The Letter to the Hebrews
Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Ridgefield,
Chapter two[ 1 ] begins with an admonition to give more earnest heed to the gospel
of Christ. Although, in chapter 1, Christ was described as being above angels, He
now is shown to have been lower than they were for the suffering of death in order
that He might bring many to glory (see Heb 1:1-14; chart HEBREWS 2
HEBREWS 2 OUTLINE
1. Give more earnest heed to the gospel
2. Christ became lower than angels for the
suffering of death (Heb 2:5-9).
3. Bringing many to glory (Heb 2:10-18).
GIVE HEED TO GOD'S WORD
2:1 Therefore we must give the more earnest heed to the things we have
heard, lest we drift away.
Therefore [for this reason thus].[ 2 ] The Old Law was "appointed through
angels" (Ga 3:19). In Hebrews 1, Christ was presented as God's spokesman,
superior to angels. Chapter 1 closed with the word "salvation." "Therefore" or
"For this reason" alludes to the greatness of Christ in connection God's revelation
through Him. His revealed word necessitates earnest consideration, unfeigned
reverence and careful obedience makes salvation sure.
PAY CLOSE ATTENTION TO NT TEACHING
1. Because the Son of God has spoken (Heb 1:2).
2. Because He is better than angels (Heb 1:4).
3. Because He made purification of sins (Heb 1:3, 4).
We must [we ought to].[ 3 ] In the NT age, more is now given and more is
required (Lu 12:48). How important is it that Christians hold true to God's NT
revelation? Very important. It is a life and death matter, a heaven and hell issue!
(see chart PAY CLOSE ATTENTION TO NT TEACHING). In the NT age, men
and women are obligated to pay close attention to the better covenant. Gone are
the days when God overlooked man's ignorance (Ac 17:30).
Give the more earnest heed [pay the closer attention, more carefully
observe].[ 4 ] The Greek for "give heed" or "pay attention" is a nautical term. The
crew (Christians) need to pay very close attention to the Pilot (Christ) in order
operate the ship. Careful handling is necessary lest the vessel drift past the
harbor. The OT contains a similar admonition:
Only take heed to yourself, and diligently keep yourself, lest you forget the
things your eyes have seen, and lest they depart from your heart all the days
of your life. And teach them to your children and your grandchildren (De
Jews who had obeyed the gospel are hereby warned to give heed to Christ's
teaching. In a broad sense, the admonition applies to all. All Christians should
pay close attention to the Lord's revealed word. The subject of salvation is
eternally important. It is not enough to let His message go into one ear and out
the other. To do so is to fail to benefit from the word's saving power (Lu 8:12;
Ro 1:16; Heb 10:39). All believers need to "give the more earnest heed" to the
revealed word of God. This implies that they must believe it intently, study it
reverently, and follow it carefully. The reason is that their very souls are at stake
To the things we have heard [to what, the things, that were, which we have,
heard].[ 5 ] The Jewish Christians being addressed had heard the gospel.
Furthermore, they had obeyed it (Heb 5:8, 9).
DANGER OF APOSTASY
1. Lest we drift away (Heb 2:1).
2. Lest there be in any of you an evil heart of
unbelief in departing from the living God
3. Once enlightened . . . fall away
4. May draw back to perdition (Heb 10:39).
Lest we drift away [lest haply, lest at any time, we drift away from it, from
them, we should let them slip, to keep from drifting away].[ 6 ] In the summer
of 1945, soon after the writer graduated from Soldan High School in St. Louis, he
went swimming in the Merrimac River and lost something very important to him.
After several minutes in the water, he felt his new high-school ring slip right off
a water-soaked finger to be lost forever in the swift, dark water. Giving earnest
heed could have saved the ring. Giving the more earnest heed provides safety
from drifting or slipping.
WHY CHRISTIANS DRIFT
1. In Christ, but not anchored in Him.
2. Strong, powerful tides and surges tug against
the soul's safety.
3. Failure to diligently develop and defend one's faith.
4. Preoccupation with incidental and secondary things.
5. Blindness to a gradual, almost imperceptible
departure from truth. (Adapted from Coffman 37, 38)
Most translations follow a meaning of the Greek that suggests a picture of a boat
drifting aimlessly away from its course. A vessel with a sleeping pilot and crew
is no better than an unmanned ship.
One does not just push a canoe into a swift river and expect it to land on the
other side at a designated point. He must get into it, carefully steer and paddle
vigorously in order to reach the targeted destination. The metaphor is strong. It
implies that carelessly drifting Christians may lose his or her hope of heaven
entirely. Giving more earnest heed to the word of God will prevent drifting away
from that goal.
WORD SPOKEN BY ANGELS
1. He came with ten thousands of saints; from
His right hand came a fiery law for them
2. Received the law by the direction of angels
and have not kept it (Ac 7:53).
3. It was appointed through angels by the hand of
a mediator (Ga 3:19).
WARNING: RESPECT THE UNALTERABLE WORD
2:2-4 For if the word spoken through angels proved steadfast, and every
transgression and disobedience received a just reward, 3 how shall we escape
if we neglect so great a salvation, which at the first began to be spoken by the
Lord, and was confirmed to us by those who heard Him, 4
bearing witness both with signs and wonders, with various miracles, and gifts
of the Holy Spirit, according to His own will?
For if.[ 7 ] These two words introduce the reason for giving heed to the word of
THE STEADFAST LAW
1. Was steadfast (Heb 2:2).
2. Jews were to take heed to it (De 4:9).
3. Every transgression and disobedience
received a just reward (Heb 2:2; Le 10:1-7).
4. How shall we escape if we neglect the gospel
The word spoken through angels [the message declared by angels].[ 8 ] The
word spoken by angels was the OT Law (see Heb 12:22). It was inferior to that
revealed by the Son of God (Heb 1:2).
1. Give more earnest heed to the Word (Heb 2:1-4).
2. Harden not your hearts (Heb 3:7-19).
3. Show the same diligence . . . until the end
4. A fearful thing to fall into the hands of the
living God (Heb 10:26-31).
5. Looking diligently lest anyone fall short of the
grace of God (Heb 12:15).
