue of His own blood (see 1Co 6:11; Eph 5:26).

    Not with the blood of goats and calves, but with His own blood He entered the Most Holy Place once for all, having obtained eternal redemption (Heb 9:12).

    So Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many. To those who eagerly wait for Him He will appear a second time, apart from sin, for salvation (Heb 9:28).

Suffered.[ 54 ] Golgotha where Jesus was crucified was outside the city walls of Jerusalem. The shame and suffering of Jesus was beyond my comprehension.

Outside the gate [without the gate].[ 55 ] I find no justification for the rendering of the NIV: "outside the camp." The Greek is "gate" not "camp." The city of Jerusalem was not exactly a camp but the same rules apply. Jewish sin offerings were burned outside the gate, near to the city of Jerusalem.

    Then many of the Jews read this title, for the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city; and it was written in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin (Joh 19:20).


    (Heb 13:12)

    1. The sin offering on the OT Day of Atonement could not be eaten by the priest or the people.
    2. It was carried outside the camp and burned.
    3. Therefore Jesus also, that He might sanctify the people with His own blood, suffered outside the gate
    4. Those who follow the Law cannot partake of Christ's atoning sacrifice.
    5. Unbelievers, Jews or Gentiles, cannot eat of the altar of Christ.

[13:13] Therefore [then].[ 56 ] Jesus' sacrifice outside the gate of Jerusalem was not part of Jewish temple ritual. For this reason, there is a different method in appropriating its blessings than that which accompanied Jewish sacrifices. There is no possible way to continue in Judaism and at the same time be blessed by the blood of Christ (see note on verse 11; chart OT AND NT MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE).

Let us go forth to Him outside the camp [let us go, let us go forth, unto him without the camp].[ 57 ] The implication here beautifully demonstrates the passing of the OT Law and its sacrifices in favor of the NT and Christ's sin offering. The Savior was crucified outside the walls of Jerusalem. His blood was not carried back into the city for any kind of ceremonial ritual. The life that represented His blood was offered in heaven. A person who benefits from His blood must go outside Jerusalem, "outside the camp" and forsake the rituals of Judaism.

Bearing His reproach [enduring, and bear, the abuse, he endured].[ 58 ] When Christ was crucified, He was treated like a common criminal. "For he who is hanged is accursed of God" (De 21:23; compare Ga 3:13). The despised cross became a stigma, a disgrace, a stumbling block (1Co 1:23). Moses considered "the reproach of Christ" as great riches (Heb 11:26). To Christians, He is not a reproach but "the power of God and the wisdom of God" (1Co 1:24). They still may be reproached for His name by unbelieving Jews or Gentiles (1Pe 4:14).


13:14 For here we have no continuing city, but we seek the one to come.


    (Heb 13:9-14)

    1. Be not carried about with various and strange doctrines.
    a. Not with foods which have not profited those who have been occupied with them.
    2. For it is good that the heart be established by grace.
    a. Impossible to obtain God's grace through foods that relate to Judaism.
    b. If one seeks to be established by foods, he is not established by grace.
    3. Must not continue to follow Judaism.
    a. We have an altar [Christ] from which those who serve the tabernacle have no right to eat.
    b. To remain in Judaism is to deny Christ.

For here we have no continuing city [for have we, not here an abiding city, no enduring city here].[ 59 ] "Here we have no continuing city" alludes to temporal Jerusalem. "We have" surely does not sound like Jerusalem had already been demolished. Some other expression such as "Jerusalem has already been ravaged" would have been appropriate if the city had been destroyed. The suggestion is thus very strong that Hebrews was written before Jerusalem was destroyed in AD 70.

But we seek the one to come [but we are seeking one, the city, after the city, which is, that is, the coming one].[ 60 ] Christians are like Abraham in that they seek a heavenly city.

    For he waited for the city which has foundations, whose builder and maker is God (Heb 11:10).

God, unashamed the patriarchs, "prepared a city for them" (Heb 11:16). Likewise, Jesus went to prepare a place for His own (Joh 14:3).


    (Heb 13:14)

    1. OT people served a copy and shadow of the heavenly things (Heb 8:5)
    2. The first tabernacle was still standing. It was symbolic for the present time in which both gifts and sacrifices are offered which cannot make him who performed the service perfect in regard to the conscience (Heb 9:8, 9).
    3. Concerned only with foods and drinks, various washings, and fleshly ordinances imposed until the time of reformation (Heb 9:10).


    (Heb 13:14)

    1. For the law, having a shadow of the good things to come (Heb 10:1).
    2. He takes away the first that He may establish the second (Heb 10:9).
    3. By that will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all
    (Heb 10:10).
    4. Now this, "Yet once more," indicates the removal
    of those things that are being shaken, as of things that are made, that the things which cannot be shaken may remain (Heb 12:27).


13:15 Therefore by Him let us continually offer the sacrifice of praise to God, that is, the fruit of our lips, giving thanks to His name.

Therefore by Him [through him then, by him therefore].[ 61 ] Some versions offer the slow reader a little help, explaining that the antecedent of "Him" is Christ. Among these "helpful versions" are the NIV and NEB with through Jesus therefore (the word Jesus is not in the Greek text). Of course, it is through Jesus that we are to offer praise to God, not through Levitical ceremonies. Praise by Jews and others, not offered through Christ, is not acceptable worship.

    You also, as living stones, are being built up a spiritual house, a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ (1Pe 2:5).

Let us continually offer [let us offer, offer up, continually, continually offer up].[ 62 ] A form of ANAPHEROOMEN let us offer was used of the Jewish priests offering sacrifices as well as Christ offering Himself (see Heb 7:27). Christians "ANENENKAI offer up spiritual sacrifices" (1Pe 2:5).

Consistently, regularly, ceaselessly and always, every Christian gives thought to praising God. He attends every worship hour possible. Perhaps most of all, on a regular basis in daily conversation, others hear from his lips a confession of Christ and words that honor the Father.

The sacrifice of praise to God [a sacrifice of praise to God].[ 63 ] The Jews brought and sacrificed "thank offerings" to the Lord (Le 7:11-25; 2Ch 29:31; 33:16). Asaph wrote, "Offer to God thanksgiving, and pay your vows to the Most High" (Ps 50:14).

Asaph wrote God's words:

    Whoever offers praise glorifies Me; and to him who orders his conduct aright I will show the salvation of God (Ps 50:23).

OT worshippers sang joyfully to God as an offering of thanksgiving.

    Let them sacrifice the sacrifices of thanksgiving, and declare His works with rejoicing (Ps 106:22).

Note carefully the OT instruction.

    Take words with you, and return to the LORD. Say to Him, "Take away all iniquity; receive us graciously, for we will offer the sacrifices of our lips" (Ho 14:2).

Among the OT Jews, there was a dawning perception of the superiority of praise over animal sacrifices. According to Cohen, today there is almost a total de-emphasis of bloody offerings.

    The importance of prayer is emphasized in such an observation as, "Greater is prayer than sacrifices."[ 64 ]

Since the destruction of the temple in AD 70, some Jews maintain that they have additional means of atonement! With this concept in mind, they contend that animal sacrifices are no longer necessary.

    In addition to charity, justice and Torah-study there was also prayer, which was declared to be even "greater than sacrifices" (Cohen 157, 158 from Berachoth 32b).

Some Jews believe the restoration of the temple will occur during the "coming" Messianic age but, even then, some of them see no need to restore the animal sacrifices. Their keen perception allows them to see this but, sadly, many cannot accept Jesus as the Messiah nor his atoning sacrifice.

    The new Temple will not play quite the same part in the life of the people as did the previous structures, because, sin having been abolished, there will be no need for expiatory sacrifices. The feeling of gratitude which will fill all hearts will make at least one class of sacrifice necessary. "In the Hereafter all offerings will cease except the thanksgiving offering which will never come to an end."[ 65 ]

That is, the fruit of our lips [that is, the fruit of lips, the fruit of the lips].[ 66 ] In connection with leading the mourners and restoring comfort to them, God spoke of the praise of lips:

    "I have seen his ways, and will heal him; I will also lead him, and restore comforts to him and to his mourners I will lead him and restore comfort to him and to his mourners, creating the praise of the lips. Peace, peace to him who is far and to him who is near," says the Lord, "and I will heal him" (Isa 57:18, 19).

Giving thanks to His name [speaking as he speaks in his name, confessing, which make confession to, that acknowledge, his name].[ 67 ] Instead of animal sacrifices Christians offer sacrifices of praise. Immediately following a well-known verse enjoining singing, Paul wrote:

    Giving thanks always for all things to God the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ (Eph 5:20).

It was Paul's prayer that the Colossians walk in a manner worthy of the Lord, including "giving thanks to the Father" (Col 1:12). To the Thessalonians, he urged,

    Rejoice always, 17 pray without ceasing, 18 in everything give thanks; for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus for you. (1Th 5:16-18).


13:16 But do not forget to do good and to share, for with such sacrifices God is well pleased.