Proved steadfast [proved valid, unalterable].[ 9 ] The Law proved sure and
steadfast. The superior gospel spoken by the Lord has been confirmed. It is more
sure (see 2Pe 1:19).
1. the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against
all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who
suppress the truth in unrighteousness (Ro 1:18).
2. With most of them God was not well pleased
(1Co 10:5, 6).
3. Could not enter because of unbelief (Heb 3:19).
4. Anyone who has rejected Moses' law dies without
mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses
And every transgression.[ 10 ] A transgression is an overt violation of a
But the person who does anything presumptuously, whether he is native-born or a stranger, that one brings reproach on the LORD, and he shall be
cut off from among his people. 31 Because he has despised the word of the
LORD, and has broken His commandment, that person shall be completely
cut off; his guilt shall be upon him (Nu 15:30, 31).
OT DISOBEDIENCE PUNISHED
1. Generation died in wilderness (Nu 14:29; Heb 3:17).
2. Sabbath breaker stoned (Nu 15:32-36).
3. Moses not permitted to enter Canaan (Nu 20:12).
4. Achan put to death (Jos 7:24-26).
5. Saul rejected from being king (1Sa 15:22, 23).
6. Disobedient prophet slain by lion (1Ki 13:24).
7. David forbidden to build temple (1Ch 22:8; 28:3).
The OT penalty for overt violation was harsh, hard and severe. That punishment
was according to the Law ordained through angels. The NT revelation was spoken
through the Son of God. It demands more attention than the old.
And disobedience [or disobedience].[ 11 ] Disobedience, in OT days, resulted
from carelessness, indifference, or simply failure to hear and heed the Law of
Moses. The same attitudes lead toward disobedience for Christians (see chart OT
Received a just reward [received a just retribution, recompense, recompense
of reward, received a just punishment].[ 12 ] The Israelites in the wilderness were
impartially but severely punished. They received the retribution that was due
them(see chart JUST REWARD).
THE PERIL OF NEGLECT
[2:3] How shall we escape? [how can we escape, what escape can there
be?].[ 13 ] This, together with verse 4, has been used by some to try to disprove the
Pauline authorship of Hebrews. They say he could not have written such a thing.
Although I am not sure he wrote it, in my judgment, the argument is far from
being sound. They say correctly that Paul had not drifted. However, so much
stress need not be placed on language intended to be more tactful than technical.
It is not necessary to include the writer of Hebrews as a participant in the peril of
WHY DOES GOD PUNISH SIN?
1. He is absolutely holy.
2. He hates evil.
3. He is perfectly just.
The point is that Christians have a greater reason not to neglect the message of
the Son of God than those who were under the Law. If God's people neglect the
gospel, there is no escaping His wrath.
For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and
unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness (Ro
For if we sin willfully after we have received the knowledge of the truth,
there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins (Heb 10:26).
Of how much worse punishment, do you suppose, will he be thought worthy
who has trampled the Son of God underfoot, counted the blood of the
covenant by which he was sanctified a common thing, and insulted the Spirit
of grace? (Heb 10:29).
It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God (Heb 10:31).
See that you do not refuse Him who speaks. For if they did not escape who
refused Him who spoke on earth, much more shall we not escape if we turn
away from Him who speaks from heaven (Heb 12:25).
HOW SHALL WE ESCAPE?
[OTHERS DID NOT]
1. Adam and Eve driven from Eden.
2. The great flood.
3. Sodom and Gomorrah.
4. Angels that sinned.
5. Destruction of Jerusalem.
HOW BAD IS NEGLECT?
If we neglect.[ 14 ] Neglect is an attitude of little respect or poor regard for
something. Neglect is bad because it slights the Author of salvation Himself.
Indifference to NT revelation will lead to the loss of one's soul. One need not
purposefully decide to serve Satan or willfully commit some scandalous crime to
be lost. It is not necessary to persecute the church or debate against the truth.
Carelessness is all it takes. One need not intentionally turn his back on Christ to
be judged a sinner. Neglect of the truth and one's duty is sufficient. Christians
who yield to subtle pressures and recreational temptations may wake up to find
they have become complacent and apathetic. They may drift into a relaxing,
entertaining lifestyle, while postponing spiritual growth. Awaken to this warning!
Indifference may allow activities not wicked in themselves to elbow aside those
that are fundamental and essential. "Good understanding gains favor, but the way
of the unfaithful is hard" (Pr 13:15). Negligence is effortless but missing heaven
So great a salvation [such a great salvation, so great salvation].[ 15 ] Salvation
is essentially a NT word. The great salvation was spoken by the Lord Himself.
It is in His name alone (Ac 4:12). It is made possible only by His sacrifice (Heb
10:4, 10). The great salvation provides absolute forgiveness of sins and promises
eternal life in heaven.
THE GREAT SALVATION
1. Spoken by the Lord (Heb 2:3).
2. Confirmed (Heb 2:3, 4).
3. Made possible by Christ's death (Heb 2:9).
WHY SALVATION IS GREAT
1. Great adversary, the devil.
2. Great love of God.
3. Reality, not just types and shadows.
4. Christ, the great Savior.
5. Great salvation from great sin.
6. The great Gospel plan.
7. For all the world.
8. Great heavenly reward.
9. A great and innumerable multitude saved (Re 7:9).
Which [it, it was].[ 16 ]
THINGS NOT SPOKEN BY THE LORD
1. Salvation by faith only.
2. Sprinkling for baptism.
3. Baptizing babies.
4. Confessing sins to a robed priest.
6. Earthly church headquarters.
7. Water instead of fruit of the vine in communion.
At the first began to be spoken by the Lord [at first, having at the first, was
declared, been spoken, spoken at first, through the Lord].[ 17 ] The speaking of
salvation was first done by the Lord Jesus Christ. He spoke of entering the
kingdom of heaven (Mt 7:21), being born again (Joh 3:3, 5) and believing and
being saved (Lu 8:12; see also Mt 7:24-27; 28:18-20; Joh 6:68; 14:26; 16:13; Heb
1:2). Jesus said:
Now everyone who hears these sayings of Mine, and does not do them, will
be like a foolish man who built his house on the sand (Mt 7:26).