But do not forget to do good and to share [but to do good, but of doing good, and to communicate, and communicating of your substance, what you have, forget not, be not forgetful, do not, and do not, neglect, doing good and sharing].[ 68 ] Words alone do not demonstrate love for God (1Jo 3:18). The Hebrew writer urges Christians to do benevolent work. When faith runs low, it is easy to neglect doing good and sharing. When benevolence is neglected, it is easy to grow cold in one's praise to God. A failure to honor God and give Him thanks may result in all kinds of other sins (Ro 1:21). Paul mixes together instructions about rejoicing in hope and devotion in prayer with these words:

    Rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation, continuing steadfastly in prayer; 13 distributing to the needs of the saints, given to hospitality (Ro 12:12, 13).

One expression of love to those who were persecuted was the practice of hospitality. Deeds of mercy to the sick, needy and prisoners go hand in hand with praise and thanksgiving. At the judgment day, Christians will be tested on that (see Mt 25:34-36). God is pleased with the praise and love for His word but He wants action to prove the sincerity of faith (Jas 2:17-26; see Mt 7:21-27; Lu 6:46).[ 69 ]

For with such sacrifices God is well pleased [for such sacrifices, are the sacrifices, are pleasing to God, God is pleased, which God approves].[ 70 ] All agree that weekly contributions into the church treasury are worship. What about giving done as a personal act of benevolence? While in prison, Paul received supplies from Philippi. In his letter to them, he not only thanked them but said what they did was a sacrifice, well-pleasing to God.

    Indeed I have all and abound. I am full, having received from Epaphroditus the things sent from you, a sweet-smelling aroma, an acceptable sacrifice, well pleasing to God (Php 4:18).


13:17 Obey those who rule over you, and be submissive, for they watch out for your souls, as those who must give account. Let them do so with joy and not with grief, for that would be unprofitable for you.

Obey those who rule over you [be attentive to your leaders, them that have the rule over you].[ 71 ] Those who rule are overseers (Ac 20:28). Christians obey righteous elders of the church. Some of them rule well (1Ti 5:17).

And be submissive [and submit to them, and submit yourselves].[ 72 ] Do members of the church take this admonition seriously enough (see 1Ti 3:1-7; Tit 1:5-9; Jas 5:14, 15; 1Pe 5:1-4)?

For they watch out [for they watch, are keeping watch].[ 73 ] Good elders are tireless watchmen as was Ezekiel (Eze 3:18-21). Christians heed their warnings.

For your souls [in behalf of, over, your souls].[ 74 ] Righteous elders look out for those under their care. It is their desire that every Christian inherit eternal life. They do whatever is necessary to promote the salvation of each precious soul in the local church.

As those who must give account [as they, as men, that shall, that must, who will have to, give account].[ 75 ] Giving account for the souls of others is a solemn thought. The obligation must be accepted by the elders. Prayers are offered and action taken. Responsibility is shouldered because elders will undergo strict judgment.

Let them do so with joy [that they may be submissive, do it, do this, joyfully].[ 76 ] Some translators add words not found in the Greek in order to get at what they think is the meaning. In these paraphrase versions, it is sometimes difficult to determine which words are God's and which are added by the translators. Christians are rejecting these kinds of "translations" because, without warning, they tend to make a Bible into a commentary. Men have no right to add their own words and call them God's. Here are some weak renderings: "Obey them so that their work will be a joy"[ 77 ] and "Let it be a happy task for them."[ 78 ] Poor translations but not bad for commentaries! Faithful Christians bring joy both here and hereafter.

    For what is our hope, or joy, or crown of rejoicing? Is it not even you in the presence of our Lord Jesus Christ at His coming? 20 For you are our glory and joy (1Th 2:19, 20).

    I have no greater joy than to hear that my children walk in truth (3Jo 1:4).

And not with grief [and not grief, sadly, groaning].[ 79 ] Disobedient children grieve their parents. Rebellious Christians grieve the Holy Spirit. Elders are saddened by those who do not respond to their pleadings. At the judgment day, the hearts of elders will ache because of those of their charges not being allowed to enter heaven.

For that would be unprofitable for you [for this is, that is, would be, this were, of no advantage to you].[ 80 ] One's relationship with godly elders may lead to a heavenly inheritance. "Unprofitable" is a mild way of declaring the eternal tragedy of one who has been taught the truth and encouraged to obey it but still is lost!

    If anyone's work is burned, he will suffer loss; but he himself will be saved, yet so as through fire (1Co 3:15).


13:18, 19 Pray for us; for we are confident that we have a good conscience, in all things desiring to live honorably. 9 But I especially urge you to do this, that I may be restored to you the sooner.

Pray for us.[ 81 ] The request for prayer "for us" reminds one of Paul. He coveted the prayers of Christians everywhere (see Ro 15:30; Eph 6:19; 1Th 5:25; 2Th 3:1). Brethren, pray!

For we are confident that we have a good conscience [for we are persuaded, persuade ourselves, are sure, trust, we have a clear conscience].[ 82 ] The matter of "good conscience" is thought by some to be a mark of Paul's writing. We know that Paul lived in good conscience (see Ac 24:16; Ro 9:1; 2Co 1:12). Whether he wrote the Hebrew letter or not, the Holy Spirit is its real author.

Obeying the gospel and living faithfully keeps the conscience clean (see 1Ti 1:5, 19; 3:9; 1Pe 2:19; 3:16, 21; 1Jo 1:7-9). The connection of a prayer request with a clear conscience is important. Christians do not want their prayers to be hindered so they strive to remain faithful to God. They want prayers to be heard so they work and pray to have a clear conscience. If, because of sin, the conscience is not clear, Christians apply the second law of pardon (see Ac 8:22; 1Jo 1:9).


In all things desiring to live honorably [desiring, desirous, willing, to act, to walk, conduct ourselves, suitably, honestly, rightly, in all things].[ 83 ] Ethical living has always been enjoined and is an attribute of God's faithful ones (see Ps 41:12; Pr 11:3; 19:1; 20:7). Some special examples in the Bible of integrity are: Moses (Nu 16:15); Samuel (1Sa 12:4); the man who would not slay Absalom (1Ki 13:8); Elisha (2Ki 5:16); the temple workmen (2Ki 22:7); Nehemiah (Ne 5:15); Paul (2Co 7:2) and others (see Heb 11).

[13:19] But I especially urge you to do this [I urge, and I beseech, exhort, urgently beg, you, the more exceedingly, earnestly, the rather, much more, to do this].[ 84 ] The Hebrew writer intently asks for the prayers of his readers.

That I may be restored to you [in order that I may be restored to you].[ 85 ] The Hebrew writer had, at some time in the past, been with his readers. It was his desire to be reunited with them. Evidently, for the most part, they were in one basic location, not scattered all over the world.

The sooner [sooner, the more quickly].[ 86 ] The writer believed in prayer. It was his hope that through the prayers of his readers his journey to them would be expedited.[ 87 ]


13:20, 21 Now may the God of peace who brought up our Lord Jesus from the dead, that great Shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant, 21 make you complete in every good work to do His will, working in you what is well pleasing in His sight, through Jesus Christ, to whom be glory forever and ever. Amen.

Now may the God of peace [may, but, the God of peace].[ 88 ] Times were troublesome. God's people were under stress. Jerusalem was soon to be destroyed. In difficult times, as well as in calmer days, our Heavenly Father is the God of peace. He is the author and giver of peace through Jesus Christ (see charts GOD OF PEACE A and B). Christ, God the Son (Ac 20:28), is the Prince of Peace (Isa 9:6). He is the Lord of peace (2Th 3:16). He made peace by the blood of His cross (Col 1:20).


    (Heb 13:20)

    1. Now the God of peace be with you all (Ro 15:33).
    2. And the God of peace will crush Satan under your feet shortly (Ro 16:20).
    3. For God is not the author of confusion but of peace (1Co 14:33).
    4. Be of good comfort, be of one mind, live in peace; and the God of love and peace will be with you
    (2Co 13:11).


    (Heb 13:20)

    1. The things which you learned and received and heard and saw in me, these do, and the God of peace will be with you (Php 4:9).
    2. Now may the God of peace Himself sanctify you completely (1Th 5:23).
    3. Now may the God of peace who brought up our Lord Jesus from the dead, that great Shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant, 21 make you complete in every good work to do His will, working in you what is well pleasing in His sight, through Jesus Christ, to whom be glory forever and ever (Heb 13:20, 21).

Who brought up our Lord Jesus from the dead [that brought again from the dead, from among the dead, our, even our, Lord Jesus].[ 89 ] The position of "our Lord Jesus" in the verse justifies the ASV and the NASB to supply "even" so as to identify Him as the great Shepherd of the sheep. An allusion is made to His bodily resurrection.

    Then he remembered the days of old, Moses and his people, saying: "Where is He who brought them up out of the sea with the shepherd of His flock? Where is He who put His Holy Spirit within them, 12 Who led them by the right hand of Moses, with His glorious arm, dividing the water before them to make for Himself an everlasting name (Isa 63:11, 12).

In the above passage from Isaiah the mention of Moses ties it to the exodus. God brought the Israelites up out of the sea with the shepherd of His flock. Evidently Moses was that shepherd but the likeness of bringing up from the dead Christ the great Shepherd is striking! Isaiah undoubtedly alludes to Him.

That great Shepherd of the sheep [the great shepherd of the sheep].[ 90 ] In the OT, God acted as Shepherd of His people (Ps 74:1; 79:13; Isa 40:11; 58:11-14; Jer 1:5, 19; Eze 34:12-15, 23, 25, 31). The context implies beyond doubt that Jesus Christ is now the great Shepherd of the sheep (see chart THE GREAT SHEPHERD).