Jesus' apostles taught new Christians to observe all that He commanded (Mt
28:20). Peter acknowledged, "You have words of eternal life" (Joh 6:68). Today
we have the message of the Lord in the NT written by apostles and prophets.
Jesus said to them:
He who hears you hears Me, he who rejects you rejects Me, and he who
rejects Me rejects Him who sent Me (Lu 10:16; compare Mt 10:40; Joh
SALVATION AS TAUGHT BY JESUS
1. Hear (Mt 7:24; Lu 6:46-49).
2. Believe (Joh 3:16, 36; 8:24).
4. Repent (Lu 13:3).
5. Confess (Mt 10:32).
6. Be baptized (Mk 16:16; Joh 3:5).
7. Be faithful (Mt 25:23).
And was confirmed to us [and it was attested unto us].[ 18 ] The OT law was
BEBAIOS unalterable (verse 2). The NT message is EBEBAIOOTHEE
confirmed. Its divine origin was attested. It was proved true. The apostles were
eyewitnesses of the Christ. They were granted the power to perform miracles for
the purpose of confirming the word (see note on verse 4). Their verbal testimony
of His resurrection, backed up by clean lives and their own martyrdom, proved the
truth of the message.
1. Word confirmed by signs (Mk 16:20).
2. Christ confirmed promises (Ro 15:8).
3. Testimony of Christ confirmed by gifts (1Co 1:6).
4. Saints confirmed to the end by Christ (1Co 1:8).
5. God confirms (establishes) in Christ (2Co 1:21).
6. The salvation spoken through the Lord confirmed
by apostles (Heb 2:3).
7. The heart confirmed by grace (Heb 13:19).
THE WORD CONFIRMED
(Heb 2:3, 4)
1. By God:
a. Signs, wonders, various miracles (Mk 16:20;
2. By the Holy Spirit:
a. Witnessing (Ac 5:32)
b. Gifts of the Holy Spirit (Heb 2:4).
2. By witnesses:
a. By ear witnesses (Ac 2:32; 3:15; Heb 2:3).
b. By eye and ear witnesses (Ac 4:20).
WHAT "TO US" DOES NOT PROVE
Was the gospel confirmed to the Hebrew writer personally by those who heard?
Does he imply that he, in particular, was a second generation Christian? Could
not the gospel have been confirmed just as much to a first or third generation
saint? What difference did it make whether one was present in Galilee or Judea to
hear Christ personally? Since the Holy Spirit inspired the message, could not He
have merely used discreet language in order to appeal to those in jeopardy of
apostasy? Several times in the book of Hebrews similar language is used to make
a gentle appeal. Consider the "Let us" passages (see chart LET US).
1. Let us fear lest any come short (Heb 4:1).
2. Let us come boldly to throne of grace (Heb 4:16).
3. Let us go on to perfection (Heb 6:1).
4. Let us draw near with a true heart (Heb 10:22).
5. Let us consider one another (Heb 10:24).
6. Let us lay aside every weight (Heb 12:1).
7. Let us continually offer the sacrifice of praise
By those who heard Him [by them that heard, that heard him].[ 19 ] Disciples
who actually walked with the Lord and heard Him speak confirmed the word by
their testimony. Except for Judas, there were no defectors among the apostles.
They all faithfully proclaimed belief in and obedience to the gospel of the risen
Lord. All risked their lives for their faith.
AUTHENTICITY OF THE GOSPEL
[2:4] God also bearing witness with them [while God also bore witness,
bearing them witness, God bearing witness with them].].[ 20 ] Along with
witnesses who heard and saw, God gave additional testimony to the truth of the
gospel by supplying confirming miracles (see Mk 16:20). I do not believe that all
miracles were intended to confirm His word. In fact, various miracles are not
from God. Some originate with Satan. Jesus' depicted the judgment scene when
many shall say:
Many will say to Me in that day, "Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in
Your name, cast out demons in Your name, and done many wonders in
Your name?" (Mt 7:22).
The coming of the lawless one is according to the working of Satan, with
all power, signs, and lying wonders (2Th 1:9).
THIRD WAVE OF PENTECOSTALISM
In the Gospel Advocate, Ralph Weinhold[ 21 ] called attention to the so-called
"third wave" of Pentecostalism that sprang up in the 1980s. That effort is an
offshoot of the tongues movement or charismatic movement. The fad is
supposedly gaining momentum among evangelicals. The first wave was known as
the Pentecostal movement. The second wave was the charismatic movement.
Although the term "third wave" was coined by C. Peter Wagner of Fuller
Theological Seminary, John Wimber, pastor of Vineyard Christian Fellowship in
Anaheim, Washington is the recognized leader of the movement. Actually, the third
wave is much like the other waves. The absence of real miracles in all the waves
is quite apparent. At the forefront of the movement is a dependence upon so-called "spirit leadings" and "revelations." These "revelations" tend to discount the
perfect and complete word of God.
SOME OT CONFIRMING MIRACLES
1. Plagues of Egypt (Ex 4-12).
2. Gideon's fleece (Jg 6:36-40).
3. Jeroboam's hand withering (1Ki 13:4).
4. Fire consuming sacrifice (1Ki 18:38).
5. Elijah raising widow's son (2Ki 4:35).
6. Curing Naaman's leprosy (2Ki 5:10).
7. Healing of Hezekiah (2Ki 20:7).
SOME NT CONFIRMING MIRACLES (A)
1. Water to wine (Joh 2:9).
2. Cleansing the leper (Mt 8:3).
3. Raising Jairus' daughter, widow's son, Lazarus
(Mt 9:18; Lu 7:11; Joh 11:43, 44).
4. Feeding 5,000 (Mt 14:15).
5. Healing man born blind (Joh 9:1, 7).
SOME NT CONFIRMING MIRACLES (B)
1. Death of Ananias and Sapphira (Ac 5:1-10).
2. Blinding of Elymas (Ac 13:11).
3. Casting out a demon (Ac 16:18).
4. Raising of Dorcas, Eutychus (Ac 9:40-41; 20:9-12).
5. Foretelling future (Ac 21:10-12; 27:34).
Both by signs and wonders [by signs, both with signs and wonders].[ 22 ] Both
signs and wonders were given by God in order to successfully lead the Israelite
slaves out of Egypt. In the great sermon of Moses (De 1:6-4:40), he asked:
Or did God ever try to go and take for Himself a nation from the midst of
another nation, by trials, by signs, by wonders, by war, by a mighty hand
and an outstretched arm, and by great terrors, according to all that the
LORD your God did for you in Egypt before your eyes? (De 4:34).
Signs were to convince honest unbelievers that God was backing the word of
those who were performing the signs. Jesus performed signs and wonders for this
purpose (Ac 2:22). Nicodemus realized this when he said:
Rabbi, we know that You are a teacher come from God; for no one can do
these signs that You do unless God is with him (Joh 3:2).
The greatest signs showing that God had accomplished redemption through Jesus
are the resurrection of Christ from the dead and His ascension into heaven. A
careful consideration of these two signs will prove to any honest heart that the
Gospel is truly from God. The apostles performed additional signs (Ac 2:43). By
laying on of apostles' hands, other Christians were subsequently supplied by the
Spirit the ability to perform miracles (Ga 3:5).
TYPES OF MIRACLES
1. Origin: DUNAMEIS, manifestations of supernatural
2. Specific source: PNEUMATOS HAGIOU MERISMOI
gifts of the Holy Spirit, imparted to apostles and
3. Design: SEEMEIOS by signs, miraculous testimonies
in behalf of the truth.
4. Nature: TERASIN by wonders, supernatural acts
designed to excite wonder and amazement.
(Adapted from Milligan 79)
And by various miracles [and, and with, manifold, divers powers].[ 23 ] The
powers of God are as variegated as the miraculous gifts in the early churches and
as multicolored as all the different races made one in Christ Jesus.
And gifts [and by gifts].[ 24 ] The gifts were not little divisions of the actual,
personal Holy Spirit Himself. They were various miraculous abilities given by
Of the Holy Spirit [of the Holy Ghost, of the Holy Spirit].].[ 25 ] The Holy
Spirit is the third person of the Godhead. Marvin Vincent[ 26 ] speaks of "the one
gift of the Spirit." Actually, there were nine gifts as can be determined from a
casual reading of 1 Corinthians 12:8-10.
According to His own will [according to, distributed according to, his
will].[ 27 ] The different gifts of the Holy Spirit were dispensed according to the
divine will. Yet, Christians were permitted to desire them (1Co 14:1) and even
to pray for additional gifts (1Co 14:13).
1. When Israel entered Canaan certain miracles
ceased: manna, pillar of cloud and fire
2. Whether there are prophecies, they will fail
3. Whether there are tongues, they will cease
4. Whether there is knowledge, it will vanish away
5. When the perfect came that which is in part done
away (1Co 13:10; compare Jas 1:25).
MODERN "MIRACLE WORKERS" CANNOT
1. Raise the dead.
2. Heal terminal illnesses.
3. Drink deadly poison.
4. Have miraculous immunity to poisonous snakes.
5. Replace missing body parts.
CHRIST'S PREEMINENCE OVER ANGELS
2:5 For He has not put the world to come, of which we speak, in subjection
For He has not put [for it was not, for not did he, for he did not, for hath
he not put].[ 28 ]
The world to come [the coming world].[ 29 ] The "world to come" is that over
which Christ rules in the church age. It is the territory of the kingdom of Christ.
It is called "the age to come" (Heb 6:5). It is analogous to the Christian age. It
is the age of salvation (Heb 9:28). It is the world of reality, not the OT world of
types and shadows (compare Heb 8:5; 10:1). It does not relate to some supposed,
mystical, future, earthly, millennial, reign expected by some to begin when Christ
returns (see chart PREMILLENNIALISM VERSUS BIBLE at Heb 1:3).
Of which we speak [whereof we are speaking].[ 30 ] The "world to come" is one
of the themes of the book of Hebrews.
In subjection to angels [subject unto the angels].[ 31 ] Deuteronomy 32:8 in the
Septuagint (purported to represent the original text) is:
When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He
separated the children of men, He set the bounds of the peoples according
to the number of the angels of God[ 32 ]
1. Angel went before to guard Israel
(Ex 23:20, 23; Jg 2:1).
2. Prince of kingdom of Persia (Da 10:13, 20).
3. Prince of Greece (Da 10:20).
4. Michael, "one of the chief princes," "Your prince"
guards "your people" (Da 10:13, 21; 12:1).
5. Rulers of the darkness of this age (Eph 6:12).
It is important that we understand that the world to come is the church age
because that concept will illuminate the time frame of much of Hebrews.
WHAT IS MAN?
2:6 But one testified in a certain place, saying: "What is man that You are
mindful of him, or the son of man that You take care of him?"
But one [it has been]. The "one" respectfully spoken of is David.
Testified [said].[ 33 ] The Psalmist "testified" in the sense of solemnly giving the
sure and steadfast message of God.
In a certain place [somewhere, hath somewhere].[ 34 ] Before the introduction
of chapters and verses, a familiar way to locate words or events in Scripture was
to cite a nearby occurrence (see chart CHAPTERS AND VERSES at 1Ti 3:1).
Surely the Hebrew writer knew the location of the lengthy quotation. We assume
his readers also knew it (see Ps 8:4-6). Other NT references to this Psalm are 1
Corinthians 15:27; Eph 1:22 and, more remotely, 1 Peter 3:22.
Saying: "What is man?"[ 35 ]
Then God said, "Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness;
let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air,
and over the cattle, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that
creeps on the earth (Ge 1:26).
The "man" of this passage is mankind (the human race). . . . Earlier, the
Psalmist had dwelt on the magnificence of God's works as seen in the starry
heavens and expressed wonder and amazement that he who created the
worlds should be concerned for man and interested in his actions on this tiny
planet.[ 36 ]
That You are mindful of him [that thou art mindful, rememberest him,
think of him]. It is difficult to conceive of David writing this and not having in
view Adam, the progenitor of the human race. No doubt, he, in humility, also
pictured himself and all mankind as unworthy of God's benevolent concern.