    (Heb 13:20)

    1. The good shepherd gives His life for the sheep
    (Joh 10:11).
    2. I am the good shepherd (Joh 10:14).
    3. For you were like sheep going astray, but have now returned to the Shepherd and Overseer of your souls (1Pe 2:25).
    4. And when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the crown of glory that does not fade away (1Pe 5:4).
    5. For the Lamb who is in the midst of the throne will shepherd them and lead them to living fountains
    of waters (Re 7:17).


    (Heb 13:20)

    1. As for you also, because of the blood of your covenant, I will set your prisoners free from the waterless pit (Zec 9:11).
    2. This is my blood of the covenant (Mt 26:28).
    3. Moses sprinkled the book and all the people saying: This is the blood of the covenant which God has commanded you (Heb 9:20).
    4. Brought up our Lord Jesus from the dead, that
    great Shepherd of the sheep, through the blood
    of the everlasting covenant (Heb 13:20).

Through the blood of the everlasting covenant [with, by, in the power of, the blood of an eternal covenant].[ 91 ] The old covenant was taken out of the way at the cross (Col 2:14). The Law was changed (Heb 7:12). The new covenant had become effective (Heb 9:16, 17). It is everlasting. Consider for a moment the possible turn of events if Satan had succeeded and Christ had succumbed to his temptations and had become a sinner. In such a case, His death would have been meaningless. It is probable that God would not have raised Him from the dead. But He did not become a sinner. He became obedient unto death (Heb 5:8). His death is meaningful. His blood is efficacious. And He was raised from the dead! (see chart BLOOD OF THE COVENANT).

[13:21] Make you complete [make you perfect, equip you, perfect you].[ 92 ] Christians depend upon God for strength, physically, mentally and spiritually. Their normal existence is dependent upon Him.

    For in Him we live and move and have our being, as also some of your own poets have said, "For we are also His offspring" (Ac 17:28).

In tempestuous times, Christians rely heavily upon the Lord (1Pe 5:10). He strengthens them primarily by His Spirit through knowledge of His word. Paul prayed for the Colossians:

    For this reason we also, since the day we heard it, do not cease to pray for you, and to ask that you may be filled with the knowledge of His will in all wisdom and spiritual understanding; 10 that you may have a walk worthy of the Lord, fully pleasing Him, being fruitful in every good work and increasing in the knowledge of God; 11 strengthened with all might, according to His glorious power, for all patience and longsuffering with joy (Col 1:9-11; compare 2Ti 3:16, 17; see chart EQUIPPED TO DO GOD'S WILL).


    (Heb 13:21)

    1. The Lord stood with me and strengthened me
    (2Ti 4:17).
    2. But let patience have its perfect work, that you may be perfect and complete, lacking nothing (Jas 1:4).
    3. But may the God of all grace, who called us to His eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after you have suffered a while, perfect, establish, strengthen, and settle you (1Pe 5:10).
    4. But whoever keeps His word, truly the love of God is perfected in him. By this we know that we are in Him (1Jo 2:5).

In every good work [in every good thing, with everything good].[ 93 ] Jesus advocated letting one's light shine by doing good works (Mt 5:16; compare 1Pe 2:12). Paul taught the wealthy to be "rich in good works" (1Ti 6:18). Good works supply a pattern to be imitated by others (Tit 2:7). God desires His people to "be ready unto," "careful to maintain" and "zealous for" good works (Tit 3:1, 8, 14). Christians are to stimulate one another to love and good works (Heb 10:24). How are these instructions followed by those who do little or no benevolent work and who willfully absent themselves from church services?

To do His will [that you may do, to the doing of, his will].[ 94 ] The God of all grace strengthens Christians to do His will. His will is revealed in the NT (see 2Ti 3:16, 17; 2Pe 1:3; Jude 3).

Working in you [working in us, with us, doing in you].[ 95 ] God works in Christians "both to will and to do for His good pleasure" (Php 2:13).

What is well pleasing in His sight [that which is pleasing before him].[ 96 ] Every Christian needs to be studying the Bible regularly, "finding out what is acceptable to the Lord" (Eph 5:10). To be pleasing to Him, one "must serve God acceptably" (Heb 12:28; compare Ro 12:2). This involves keeping His NT commandments.

    And whatever we ask we receive from Him, because we keep His commandments and do those things that are pleasing in His sight (1Jo 3:22).

Through Jesus Christ.[ 97 ] Everything one does, if pleasing to God, must be done through Jesus Christ and in His name (see 1Co 10:31; Col 3:17).[ 98 ]

To whom be glory forever and ever [to whom be the glory for ever and ever, for the ages of ages].[ 99 ] Glory forever and ever is ascribed to Deity alone. Of God, Paul wrote,

    For of Him and through Him and to Him are all things, to whom be glory forever. Amen (Ro 11:36).

    To God, alone wise, be glory through Jesus Christ forever. Amen (Ro 16:27).

A similar accolade of praise attributed to Christ implies His deity.

    But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To Him be the glory both now and forever. Amen. (2Pe 3:18).

Amen.[ 100 ] So be it, be it so (see note on verse 25).


13:22 And I appeal to you, brethren, bear with the word of exhortation, for I have written to you in few words.

And I appeal to you, brethren [I, but I, exhort you, beseech you, urge you, brethren].[ 101 ] The Holy Spirit makes a tender, earnest appeal for the acceptance of His message.

Bear with the word of exhortation [suffer, bear, listen to, my word, this word, of admonition].[ 102 ] The "word of exhortation" is the Hebrew letter itself. Christians accept the exhortation of Scripture with kind favor and encourage each other with the inspired message.

    But exhort one another daily, while it is called "Today," lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin (Heb 3:13; compare Heb 12:24).

For I have written to you [for that I have written a letter unto you].[ 103 ] The Greek does not have "a letter" but some versions appropriately supply it.

In few words [briefly, it is but in few words].[ 104 ] Other letters of Paul were shorter than Hebrews but, perhaps, from one who "continued his message until midnight," the thirteen chapters of Hebrews could be considered to be a short note. If one considers Luke as a possible writer, Hebrews is indeed "few words" when compared to either the gospel of Luke or Acts of Apostles.


13:23 Know that our brother Timothy has been set free, with whom I shall see you if he comes shortly.

Know that [know ye, you should understand, that].[ 105 ]

Our brother Timothy [our brother Timotheus].[ 106 ] Timothy was a splendid preacher (see note on Ac 16:1). In Paul's second letter to Timothy, he urged him to come "quickly" or "soon" (2Ti 4:9), "before winter" (2Ti 4:21). When he made that trip to Rome, was he also arrested? Did Paul intend the parchments he would bring to be used by Luke or another man in order to write the book of Hebrews (2Ti 4:13)? If these are the circumstances in which Hebrews was written, it is doubtful that Paul himself would say that he would soon see his readers inasmuch as he knew that he would soon be executed (see note on 2Ti 4:6-8). Other than Luke, what other possible writer was there at Rome who could have travelled with Timothy (see 2Ti 4:11)? Perhaps Silas or even Apollos ought to be considered as possible writers. Still the arguments for these men as the writer of Hebrews lack conclusiveness in my judgment.

Has been set free [hath been, is, released, set at liberty].[ 107 ] "Brother Timothy" had been "set free" with the Hebrew writer stating that he hoped to come with him. During Paul's first Roman imprisonment, Timothy was with him but he does not appear to have been a prisoner (see Php 1:1; Col 1:1; Phm 1). It may be that "released" does not necessarily imply that Timothy had been in prison. He may have left or have been simply dismissed from his association with a local church in order to go to another field of work, perhaps assigned by the Hebrew writer. My inconsequential opinion is that Timothy was arrested and then released from prison.

With whom I shall see you if he comes shortly [with whom, if he come soon, should come, I will see you].[ 108 ] Does the Hebrew writer speculate upon Timothy's arrival to see him, possibly in prison? Or does he consider Timothy's departure and arrival to a destination to be with the readers?[ 109 ] Whoever was the writer of Hebrews had in mind has been much discussed over the centuries. Some have suggested Apollos, Paul or someone else. No one seems to be certain who the Hebrew writer actually was.


13:24, 25 Greet all those who rule over you, and all the saints. Those from Italy greet you. 25 Grace be with you all. Amen.

Greet all those who rule over you [salute all your leaders, them that have the rule over you].[ 110 ] If Paul wrote Hebrews, one might expect him to greet the elders at Jerusalem (see Ac 15:2; 21:17, 18), those under whom he served at Antioch or those to whom he discoursed at Miletus (compare Ac 20:17, 37). Some of the same ideas would also fit Luke, or whoever was the writer of Hebrews. Luke was also present at Miletus (Ac 20:15) and at Jerusalem (Ac 21:17, 18). From his writings in the early part of Acts, some see an implication that he was acquainted with Mary whose home was in Jerusalem.

And all the saints.[ 111 ] All Christians are saints (see Ac 9:13, 14; 26:10; Ro 1:7, 8; 2Co 1:1; Eph 1:1; Php 1:1; Col 1:2).

Those from Italy greet you [they of, they from, those of, who come from, Italy salute you, send you greetings].[ 112 ] Aquila, a native of Pontus, with his wife Priscilla, had come from Italy a few years before this letter is thought to have been written (Ac 18:2). "Those from Italy" may simply mean "Italians"[ 113 ] and, from the context, there is no certain way of determining where they were at the time of writing. However, would it not seem odd to send their greetings if the writer were, let us say, in Corinth, a melting pot of many nationalities. Why mention those of Italy alone and not others from such places as Ephesus, Crete or Troas? The sole mention of the "Italians" suggests to me that the book was written from Italy, possibly from Rome. An alternate view is that the Jewish Christians to whom Hebrews was originally addressed lived in Rome. If so, it would be quite natural for "those from Italy" who resided elsewhere at the time to send greetings to their fellow-Christians back home.

[13:25] Grace be with you all [grace be with all of you].[ 114 ] The Holy Spirit craves for His readers the spiritual blessings claimed in the expression "grace."

Amen.[ 115 ] Although in several Greek manuscripts, this word was omitted from my Greek NT. Whan a human being says "Amen" he means "So be it" or "May it be so." When the Holy Spirit says it, He means, "It is so!" (see note on verse 21).


In the magnificent book of Hebrews we are told that God speaks today through Christ (Heb 1:1-3). The greatness of the Son of God is shown (Heb 1:4-4:13). His priesthood like that of Melchizedek is extolled (Heb 4:14-10:18). Over and over, Christians are encouraged by the examples of faithful men and women to continue to be loyal to Christ (Heb 10:19-12:29). The epistle closes with various meaningful exhortations and personal salutations (Heb 13:1-25).