Adam Clarke translates the Psalm from the Hebrew:
What is miserable man that thou rememberest him? and the son of Adam,
that thou visitest him? (Ps 8:4).
Or the son of man [or the son of man].[ 37 ] In Psalm 8, this seems to refer to
mankind generally. The "son of Adam" could be any descendant of Adam (see
footnote 31; Clarke's translation above). However, beginning in Hebrews 2:9, the
writer makes a special application to one member of the human race, Jesus Christ,
who is ruler of "the world to come" (refer to verse 5).
SON OF MAN
1. Let Your hand be upon the man of Your right
hand, upon the son of man whom You made strong
for Yourself (Ps 80:17).
2. One like the Son of Man given dominion
(Da 7:13, 14).
3. What is . . . the son of man that You visit him?
(Ps 8:4 quoted in Heb 2:6; compare Heb 2:9).
4. Jesus called Himself the Son of man (Mt 10:23).
5. In the midst of the lampstands one like the Son
of man (Rev 1:13)
6. On the cloud sat One like the Son of Man
That You take care of him [that thou carest for, visit, rememberest, visitest,
art mindful of, art concerned about, him].[ 38 ] This OT quotation shows the
dependency of man and affirms the great providence of God. In biblical
phraseology, "to visit" is to look upon with favor and to bless. Thus the NKJV
translators rendered the phrase "take care of." The greatest divine visit to man
was when Christ came down from heaven and became man to die for the
redemption of lost souls. Man's importance in God's scheme is seen in the fact
that in rank he stands only a little lower than the angelic hosts, and has ever been
the recipient of God's richest blessings.[ 39 ]
CHRIST SUPERIOR EVEN IN HIS HUMILIATION
2:7 You have made him a little lower than the angels; you have crowned him
with glory and honor, and set him over the works of Your hands.
ELOHIM, JEHOVAH OF THE OT
1. ELOHIM = the Father alone (Ps 2:2, 7; 45:7;
110:1, 2, 4).
2. ELOHIM = the Son alone (Ps 45:6; Jer 23:6).
3. ELOHIM = entire Godhead (Ge 1:26; 3:22, 23).
4. Our ELOHIM = one Jehovah: "Hear, O Israel: The
LORD our God, the LORD is one! (De 6:4).
You have made him a little lower than the angels [you made, Thou madest,
didst make, him for a little while, a short while, lower than the angels].[ 40 ]
The Hebrew for angels in this OT reference is ELOHIM God. The NASB
translates literally: "Yet Thou hast made him a little lower than God" (Ps 8:5).
In the same verse, ELOHIM God is used in the sense of "that which is divine."
From the context of Psalm 8, many translators must have thought (and correctly
so) that mankind was made lower than divine beings (angels). It is not necessary
to understand the verse to mean that man is lower than God Himself (a true
concept but consider the humanity of Christ). In Psalm 8:5, the NKJV has "lower
than the angels." In another example, judges were called ELOHIM gods (Ps
82:6). Again, "Ascribe to the Lord, O sons of the ELOHIM mighty" (Ps 29:1,
mighty ones, NKJV; compare Ex 15:11). Christ's eternal exaltation over angels
followed His transitory and earthly subjection to them (compare 1Co 15:27).
The Hebrew writer gives an inspired decision as to whether Psalm 8 spoke of
being lower than God or lower than angels. Hebrews 1:9 settles the issue. He
was lower than the ANGELOUS angels. Naturally, if one is lower than angels he
is also lower than God. Jesus became lower than they because of the suffering of
death. However, even then, He could have called twelve legions of angels (Mt
26:53; more than 72,000, computed as 12 x 6,000, the number of soldiers in a
Roman legion). Angels are spirits (Heb 1:14). They may possess or assume the
form of man (Lu 24:4, 23; Ac 10:3, 30).
CHRIST SERVED BY ANGELS
1. Angels came and ministered unto Him (Mt 4:11).
2. He could have called 72,000 angels (Mt 26:53).
3. An angel appeared to Him from heaven,
strengthening Him (Lu 22:43).
You have crowned him with glory and honor [Thou crownedst, hast
crowned, and crowned, him with glory and honor].[ 41 ] In a general sense, man
was crowned with glory and honor when placed over the earthly creation (Ge
1:28, 29). Specifically, Christ was crowned with glory and honor when He was
made King of kings (see note on verse 9).
And set him over the works of Your hands [and didst set him over the work
of thy hands].[ 42 ] Man was appointed to " Have dominion over the fish of the
sea, over the birds of the air, and over every living thing that moves on the earth"
(Ge 1:28). In a richer and fuller since, all things are under Christ (Eph 1:22, 23;
ALL THINGS IN SUBJECTION
2:8 You have put all things in subjection under his feet." For in that He put
all in subjection under him, He left nothing that is not put under him. But
now we do not yet see all things put under him.
You have put all things in subjection under his feet [you put, Thou didst put,
hast put, putting, now in putting, everything in subjection to him]
[ 43 ] (see note
on Mt 28:18).
For in that He put all in subjection under him [for in subjecting, that he
subjected, all things to, unto, him].[ 44 ] In the beginning, God instructed man not
only to "fill the earth" but to "subdue it" (Ge 1:28).
He left nothing that is not put under him [he did not leave a thing, left
nothing, outside his control, that was not subject to him].[ 45 ] When man was
first created, everything was subjected to him. Sin changed that.
But now we do not yet see all things put under him [as it is, but, we do not
yet see, now we see, everything, not yet all things, subject, in subjection,
subjected, to him]. The phrase "But now we do not yet see all things put under
him," indicates an ideal subjection not fully realized. Because of sin, some things
remain unconquered. Some of these are corrupt politicians, certain evil men and
women, war, poverty, the containment of fusion, aging, the prevention and cure
of certain terminal illnesses and complete control over floods, storms, volcanoes
and earthquakes. Ultimate subjection will be when the last enemy (death) shall be
destroyed (1Co 15:25-28).
JESUS' SUFFERING, A REASON FOR FAITH, NOT UNBELIEF
2:9 But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, for the
suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, that He, by the grace of
God, might taste death for everyone.
But we see Jesus [but we behold him, even Jesus]. The Hebrew writer begins
a discussion of Jesus Christ who is a special descendant of Adam. It is in Him
that the original plan of God and the true position of man may be restored.
1. Word was with God, was God (Joh 1:1, 2).
2. Became flesh (Joh 1:14).
3. Made a little lower than the angels (Heb 2:9).
4. Tasted death, perfect through sufferings
(Heb 2:9, 10).
5. Crowned with glory and honor (Heb 2:7, 9).
6. All things made subject to Him (1Co 15:28).
7. Reigns until opposition ends (1Co 15:24, 28).
Who was made a little lower than the angels [who hath been, who for a little
while was, made lower than the angels, lower than the angels for a little
while].[ 46 ] Jesus was lower than angels because He partook of the nature of
Adam, that is, His body was subject to death. The Law was "appointed through
angels" (Ga 3:19). In a sense, Jesus was lower than the angels because He was
under the Law (Ga 4:4).
For the suffering of death [because of the suffering of death].[ 47 ] Christ took
upon Him the form of man for the very purpose of suffering death for the sins of
the human race. Because of His resurrection and exaltation, His death became
meaningful to all believers.
Crowned with glory and honor.[ 48 ] "He who humbles himself will be exalted"
(Mt 23:12; compare Lu 14:11; 18:14). Jesus "humbled Himself and became
obedient to the point of death, even the death of the cross" (Php 2:8). Subsequent
to His humiliation He was "crowned with glory and honor" DIA because of the
suffering of death. He was crowned after His death.[ 49 ] Glory and honor was
bestowed upon Him in His exaltation.[ 50 ] God highly exalted Him (Php 2:8, 9).[ 51 ]
His name is above every name. He is Lord over every person (Php 2:11). In the
OT, Jesus was promised a reward for His sufferings.
Therefore I will divide Him a portion with the great, and He shall divide the
spoil with the strong, because He poured out His soul unto death, and He
was numbered with the transgressors, and He bore the sin of many, and
made intercession for the transgressors (Isa 53:12).
The crowning occurred after He bore the agonies of the cross and after His
ascension (Ac 1:1-11). It transpired in the presence of adoring multitudes (Ac
2:36; 4:10-12; 5:30-32; 10:36-42; Eph 1:20-23; Col 1:23; Heb 1:6; 1Pe 3:22).
GLORIFIED IN HUMILIATION
1. "Made a little lower" and "crowned" are same Greek
tense and grammatical form.
2. We beheld His glory, the glory as of the only
begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth
3. Jesus said, "The hour has come that the Son of
Man should be glorified"
(Joh 12:23; compare 28, 32).
4. Now the Son of Man is glorified, and God is
glorified in Him (Joh 13:31).
That He, by the grace of God [that, so that, by the grace of God].[ 52 ] It was
by God's gracious will that Jesus came to earth to suffer and die on the cross for
Might taste death [should, he should, he might, taste of death].[ 53 ] Tasting
of death means death itself. This is a rather common biblical expression (see Mt
16:28; Mk 9:1; Lu 9:27; Joh 8:52). In Gethsemane, Jesus prayed about drinking
the bitter cup of suffering and death.
He went a little farther and fell on His face, and prayed, saying, "O My
Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from Me; nevertheless, not as I
will, but as You will (Mt 26:39).
Very soon, He drank the cup of suffering. He briefly tasted death but then,
praise God, on the third day He arose!
PERFECT SAVIOR, GREAT HIGH PRIEST
1. Identification with humans.
a. Shared problems, everything (Heb 2:17).
2. Sympathy with sinners.
a. Temptations (Heb 2:18; 4:15).
3. Obedience to God.
a. Learned obedience by things suffered (Heb 5:8).
b. Voluntarily died (Ga 1:4).
a. Through the offering of His body once for all
For every one [for every man].[ 54 ] Like Socrates, who was given a cup of
Hemlock to drink, every sinner is sentenced to death. In a figurative sense, every
one has his own cup of poison to drink. That is, he must die. All are sinners (Ro
3:23). The wages of sin is death (Ro 6:23). Jesus, in this metaphor, takes all the
cups from all people. He drinks them all. He thus tastes death for every one.
This verse plays havoc with Calvin's doctrine of Limited Atonement. Christ died
for all, not just for the "elect."
THE PERFECTING OF CHRIST
2:10 For it was fitting for Him, for whom are all things and by whom are all
things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make the captain of their salvation
perfect through sufferings.
For it was fitting for Him [for it was fitting that he, for it became him].[ 55 ]
What God did in the redemptive process befits Him. The perfecting of Christ
conforms to His righteous character. "It is in the passion of our Lord that we see
the very heart of God laid bare."[ 56 ] (see 2Co 5:19).
FITTING FOR GOD TO MAKE CHRIST
PERFECT THROUGH SUFFERINGS (A)
1. Because God's justice.
a. An adequate atonement had to meet and satisfy
His claims of justice against sinners.
2. Because of God's love.
a. Could not allow man to be lost forever
without making a way to save him (Joh 3:16).
3. Because of God's wisdom.
a. Devised a plan to satisfy both His justice and His
love (Ro 3:26).
(See Milligan 83)
FITTING FOR GOD TO MAKE CHRIST
PERFECT THROUGH SUFFERINGS (B)
1. Because of the educational requirements of Christ's
a. As a human, He grew in knowledge (Lu 2:52).
2. Because God is Creator.
a. As Creator and Owner of everything and
everyone, desired to remedy the sin problem.
3. Because of man's nature.
a. Only a suffering, bleeding, dying Savior could
capture the affections of sinful, human hearts
to bring them back to God.
(See Milligan 83)
For whom are all things [for whom all things exist].[ 57 ] The One for whom
are all things is God. His identity is implied by the phrase "to make the Captain
of their salvation perfect through sufferings." He is the Omega as well as the
Alpha (said of Christ, Re 1:8, 11; 22:13; of God, Re 21:6). Since the Author of
our salvation is Christ, we infer that the Father is the one who made Him perfect.