[ 1 ]The basic text in this chapter is the NKJV. Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright 1979, 1980, 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. Alternate phrases in brackets are from ASV, Darby, ESB, KJV, RSV and occasionally another version. Greek transliteration tends to follow the BibleSoft method.
[ 2 ]HE PHILADELPHIA MENETOO, brotherly love Let it remain (Marshall 891); MENETOO is third person singular, present active imperative of MENOO (Han 409); [PHILEOO to love, ADELPHOS a brother or near kinsman], brotherly love; of qualities, abide (Vine 2, 147). continue (Arndt 504); be held or kept continually, not perish, last, stand, of purposes, moral excellencies (Thayer 399); let fraternal affection continue to remain! (Lenski 468); ;you must let your brotherly love continue (Williams).
[ 3 ]TEES PHILOXENIAS MEE EPILANTHANESTHE, of hospitality Be ye not forgetful (Marshall 891); EPILANTHANESTHE is second person plural, present middle imperative of EPILANTHANOMAI (Han 409); literally, be not forgetful of hospitality (Vincent 4.560); [not] to forget, or neglect [EPI upon, used intensively, LANTHANOO to escape notice], of believers, as to showing love to foreigners, strangers, new, unheard of (Vine 432, 452); be not forgetful of friendliness to strangers (Lenski 469); do not remain neglectful of hospitality to strangers (Williams).
[ 4 ]DIA TAUTEES GAR ELATHON TINES ZENISANTES ANGELOUS, through this for unconsciously some entertaining[ed] angels (Marshall 891); ELATHON is third person plural, second aorist active indicative of LANTHANOO; XENISANTES is the first aorist active participle, nominative plural masculine of XENIZOO (Han 409); were not apparent as entertaining angels. The verb ELATHON were concealed represents the adverb unawares (Vincent 4.561); LANTHANOO to escape notice, is used with the aorist participle of XENIZOO to entertain, signifying "entertained . . . unawares" [an idiomatic usage common in classical Greek]; have received as guests [XENOS a guest] (Vine 366, 1177); for thereby some have unawares entertained angels (Lenski 469); for by it some have entertained angels without knowing it (Williams).
[ 5 ]Angels are always spoken of in the masculine gender, the feminine form of the word does not occur in Scripture (see Vine 47).
[ 6 ]When the promise of a son was given to them, Sarah was ninety and Abraham was one hundred years old (Ge 17:17).
[ 7 ]MIMNEESKESTHE TOON DESMIOON, Be ye mindful of the prisoners (Marshall 891); MIMNEESKESTHE is second person plural, present middle imperative of MIMNEESKOO (Han 409); middle voice, remember them in bonds; DESMIOS a binding, denotes a prisoner (Vine 130, 946); continue remembering the prisoners (Lenski 469); continue to remember those who are in prison (Williams).
[ 8 ]HOOS SUNDEDEMENOI, as having been bound with [them] (Marshall 891); SUNDEDEMENOI is the perfect passive participle, nominative plural masculine of SUNDEOO (Han 409); as if you were fellow-prisoners (Vincent 4.561); [SUN together, DEOO to bind], bound together, implying association, of those bound together in confinement (Vine 119); as having been made [their] fellow prisoners (Lenski 469); as though you were in prison with them (Williams).
[ 9 ]OTON KAKOUCHOUMENOON, of the [ones] being ill treated (Marshall 891); KAKOUCHOUMENOON is the present passive participle, genitive plural masculine of KAKOUCHEOO (Han 409); are evil entreated (Vincent 4.562); are ill-treated [KAKOOS evil, ECHOO to have], used in the passive voice (Vine 1104); them that are disgracefully treated (Lenski 470); and those who are being ill-treated (Williams).
[ 10 ]HOOS KAI AUTOI ONTES EN SOOMATI, as also [your]selves being in [the] body (Marshall 891); ONTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of EIMI (Han 409); as subject like them to bodily sufferings . . . the expression EN SOOMATI in the sense of being still alive, only in 2 Corinthians 12:2 (Vincent 4.562); be in the body=alive, subject to mortal ills (Arndt 799); of earthly life with its troubles (Thayer 611); as being yourselves also [still] in the body! (Lenski 470); since you too are liable to similar physical punishment [literally, you, too, are in the body; so liable to physical punishment] (Williams).
[ 11 ]TIMIOS HO GAMOS EN PASIN, [Let] honorable marriage [be] in all (Marshall 891); let marriage be had in honor (Vincent 4.562); honorable let marriage be in all respects (Lenski 471); marriage must be held in honor by all (Williams).
[ 12 ]In 1 Peter 3:6, we read that Sarah obeyed Abraham, calling him KURION Lord." KURIOS is an adjective, signifying having power [KUROS] or authority, used by Sarah as a title of respect to her husband (see Vine 688).
[ 13 ]KAI HEE KOITEE AMIANTOS, and the bed undefiled (Marshall 891); of the marriage bed as requiring to be free from unlawful sexual intercourse (Vine 1180); pure, free from adultery (Thayer 32); undefiled; others [say] pure in religious and moral sense (Arndt 46); marriage relationship [from KOITEE the conjugal bed (Littrell); and the bed undefiled (Lenski 471);and the marriage relations kept sacred (Williams).
[ 14 ]PORNOUS GAR KAI MOICHOUS, for fornicators and adulterers (Marshall 891; (Lenski 471); PORNOUS are sexually immoral persons, distinguished from MOICHOUS adulterers (Arndt 526, 693); persons who are sexually vicious and immoral (Williams).
[ 15 ]Some unethical marriage counsellors have advised clients to commit adultery in order to put "spice" into their marriage. Such advice is always contrary to God's will and nearly always renders the marriage almost impossible to salvage.
[ 16 ]KRINEI HO THEOS, will judge - God (Marshall 891); KRINEI is third person singular, future active indicative of KRINOO (Han 409); note the emphatic position of HO THEOS. He will judge and condemn infractions of the marriage-bond, however social sentiment may condone them (Vincent 4.562); judge=punish . . . resulting in the vindication of the innocent [the thought prominent in De 32:36=Ps 135:14] (Arndt 452); God will judge (Lenski 471); God will punish (Williams).
[ 17 ]APHILARGUROS HO TROPOS, without love of money [Let] the [your] way of life [be] (Marshall 891); [PHILARGUROS money-loving with negative prefix], without covetousness (Vine 245); the meaning here is character or moral disposition (Vincent 4.563); avaricious [from APHILARGUROS not greedy for money (Littrell); without money-love the conduct (Lenski 472); you must have a turn of mind that is free from avarice (Williams).
[ 18 ]Covetousness or greed is equated with idolatry (Eph 5:5; Col 3:5).
[ 19 ]Mammon is a common Aramaic word for riches (Vine 704).
[ 20 ]ARKOUMENOI TOIS PAROUSIN, being satisfied with the things present (Marshall 891); ARKOUMENOI is the present middle participle, nominative plural masculine of ARKEOO; PAROUSIN is the present active participle, dative plural neuter of PAREIMI (Han 409); literally, being contented with the things which are at hand (Vincent 4.563); middle voice, be satisfied, contented with such things as ye have (Vine 226); being contented with the things at hand! (Lenski 473); you must be content with what you have (Williams).
[ 21 ]AUTOS GAR EIREEKEN, for he has said (Marshall 892); EIREEKEN is third person singular, perfect active indicative of EIPON (Han 409); for he himself [God himself] (Vincent 4.563); for he himself has said [perfect tense as in 1:13: and what he has said still stands] (Lenski 473); for God Himself has said (Williams).
[ 22 ]OU MEE SE ANOO OUD' OU MEE SE ENKATALIPOO, By no means thee will I leave nor by no [any] means thee I forsake (Marshall 892); ANOO is first person singular, second aorist active subjunctive of AANIEEMI; ENKATALIPOO is first person singular, second aorist active subjunctive of ENKATALEIPOO (Han 409); by no means, in no wise (Vincent 4.562); [EN in, KATALEIPOO a strengthened form of LEIPOO to leave], denotes to forsake, abandon, leave in straits, or helpless, by God (Vine 456); in no wise will I let go of thee, nor in any wise will I abandon thee! (Lenski 473); I will never fail you, I will never forsake you (Williams).
[ 23 ]HOOSTE THARROUNTAS HEEMAS LEGEIN, so as being of good cheer us to say (Marshall 892); THARROUNTAS is the present active participle, accusative plural masculine of THARREOO; LEGEIN is the present active infinitive of LEGOO (Han 409); literally, so that, being of good courage, we say (Vincent 4.563); with good courage, literally, being of good courage (Vine 240); so that, being of good courage, we on our part say (Lenski 473); so we can confidently say (Williams).
[ 24 ]KURIOS EMOI BOEETHOS, [The] Lord to me [is] a helper (Marshall 892); BOETHOS is an adjective used as a noun, of God as the Helper of His saints (Vine 545); the Lord for me a helper (Lenski 473); the Lord is my helper (Williams).
[ 25 ]If Paul wrote Hebrews, this section might correspond to the time when he wrote 2 Timothy 4. Did he or someone else in Rome write the letter to the Hebrews on the parchments Timothy brought to him (see 2Ti 4:13)?
[ 26 ]OU PHOBEETHEESOMAI, not will fear (Marshall 892); PHOBEETHEESOMAI is first person singular, first future passive indicative of PHOBEOO (Han x); [I will not] fear, be afraid . . . be struck with fear, be seized with alarm: of those who fear harm or injury (Thayer 655); I will not fear (Lenski 473); I will not be afraid (Williams).
[ 27 ]TI POIEESEI MOI ANTHROOPOS, what will do to me man? (Marshall 892); POIEESEI is third person singular, future active indicative of POIEOO (Han 409); what shall man do to me? (Lenski 473); what can men do to me? (Williams).
[ 28 ]MNEEMONEUTE TOON HEEGOUMENOON HUMOON, Remember the [ones] leading you (Marshall 892); MNEEMONEUTE is second person plural, present active indicative or imperative of MNEEMONEUOO; HEEGOUMENOON is the present middle participle, genitive plural masculine of HEGEOMAI (Han 409); remember, with a view to observing their admonitions . . . which had the rule (Vincent 4.564); to lead, is translated to rule (Vine 979); rulers, leaders, of heads of a Christian church (Arndt 343); keep calling to mind your leaders (Lenski 475); you must not forget your former leaders (Williams).
[ 29 ]HOITINES ELALEESAN HUMIN TON LOGON TOU THEOU, who spoke to you the word of God (Marshall 892); ELALEESAN is third person plural, first aorist active indicative of LALEOO (Han 409); spake (Vincent 4.564); who were such as spoke to you the Word of God (Lenski 475); for it was they who brought you the message of God (Williams).
[ 30 ]MIMEISTHE TEEN PISTIN, imitate ye the[ir] faith (Marshall 892); MIMEISTHE is second person plural, present middle imperative of MIMEOMAI (Han 409); imitate (Vincent 4.564); a mimic, an actor, of imitating the faith of spiritual guides (Vine 578); whose faith keep imitating (Lenski 475); imitate their faith (Williams).
[ 31 ]HOON ANATHEOOROUNTES, of whom looking at (Marshall 892); ANATHEOOROUNTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of ANATHEOOREOO (Han 409); observe attentively (Vincent 4.564); [ANA up, used intensively, THEOOREOO one who looks at a thing with interest and for a purpose], considering carefully, contemplatively, viewing with interest (Vine 106, 107, 222); carefully viewing (Lenski 475); consider (Williams).
[ 32 ]TEEN EKBASIN TEES ANASTROPHEES, the result of the conduct (Marshall 892); conversation, in the older sense of that word, is a good rendering . . . the reference is to the end of their life; what kind of an end they made; possibly, but not necessarily, with an allusion to cases of martyrdom (Vincent 4.565); denotes a way out [EK out, BAINOO to go], or an issue, regarding the manner of life of deceased spiritual guides (Vine 357, 600); the issue of their manner of life (Lenski 475); how they closed their lives [literally, their exodus] (Williams).
[ 33 ]'IEESOUS CHRISTOS HO AUTOS, Jesus Christ [is] the same (Marshall 892); the same, when preceded by the article, and either with a noun following, for example Hebrews 13:8. It is thus distinguished from uses as a personal and a reflexive pronoun (Vine 989); without a noun, immutable (Thayer 87); the same (Arndt 124); the emphatic point of the statement is Christ. They lived and died in the faith that Jesus is The Christ--the Messiah. The readers were tempted to surrender this faith and to return to Judaism which denied Jesus's messiahship [compare Heb 10:29]. Hence the writer says, "hold fast and imitate their faith in Jesus as the Christ. He is ever the same. He must be to you, to-day, what he was to them, yesterday, and will be forever to the heavenly hosts--Christ. Render therefore "Jesus is Christ" (Vincent 4.564); Jesus Christ the same (Lenski 477); Jesus Christ is the same (Williams).
[ 34 ]ECHTHES KAI SEEMERON, yesterday and today (Marshall 892; Lenski 477); yesterday, of the past; with SEMERON="the present;" looking from the present to the coming judgment (Arndt 331, 749, 881); yesterday and today (Williams).
[ 35 ]KAI EIS TOUS AIOONAS, and unto the ages (Marshall 892); literally, unto the ages of the ages, for ever and ever or for evermore (Vine 377); and for the eons [that is, for eternity (Lenski 477); yes forever (Williams).
[ 36 ]MEE PARAPHERESTHE, do not be carried away (Marshall 892); PARAPHERESTHE is second person plural, present passive imperative of PARAPHEROO (Han 409); Received Text has PERIPHERESTHE, carried about; carried away. The present tense indicates a present and active danger (Vincent 4.565); [PERI about], carried about, or borne about; metaphorically, of being carried about by different evil doctrines (Vine 93); be not carried aside (Lenski 477); you must stop being carried away (Williams).
[ 37 ]DIDACHAIS POIKILAIS KAI XENAIS, teachings by various and strange (Marshall 892); these teachings represent various phases of one radical error--the denial of Jesus's messiahship and of his messianic economy as superseding Judaism and all other means of salvation (Vincent 4.566); parti-colored, variegated [POIKILLOO to make gay; the root of the first syllable is PIK-, found in English picture]; hence "divers," "manifold" (Vine 318); by varicolored and strange doctrines (Lenski 477); with varied and strange teachings (Williams).
[ 38 ]KALON GAR BEBAIOUSTHAI TEEN KARDIAN, for [it is] good to be confirmed the heart (Marshall 892); BEBAIOUSTHAI is the present passive infinitive of BEBAIOOO (Han 409); be confirmed, established, made firm, secure [the connected adjective BEBAIOS signifies stable, fast, firm] the heart by grace (Vine 218, 372); for it is an excellent thing that the hearts be made firm (Lenski 477); for it is a good thing for the heart to be strengthened (Williams).
[ 39 ]CHARITI OU BROOMASIN, by grace, not by foods (Marshall 892); strengthened in grace, in the word of God's grace (see Ac 20:32; Tit 2:11-14); by grace, not by meats (Lenski 477); by God's spiritual strength, not by special kinds of food (Williams).
[ 40 ]EN HOIS OUK OOPHELEETHEESAN HOI PERIPATOUNTES, by which were not profited the [ones] walking (Marshall 892); OOPHELEETHEESAN is third person plural, first aorist passive indicative of OOPHELEOO; PERIPATOUNTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of PERIPATEOO (Han 409); to walk, is sometimes used of the state in which one is living, or of that to which a person is given, for example, Hebrews 13:9, "[meats, wherein they that] occupied themselves," walked . . . that is exercising themselves about different kinds of food, regarding some as lawful, others as unlawful [referring especially to matters of the ceremonial details of the law] (Vine 799); literally, in the which they who walked were not profited. PERIPATEIN to walk about is often used to express habitual practice or general conduct of life (Vincent 4.567); primarily denotes assistance; then, advantage, benefit, profit, [not] profited (Vine 890); in connection with which they were not benefited who walked about [in life] (Lenski 477); from which those adhering to them have gotten no good (Williams).
[ 41 ]ECHOMEN THUSIASTEERION, We have an altar (Marshall 892); ECHOMEN is first person plural, present active indicative of ECHOO (Han 409); [probably the neuter of the adjective THUSIASTERIOS, is derived from THUSIAZOO to sacrifice] (Vine 42); we have an altar from which those who serve the tabernacle have no right to eat is difficult. Scholars more recently from F. Bleek to A. Seeberg and B. Haensler, Biblische Zeitschrift 11, '13, 403-9 interpret the THUSIASTEERION as the cross of Christ, others [for example Thomas Haering, Der Brief an die Hebr. '25, 103] as the communion table (Arndt 367); metaphorically, the cross on which Christ suffered an expiatory death: to eat of this altar, that is, to appropriate to one's self the fruits of Christ's expiatory death (Thayer 294); we have an altar of sacrifice (Lenski 481); We Christians have an altar (Williams).
[ 42 ]Various interpretations of "altar" have been given. (1) It is Christ Himself. (3) The Lord's Table. (3) The heavenly place where Christ now offers the virtue of His blood. (4) The cross. (5) The divine nature of Christ on which his human nature is supposed to have been offered, and by means of which it was sanctified and made available. (6) It is figurative and represents no definite object. (compare R. Milligan 377).
[ 43 ]EX HOU PHAGEIN HOI TEE SKEENEE LATREUONTES, of which to eat the [ones] the tabernacle serving (Marshall 892); PHAGEIN is the second aorist active infinitive of ESTHIOO; LATREUONTES IS THE PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE, NOMINATIVE PLURAL MASCULINE OF LATREUOO (Han 409); anything to eat (Arndt 312); not the priests only, but the worshippers also; LATREUEIN to serve is used throughout the NT with the single exception of Hebrews 8:5, of the service of the worshiper and not of the priest (Vincent 4.568); from the things laid on the altar; of the priests, to officiate, to discharge the sacred office: with a dative of the sacred thing to which the service is rendered (Thayer 253, 373); primarily to work for hire [akin to LATRIS a hired servant], signifies [1] to worship, [2] to serve; in the latter sense it is used of service . . . in the tabernacle (Vine 1021); the worshippers [who are concerned with the rituals prescribed by the law] (Arndt 467); from which who serve the Tabernacle (Lenski 481); at which the ministers of the Jewish tent of worship (Williams).
[ 44 ]EX HOU PHAGEIN OUK ECHOUSIN EXOUSIAN, of which to eat have not authority (Marshall 892); ECHOUSIN is third person plural, present active indicative of ECHOO (Han 409); authority, power, right, where the right is that of being maintained by those among whom the ministers of the gospel had labored, a right possessed in virtue of the "authority" given them by Christ (Vine 969); freedom of choice, right to act . . . have the right (Arndt 277); power of choice, liberty of doing as one pleases; leave or permission . . . with an infinitive added indicating the thing to be done (Thayer 225); they have no authority (Lenski 481); they have no authority to eat who serve the Tabernacle (Lenski 481); at which the ministers of the Jewish tent of worship have no right to eat (Williams).