ALL THINGS ARE FOR GOD
1. For of Him and through Him and to Him are all
things, to whom be glory forever (Ro 11:36).
2. Yet for us there is one God, the Father, of whom
are all things, and we for Him; and one Lord
Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and
through whom we live (1Co 8:6).
3. All things were created through Him and for Him
4. You are worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and
honor and power; for You created all things,
and by Your will they exist and were created
And by whom are all things [and through whom are all things].[ 58 ] "Through
whom" suggests the idea that God is the First Cause. He is also the Sustainer of
the universe. "For of Him and through Him and to Him are all things" (Ro
11:36). All things are from the Father (1Co 8:6). It was altogether becoming and
fitting that God, for whose sake all things exist, and through whose agency they
all came into being, would save many souls through the suffering of Christ.
In bringing many sons to glory [in bringing many children into, unto,
glory].[ 59 ] Glory and salvation are eternal rewards given to sons of God in Christ
Jesus (2Ti 2:10). Since the Author, Captain, Pioneer and Pathfinder suffered, it
is likely that the "many sons" will have to do the same (see Ro 8:17; 2Ti 3:12).
To make perfect [should make perfect, to perfect].[ 60 ] Jesus was always
sinless. He was never morally or doctrinally imperfect. The perfection here has
to do with the completion of the will of God. Jesus became completely fit to be
our Redeemer. He did this as He underwent sorrow, pain and death in order to
become DIA PATHEEMATON through sufferings the Captain or Author of our
salvation. He was made High Priest in order to function in behalf of the people.
Because He is perfected, He is prepared to offer forgiveness to His people.
CHRIST MADE PERFECT
1. Perfect = complete, mature, full-grown.
2. Always sinlessly perfect.
3. Yet He became for us a perfect Savior.
4. To do that, He had to suffer and die.
5. By so doing, he became a perfect high priest.
6. And having been made perfect . . . the source
of eternal salvation (Heb 5:9).
7. A Son, made perfect forever (Heb 7:28).
ATTAINING PERFECTION (A)
1. Solid food is for the mature, perfect (Heb 5:14).
2. Let us go on to perfection (Heb 6:1).
3. If perfection were through the Levitical priesthood
what further need was there that another priest
should rise according to the order of Melchizedek?
4. The bringing in of a better hope [makes perfect]
ATTAINING PERFECTION (B)
1. Gifts and sacrifices could not make the worshipper
perfect in regard to conscience (Heb 9:9).
2. The greater and more perfect tabernacle (Heb 9:11).
3. The law as a shadow can never make perfect those
who draw near (Heb 10:1).
4. They should not be made perfect apart from us
5. The spirits of just men made perfect (Heb 12:23).
The captain of their salvation [the pioneer, the author, of their salvation].[ 61 ]
Jesus is "the author and finisher of our faith" (Heb 12:2).[ 62 ] He is the Author,
Captain, Pioneer and Leader. He went before His saved ones on the way to
heaven. He is their Forerunner (Heb 6:20).
Through sufferings [through suffering].[ 63 ] Some of the Jews objected to the
idea of a suffering Messiah. They said"
The Messiah is never to be conquered, or die; but will be victorious and
endure for ever"[ 64 ]
On the contrary, Christ was destined to suffer. It was necessary for Him to
suffer and die for the sins of the world. The prophets wrote of His sufferings (see
Ps 22:14-16; 69:20; Isa 50:6; 53:4, 5; Zec 13:6). Jesus spoke often of this to the
disciples (see Mk 8:31; Lu 9:22; 12:50; 22:37; 24:7, 26, 46; Joh 3:14). The
Hebrew writer spoke of the prophetic necessity for Him to suffer (see Heb 5:8;
Therefore, having obtained help from God, to this day I stand, witnessing
both to small and great, saying no other things than those which the
prophets and Moses said would come-- 23 that the Christ would suffer, that
He would be the first to rise from the dead, and would proclaim light to the
Jewish people and to the Gentiles (Ac 26:22, 23).
Peter mentioned that he was a witness of the sufferings of Christ (1Pe 5:1). He
alluded to the prophecies of His sufferings when he wrote:
Searching what, or what manner of time, the Spirit of Christ who was in
them was indicating when He testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ
and the glories that would follow (1Pe 1:11; compare 2:21; 3:18).
NOT ASHAMED TO CALL THEM BRETHREN
2:11, 12 For both He who sanctifies and those who are being sanctified are
all of one, for which reason He is not ashamed to call them brethren, 12
saying: "I will declare Your name to My brethren; in the midst of the
assembly I will sing praise to You."
For both He who sanctifies [for he who sanctifies, that sanctifieth].[ 65 ]
Christ, who became obedient unto death, is our Sanctifier (see Heb 5:,8, 9). By
one offering He has perfected for all time them who are sanctified (Heb 10:14).
He is the Author and Perfecter of our faith (Heb 12:2).
And those who are being sanctified [and they that are, who are,
sanctified].[ 66 ] The sanctified ones are the saved ones (Heb 5:8, 9). Christ
sanctifies in that He cleanses consciences (Heb 9:13, 14). This cleansing is
accomplished by the blood of the covenant (Heb 10:29), with His own blood (Heb
12:12). When His followers obey His will, they are sanctified (see Joh 17:17).
Christians are set apart, dedicated and consecrated to the service and worship of
God. They belong to Him. They are identified as saved people who will enjoy
eternity with Him.
By that will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of
Jesus Christ once for all (Heb 10:10).
Are all of one [have all one origin, are all from one Father].[ 67 ] Christ and
Christians are of one family, one stock. They belong to the one God who is their
Father. Jesus is the only begotten Son of God. Christians are also sons of God.
For this reason I bow my knees to the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, 15
from whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named (Eph 3:14, 15).
For which reason He is not ashamed to call them brethren [for which cause,
for that reason, that is why, he is not ashamed to call them brethren]. Jesus
is not ashamed to identify those redeemed by His blood as His brethren. It is a
high exaltation and honor for them to be called that. It is only with great
reverence, gratitude and humility that Christians call Him their elder brother. The
name we confess is high and holy. No one should ever be ashamed of the Lord's
For whoever is ashamed of Me and My words in this adulterous and sinful
generation, of him the Son of Man also will be ashamed when He comes in
the glory of His Father with the holy angels (Mk 8:38).