[ 45 ]John the apostle knew the high priest (Joh 18:16). It has been conjectured that he was at one time a Jewish priest. Regardless of that, every priest, every person, Jew or Gentile, has the opportunity to come to Christ but he must come in faith (see Joh 1:12). In the early days of the church of Christ, "A great many of the priests were obedient to the faith" (Ac 6:7).
[ 46 ]HOON GAR ZOOOON TOUTOON TA SOOMATA, For of what animals of these the bodies (Marshall 892); bodies as a whole, instruments of life, whether of man living or of beasts; in Hebrews 13:11 the KJV and ASV translate it "beasts" ["animals" would be quite suitable] (Vine 94, 95, 128); literally, living creatures (Vincent 4.569); for of what animals of these bodies (Lenski 481); for the bodies of those animals (Williams).
[ 47 ]TO HAIMA EIS TA HAGIA DIA TOU ARCHIEREOOS, the blood into the holies through the high priest (Marshall 892); of the blood of animals (Arndt 22); the holy place, neuter plural (Vine 990, 991); the blood is brought by the high priest into the Sanctuary (Lenski 481); whose blood is taken into the sanctuary by the priest (Williams).
[ 48 ]PERI HAMARTIAS, concerning sins (Marshall 892); for sin; the RV, "as an offering" is added to complete the sacrificial meaning of PERI (Vine 803); for sin (Lenski 481); as a sin-offering (Williams).
[ 49 ]KATAKAIETAI EXOO TEES PAREMBOLEES, is [are] burned outside the camp (Marshall 892); KATAKAIETAI is third person singular, present passive indicative of KATAKAIOO (Han 409); [KATA down, intensive, KAIOO, to set fire to, to light], signifies to burn up, burn utterly, as of chaff; PAREMBOLEES is literally a casting in among, an insertion [PARA among, BALLOO to throw]; in the Macedonian dialect, was a military term. In the NT it denotes the distribution of troops in army formation, "armies," Hebrews 11:34 . . . hence in Hebrews 13:22, 13, of Jerusalem, since the city was to the Jews what the camp in the wilderness had been to the Israelites (Vine 68, 151); are burned outside the camp (Lenski 481; Williams).
[ 50 ]DIO KAI 'IEESOUS, Wherefore indeed Jesus (Marshall 892); wherefore also Jesus (Lenski 484); so Jesus too (Williams).
[ 51 ]HINA HAGIASEE TON LAON, in order that he might sanctify the people (Marshall 892); HAGIASEE is third person singular, first aorist active subjunctive of HAGIAZOO (Han 409); HAGIAZEIN to sanctify had a peculiar significance to Jews. It meant to set them apart as holy. Hence, the Israelites were called HAGIOI, as separated from other nations and consecrated to God (Vincent 4.569); sanctification is that relationship with God into which men enter by faith in Christ, Acts 26:18; 1 Corinthians 6:11, and to which their sole title is the death of Christ (Vine 989); in order that he might sanctify the people (Lenski 484); in order to purify the people (Williams).
[ 52 ]KATESKEUASMENON, having been prepared (Marshall 220); prepared, made ready [KATA used intensively, SKEUEE equipment] (Vine 877); .
[ 53 ]DIA TOU IDIOU HAIMATOS, through the [his] own blood (Marshall 892); in contrast with the blood of animal sacrifices (Vincent 4.569); by means of his own blood (Lenski 484); by His own blood (Williams).
[ 54 ]EPATHEN, suffered (Marshall 892; Lenski 484; Williams); EPATHEN is third person singular, second aorist active indicative of PASCHOO (Han 409); suffered, of [Christ's] expiatory and vicarious sacrifice for sin (Vine 1103).
[ 55 ]EXOO TEES PULEES, outside the gate (Marshall 892; Williams); literally, for a larger sort of gate, in the wall either of a city or palace or temple . . . [burial places were outside the gate of cities] (Vine 471); gate is substituted for camp (verse 11), as more appropriate to a city (Vincent 4.570); outside of the gate (Lenski 484).
[ 56 ]TOINUN, So (Marshall 892); [from the enclitic TOI and NUN], therefore, then, accordingly (Thayer 627); now then (Lenski 484); therefore (Williams).
[ 57 ]EXERCHOOMETHA PROS AUTON EXOO TEES PAREMBOLEES, let us go forth to him outside the camp (Marshall 892, 893); EXERCHOOMETHA is first person plural, present middle subjunctive of EXERCHOMAI (Han 409); in the Macedonian dialect, a military term. In the NT it denotes the distribution of troops in army formation, "armies," Hebrews 11:34 . . . hence in Hebrews 13:22, 13, of Jerusalem, since the city was to the Jews what the camp in the wilderness had been to the Israelites (Vine 68, 151); let us be going out to him outside of the camp (Lenski 484); let us go to Him outside the camp (Williams).
[ 58 ]TON ONEIDISMON AUTOU PHERONTES, the reproach of him bearing (Marshall 893); PHERONTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of PHEROO (Han 409); the reproach of exclusion from the Jewish commonwealth (Vincent 4.570); bringing or bearing [His] reproach, defamation (Vine 93, 954); reproach, such as Christ suffered [for the cause of God, from its enemies] (Thayer 447); reproach, reviling, disgrace, insult (Arndt 570); bearing his reproach! (Lenski 484); enduring the reproach that He endured (Williams).
[ 59 ]OU GAR ECHOMEN HOODE MENOUSAN POLIN, for not we have here a continuing city (Marshall 893); ECHOMEN is first person plural, present active indicative of ECHOO; MENOUSAN is the present active participle, accusative singular feminine of MENOO (Han 409); here, on earth (Vincent 4.570); [no] abiding city (Vine 2); ;for we have here no continuing city (Lenski 484); for we have no permanent city here (Williams).
[ 60 ]ALLA TEEN MELLOUSAN EPIZEETOUMEN, but the [one] coming we seek (Marshall 893); MELLOUSAN is the present active participle, accusative singular feminine of MELLOO; EPIZEETOUMEN is first person plural, present active indicative of EPIZEETEOO (Han 409); that which is to come, the heavenly Jerusalem (Vincent 4.570); of the heavenly Jerusalem, the abode and community of the redeemed, seeking after [directive, EPI towards] (Vine 186, 1012); one that is to come, the "city with foundations" for which Abraham looked [see Heb 11:10] (Littrell); but we are seeking the one about to come (Lenski 484); but we are searching for that city which is to be ours (Williams).
[ 61 ]DI' AUTOU OUN, Through him therefore (Marshall 893; Lenski 487); [OUN], through him [omit therefore] (Vincent 4.571); so then, through Christ (Williams).
[ 62 ]ANAPHEROOMEN DIA PANTOS, let us offer up always (Marshall 893); ANAPHEROOMEN is first person plural, present active subjunctive of ANAPHEROO (Han 409); literally, bring up the offering to the altar (Vincent 4.571); primarily, to lead or carry up [ANA], also denotes to offer . . . of praise (Vine 803). used of a period throughout or during which anything is done . . . of the constant sacrifice of praise enjoined upon believers (Vine 227); let us keep offering up (Lenski 487); let us always offer (Williams).
[ 63 ]THUSIAN AINESEOOS TOO THEOO, a sacrifice of praise to God (Marshall 893); praise [to God], metaphorically represented as a sacrificial offering (Vine 870); the Levitical term for a thank-offering; render a sacrifice (Vincent 4.572); sacrifice of praise constantly to God (Lenski 487); God the sacrifice of praise (Williams).
[ 64 ]Cohen 82.
[ 65 ]Pesikta 79a; Cohen 355.
[ 66 ]TOUT' ESTIN KARPON CHEILEOON, this is fruit of lips (Marshall 893); ESTIN is third person singular, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 409); omit our. From Hosea 14:3, where the Hebrew reads, "we will account our lips as calves" [offered in sacrifice] (Vincent 4.572); of the effect of making confession to God's Name by the sacrifice of praise (Vine 464); that is, fruit of lips (Lenski 487); that is, the speech of lips [literally, fruit of lips that confess, etc.] (Williams).
[ 67 ]HOMOLOGOUNTOON TOO ONOMATI AUTOU, confessing to the name of him (Marshall 893); HOMOLOGOUNTOON is the present active participle, genitive plural masculine of HOMOLOGEOO (Han 409); of lips which make confession to his name (Vincent 4.572); literally, speak the same thing [HOMOS same, LEGOO to speak] . . . confess by way of celebrating with praise (Vine 216). speaking as he speaks [from HOMOLEGEOO to speak in accordance with, adopt the same terms of language, to promise, to admit, to avow frankly, to profess, confess, etc.]. We glorify God when we "speak as the word of God" (1Pe 4:11). Christians are to do everything in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to the Father through him [Col 3:17] (Littrell); confessing his name (Lenski 487); that glorify the name of God (Williams).
[ 68 ]TEES DE EUTOIIAS KAI KOINOONIAS MEE EPILANTHANESTHE, But of the doing good and sharing be ye not forgetful (Marshall 893); EPILANTHANESTHE is second person plural, present middle imperative of EPILANTHANOMAI (Han 409); literally, but be not forgetful of doing good and communicating (Vincent 4.572); forget or neglect [EPI upon, used intensively, LANTHANOO to escape notice], of believers, as to doing good and communicating (Vine 452); moreover, the doing good and fellowship do not be forgetting (Lenski 487); and stop neglecting to do good and to be generous (Williams).
[ 69 ]Littrell.

[ 70 ]TOIAUTAIS GAR THUSIAIS EUARESTEITAI HO THEOS, with such for sacrifices is well pleased God (Marshall 893); EUARESTEITAI is third person singular, present passive indicative of EUARESTEOO (Han 409); [EU well, ARESTOS pleasing], well-pleased (Vine 12, 1221); for with such sacrifices God is well pleased (Lenski 487); for God is highly pleased with just such sacrifices as these (Williams).
[ 71 ]PEITHESTHE TOIS HEEGOUMENOIS HUMOON, Obey ye the [ones] leading of you (Marshall 893); PEITHESTHE is second person plural, present middle imperative of PEITHOO; HEEGOUMENOIS is the present middle participle, dative plural masculine of HEEGEOMAI (Han 409); in the middle voice, be persuaded, listen to, obey [those who are] your guides (Vine 796, 979); be obedient to your leading ones (Lenski 489); continue to obey your leaders (Williams).
[ 72 ]KAI HUPEIKETE, and submit to [them] (Marshall 893); HUPEIKETE is second person plural, present active imperative of HUPEIKOO (Han 409); [HUPO under, EIKOO to yield], hence, yield, submit, used metaphorically of submitting to spiritual guides in the churches (Vine 1100); and submit (Lenski 489); and to be submissive (Williams).
[ 73 ]AUTOI GAR AGRUPNOUSIN, for they watch (Marshall 893); AGRUPNOUSIN is third person plural, present active indicative of AGRUPNEOO (Han 409); are sleepless [from AGREUOO to chase, HUPNOS sleep], used metaphorically, are watchful (Vine 1213); for they are watching (Lenski 489); for they are ever watching (Williams).
[ 74 ]HUPER TOON PSUCHOON HUMOON, on behalf of the souls of you (Marshall 893); [souls] is the equivalent of the personal pronoun, used for emphasis and effect (Vine 1067); over your souls (Lenski 489); in defense of your souls (Williams).
[ 75 ]HOOS LOGON APODOOSONTES, as account rendering (Marshall 893); APODOOSONTES is the future active participle, nominative plural masculine of APODIDOOMI (Han 410); APODOOSONTES signifies will give up or back, restore, return, render what is due, pay, given an account [APO back, DIDOOMI to give], of an account. LOGOS, a word or saying, also means an account which one gives by word of mouth (Vine 17, 478); as having duly to give account (Lenski 489); as men who will have to give account of their trust (Williams).
[ 76 ]HINA META CHARAS TOUTO POIOOSIN, in order that with joy this they may do (Marshall 893); POIOOSIN is third person plural, present active subjunctive of POIEOO (Han 410); so that they may do this with joy (Lenski 489); treat them in this way [this clause implied from imperatives in previous sentence] so that they may work with joy (Williams).
[ 77 ]NIV.
[ 78 ]NEB.
[ 79 ]KAI MEE STENAZONTES, and not groaning (Marshall 893); STENAZONTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of STENAZOO (Han 410); literally, [not with] groaning (Vincent 4.572); groaning [of an inward, unexpressed feeling of sorrow] (Vine 508); and not as groaning (Lenski 489); and not with grief (Williams).
[ 80 ]ALUSITELES GAR HUMIN TOUTO, for profitless to you this [would be] (Marshall 893); [from A not, LUSITELEES paying for expenses]; hence, what does not pay; unprofitable (Vincent 4.572); not advantageous, not making good the expense involved [LUSITELEES useful] (Vine 1185); for this is unadvantageous for you (Lenski 489).
[ 81 ]PROSEUCHESTHE PERI HEEMOON, Pray ye concerning us (Marshall 893); PROSEUCHESTHE is second person plural, present middle imperative of PROSEUCHOMAI (Han 410); pray, always used of prayer to God, the most frequent word in this respect, especially in the Synoptists and Acts (Vine 871); be praying for us! (Lenski 491); pray for me (Williams).
[ 82 ]PEITHOMETHA GAR HOTI KALEEN SUNEIDEESIN ECHOMEN, we are persuaded for that a good conscience we have (Marshall 893); PEITHOMETHA is first person plural, present passive indicative of PEITHOO; ECHOMEN is first person plural, present active indicative of ECHOO (Han 410); conscience [SUN with, OIDA to know], that is, a co-knowledge [with oneself], the witness borne to one's conduct by conscience, that faculty by which we apprehend the will of God, as that which is designed to govern our lives (Vine 220); for we are persuaded that we have a good conscience (Lenski 491); for I am sure that I have a clear conscience (Williams).
[ 83 ]EN PASIN KALOOS THELONTES ANASTREPHESTHAI, in all [respects] well wishing to behave (Marshall 893); THELONTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of THELOO; ANASTREPHESTHAI is the present middle infinitive of ANASTREPHOO (Han 410); used metaphorically, in the middle voice, to conduct [ourselves], behave, live goodly, fairly (Vine 562, 679); in wanting to conduct ourselves well in every way (Lenski 491); in everything I want to live a noble life (Williams).
[ 84 ]PERISSOTEROOS DE PARAKALOO TOUTO POIEESAI, And more abundantly I beseech [you] this to do (Marshall 893); PARAKALOO is first person singular, present active indicative of PARAKALEOO; POIEESAI is the first aorist active infinitive of POIEOO (Han 410); admonish, exhort, urge to pursue some course of conduct [always prospective, looking to the future, in contrast to the meaning to comfort, which is retrospective, having to do with trial experienced]. PERISSOTEROOS is the neuter of the comparative degree of PERISSOS more abundant, used as an adverb "more" (Vine 390, 754); moreover I urge you the more to do this (Lenski 491); and more especially do I beg you to do so (Williams).
[ 85 ]HINA APOKATASTATHOO HUMIN, in order that I may be restored to you (Marshall 893; Lenski 491); APOKATASTATHOO is first person singular, first aorist passive subjunctive of APOKATHISTEEMI (Han 410); not implying imprisonment, but enforced absence through sickness or other causes (Vincent 4.573); of giving or bring a person back (Vine 962); that I may be brought back to you (Williams).
[ 86 ]TACHION, sooner (Marshall 893); more swiftly, more quickly: in comparison; with the suppression of the second member of the comparison [sooner, namely, than would be the case without your prayers for me (Thayer 616); the more quickly (Lenski 491); very soon (Williams).
[ 87 ]In my judgment, verse 23 does not necessarily imply that the writer was in prison at the time.
[ 88 ]HO DE THEOS TEES EIREENEES, Now the God of peace (Marshall 893; Lenski 493); the phrase signifies God who is the author and giver of peace (Vincent 4.573); the corresponding Hebrew word SHALOM primarily signifies wholeness (Vine 842); May God, who gives us peace (Williams).
[ 89 ]HO ANAGAGOON EK NEKROON TON KURION HEEMOON 'IEESOUN, the [one] having led up out of [the dead] the Lord of us Jesus (Marshall 893, 894); ANAGAGOON is the second aorist active participle, nominative singular masculine of ANAGOO (Han 410); brought up . . . the verb often as a nautical term, to bring a vessel up from the land to the deep water; to put to sea (Vincent 4.573); brought again (Vine 144); the One who brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus (Lenski 493); who brought back from the dead our Lord Jesus (Williams).
[ 90 ]TON POIMENA TOON PROBATOON TON MEGAN, the shepherd of the sheep the great (Marshall 893, 894); the Greek order is, "the shepherd of the sheep the great [shepherd]," (Vincent 4.573); great in rank; shepherd, metaphorically, of Christ (Vine 504, 1032); the great Shepherd of the sheep (Lenski 493); is now the Great Shepherd of the sheep (Williams).
[ 91 ]EN HAIMATI DIATHEEKEES AIOONIOU, in [?with] blood covenant of an eternal (Marshall 894); God's decree or covenant directed toward the Christians, without end (Arndt 28, 183); in connection with blood of an eternal testament (Lenski 493); who through the blood by which He ratified the everlasting covenant (Williams).
[ 92 ]KATARTISAI HUMAS, may he adjust you (Marshall 894); KATARTISAI is the first aorist active infinitive of KATARTIZOO (Han 410); the verb is aptly chosen, since the readers are addressed as a body--the flock of Christ. The prayer is for the complete mutual adjustment of all the members of the flock into a perfected whole, fitted to do the perfect will of God (Vincent 4.574); render fit, complete [ARTIOS complete, capable, proficient, able to meet all demands], indicates the pastor's desire for the flock, in prayer (Vine 847); put into a proper condition or make complete (Bruce 412); make quite ready, put in order, make complete . . . adjust, strengthen and rectify the powers of the soul as to thoroughly fit and prepare it for God's service (R. Milligan 384); may he fit you out (Lenski 493); perfectly fit you (Williams).
[ 93 ]EN PANTI AGATHOO, in every good thing (Marshall 894); in every good thing, with everything good (Vincent 4.574); in every good thing (Lenski 493).
[ 94 ]EIS TO POIEESAI TO THELEEMA AUTOU, for the to do the will of him (Marshall 894); POIEESAI is the first aorist active infinitive of POIEOO (Han 410); to the end that you do, etc. (Vincent 4.574); to do his will (Lenski 493; Williams).
[ 95 ]POIOON EN HEEMIN, doing in us (Marshall 894); POIOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of POIEOO (Han 410); in us; Received Text has HUMIN you. For working render doing. The word plays on POIEESAI to do. "Make you perfect to do his will, he doing in us what is well-pleasing in his sight" (Vincent 4.575); he doing in you (Lenski 493); accomplishing through you (Williams).
[ 96 ]TO EUARESTON ENOOTION AUTOU, the [thing] wellpleasing before him (Marshall 894); [EU well, ARESKOO to be pleasing], passive voice, well-pleasing (Vine 860); the thing well-pleasing in his sight (Lenski 493); what is pleasing to Him (Williams).
[ 97 ]DIA 'IEESOU CHRISTOU, through Jesus Christ (Marshall 894; Lenski 493; Williams).
[ 98 ]This is not to say that God does not take note of deeds of kindness and even prayers offered by non-Christians (see Ac 10:2, 4, 31).
[ 99 ]HOO HEE DOXA EIS TOUS AIOONAS TOON AIOONOON, to whom [be] the glory unto the ages of the ages (Marshall 894); to whom the glory for the eons of the eons! (Lenski 493); [TOON AIOONOON], to whom be the glory unto the ages of the ages, forever and ever (Littrell); to Him be glory forever and ever (Williams).
[ 100 ]AMEEN, Amen (Marshall 894; Lenski 493; Williams); at the close of a sentence; so it is, so be it, may it be fulfilled (Thayer 32).
[ 101 ]PARAKALOO DE HUMAS, ADELPHOI, And I beseech you brothers (Marshall 894); PARAKALOO is first person singular, present active indicative of PARAKALEOO (Han 410); now I urge you, brethren (Lenski 497); I beg you, brothers (Williams).
[ 102 ]ANECHESTHE TOU LOGOU TEES PARAKLEESEOOS, endure the word of beseeching (Marshall 894); ANECHESTHE is second person plural, present middle imperative of ANECHOMAI (Han 410); bear with. Do not become impatient at my counsels in this letter. The word of exhortation refers to the entire epistle which he regards as hortatory rather than didactic or consolatory (Vincent 4.575); [PARA to the side, KALEOO to call], admonish, exhort, urge (Vine 390). LOGOU (LOGOS) is often used of a speech, discourse, letter (Littrell); to bear with this word of urging (Lenski 497); to listen patiently to this message (Williams).
[ 103 ]KAI GAR EPESTEILA HUMIN, for indeed I wrote to you (Marshall 894); EPESTEILA is first person singular, first aorist active indicative of EPISTELLOO (Han 410); I have written unto you (Vincent 4.575); for I have written to you (Lenski 497); for I have written you (Williams).
[ 104 ]DIA BRACHEOON, through few [words] (Marshall 894); a suggestion of apology. Do not grow impatient. The letter is short (Vincent 4.575); briefly (Lenski 497); only a short letter (Williams).
[ 105 ]GINOOSKETE, Know ye (Marshall 894; Thayer 117); second person plural, present active indicative or imperative of GINOOSKOO (Han 410); you know (Lenski 497); you must know (Williams).
[ 106 ]TON ADELPHON HEEMOON TIMOTHEON, the brother of us Timothy (Marshall 894); our brother Timothy (Littrell); that our brother Timothy (Lenski 497); that our brother Timothy (Williams).
[ 107 ]APOLELUMENON, having been released (Marshall 894); is the perfect passive participle, accusative singular masculine of APOLUOO (Han 410); of releasing from confinement (Vincent 4.575); has left (Lenski 497); has been released from prison (Williams).
[ 108 ]METH' HOU EAN TACHION ERCHEETAI OPSOMAI HUMAS, with whom if sooner I come I will see you (Marshall 894); ERCHEETAI is third person singular, present middle subjunctive of ERCHOMAI; OPSOMAI is first person singular, future middle indicative of ORAOO (Han 410); with whom, as soon as he comes, I will see you (Lenski 497); if he comes soon, he and I will see you together (Williams).
[ 109 ]The Hebrew writer of a letter sometimes puts himself in the place of his readers. Most first year Greek students are familiar with the epistolary aorist tense in which this is done. Does he intend to say if Timothy comes to the writer, or if he comes to the readers?
[ 110 ]ASPASASTHE PANTAS TOUS HEEGOUMENOUS HUMOON, Greet ye all the [ones] leading of you (Marshall 894); ASPASASTHE is second person plural, first aorist middle imperative of ASPAZOMAI; HEEGOUMENOUS is the present middle participle, accusative plural masculine of HEEGEOMAI (Han 410); the verb is used as a technical term for conveying greetings at the close of a letter, often by an amanuensis (Vine 508); leaders [from HEEGEOMAI lead, rule, be chief speaker], here and in verse 17 it apparently relates to elders (Littrell); salute all your leading ones (Lenski 499); remember us to all your leaders (Williams).
[ 111 ]KAI PANTAS TOUS HAGIOUS, and all the saints (Marshall 894; Lenski 499); this appellation is very often in the NT, transferred to Christians, as those whom God has selected . . . partakers of salvation in the kingdom of God (Thayer 7); and to all the Christians [Greek, to all the saints] (Williams).
[ 112 ]'ASPAZONTAI HUMAS HOI APO TEES 'ITALIAS, greet you the [ones] from Italy (Marshall 894); 'ASPAZONTAI is third person plural, present middle indicative of ASPAZOMAI (Han 410); an article followed by a participle is generally best translated into English by a pronoun followed by a relative clause (Nunn 71); may mean "those who are in Italy send greeting from Italy" or "those of Italy [Italian Christians with the writer at the time] send greeting" from the place at which the letter is being written (Vincent 4.576). used as a technical term for conveying greetings at the close of a letter, often by an amanuensis [secretary] (Vine 505); salute, greet, bid welcome, wish well to (Thayer 81); there salute you those from Italy (Lenski 499); the Christians from Italy wish to be remembered to you (Williams).
[ 113 ]R. Milligan 386.
[ 114 ]HEE CHARIS META PANTOON HUMOON, Grace [be] with all you (Marshall 894); the apostles and NT writers at the beginning and end of their epistles crave for their readers the favor ["grace"] of God or of Christ, to which all blessings, especially spiritual, are due (Thayer 666); the [divine] grace with you all (Lenski 500); God's spiritual blessings be with you all (Williams).
[ 115 ]AMEN, Amen (Lenski 500; Williams); so be it, be it so; Amen.

Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Ridgefield, Washington, U.S.A.
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The basic text, and all quotations not designated otherwise, are from the New King James Version, copyrighted ©1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. All rights reserved. Used by permission. Bracketed alternatives are drawn from various sources such as the ASV, Darby, KJV and RSV. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.

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