1. He took upon Himself their nature.
2. He endured their trials.
3. He made atonement for their sins.
4. He cut out the path of salvation.
5. They follow Him to glory.
(Adapted from Bruce 45)
WILL SING THY PRAISE
2:12] Saying, "I will proclaim Thy name to My brethren, in the midst of the
congregation I will sing Thy praise."
Saying: I will declare Your name [saying, I will proclaim thy name]. Jesus
quoted the beginning of Psalm 22 when He was on Calvary (Ps 22:1; Mt 27:46;
Mk 15:34). Prophetically, He is the speaker in Psalm 22, not only in the first part
(a cry of anguish) that deals with His suffering and death but the second part
which is a song of praise. The Hebrew writer quotes from the second part. Christ
said (in the person of David):
I will tell of Thy name to my brethren; in the midst of the assembly I will
praise Thee" (Ps 22:22 NASB).
To My brethren [unto my brethren, my brothers].[ 68 ] Christ is present in
assemblies everywhere as sincere Christians worship. Along with His brethren,
He sings praises and gives thanksgivings to God.
In the midst of the assembly [in the midst of the church, the
congregation].[ 69 ] Note that the Hebrew writer uses the word EKKLESIAS
assembly, church or congregation. The brethren of Christ are members of His
church, the church of Christ.
NT PASSAGES ABOUT CHURCH MUSIC
1. Paul and Silas prayed and sang praises to God
2. Confess . . . and sing unto Thy name (Ro 15:9).
3. Sing with spirit (1Co 14:15).
4. Singing and making melody in heart (Eph 5:19).
5. Singing with grace in your hearts (Col 3:16).
6. In the midst of the congregation, sing (Heb 2:12).
7. Is any merry? Let him sing (Jas 5:13).
I will sing praise to You [will I praise thee, sing thy praise, praise unto
thee].[ 70 ] This is one of the NT passages mentioning music in the church (see
chart NT PASSAGES ABOUT CHURCH MUSIC). Like all others, it mentions
only singing. They all omit instructions to use instrumental music.
2:13 And again: "I will put My trust in Him." And again: "Here am I and the
children whom God has given Me."
And again: "I will put My trust in Him" [and again, I will put My trust in
Him, I will keep my trust fixed on him]. This quotation is from Isaiah:
And I will wait on the LORD, who hides His face from the house of Jacob;
and I will hope in Him (Isa 8:17).
Christ trusted implicitly in God the Father. Several OT passages foretell Jesus'
His in God. "My God, my rock, in whom I take refuge" (2Sa 22:3). "Behold,
God is my salvation, I will trust and not be afraid" (Isa 12:2; compare Ps 18:2).
And again: "Here am I and the children whom God has given Me" [and
again, behold I, and the children God, which, that, God, gave, hath given,
me].[ 71 ] Compare these words that are a continuation of the quotation from Isaiah:
Here am I and the children whom the LORD has given me! We are for
signs and wonders in Israel from the LORD of hosts, who dwells in Mount
Zion (Isa 8:18).
Christians were called "brethren" of Christ in Hebrews 2:11, 12. Now they are
His "children" (see chart CHILDREN OF CHRIST).
CHILDREN OF CHRIST
1. He was to be called "Everlasting Father" (Isa 9:6).
2. He will see His seed [offspring] (Isa 53:10).
3. I have manifested Your name to the men whom You
have given Me out of the world (Joh 17:6;
compare Joh 17:2).
4. This is the will of the Father who sent Me, that of
all He has given Me I should lose nothing, but
should raise it up at the last day (Joh 6:39).
5. Here am I and the children whom God has given Me
2:14, 15 Inasmuch then as the children have partaken of flesh and blood, He
Himself likewise shared in the same, that through death He might destroy him
who had the power of death, that is, the devil, 15 and release those who
through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage.
Inasmuch then as the children [since therefore, since then, so since,
forasmuch then, the children].[ 72 ] All human kind are the children of Adam.
Some students like to talk about the sovereignty of God and the brotherhood of
man. The "brotherhood of man" applies to the physical only. The spiritual family
of God is the church of Christ. Under consideration in the present verse are the
special ones who have responded in obedience to the Gospel and have become the
children of Christ (see note above on verse 13).
Have partaken of flesh and blood [share, are sharers, are partakers, in flesh
and blood].[ 73 ] Christians share common humanity, figuratively called "blood and
flesh" (note the order of the Greek words).
He Himself likewise [he also himself in like manner].[ 74 ] Jesus became human
in like manner with the "children." Like them, He was genuinely and
authentically human. In no sense was his humanity simulated, counterfeit or
artificial. This is not to say that he was not also fully God.
Shared in the same [partook, took part of, them, the same, the same
nature].[ 75 ] Christians are partakers. They share in flesh and blood. Christ
"partook" or "shared" in blood and flesh in that He voluntarily and willingly
FROM DISILLUSIONMENT TO TRIUMPH
That through death He might destroy [that through death he might bring to
nought, render powerless, ineffectual].[ 76 ] Christ's death was ignominious.[ 77 ]
It was seemingly the great defeat of His cause. Most of His followers refused to
come near during His passion. They had hoped He would lead a revolt against the
Roman armies and liberate the Jews. In spite of frequent instructions during his
personal ministry, they were totally unprepared for His sad death. Had the devil
finally triumphed over the Son of God? After His decease, the disciples met in
secret and behind locked doors for fear of the Jews. Yet, within weeks, as
eyewitnesses of the resurrection, they were preaching the gospel with power.
They eventually understood the Lord's purpose in dying was to overthrow Satan
(compare Heb 13:20, 21). The devil's defeat was proclaimed to the world in the
gospel of the resurrected Christ who broke Satan's deathly power.
Him who had the power of death [him who has, that had, the power of
death, the one having the power over death].[ 78 ]
He who sins is of the devil, for the devil has sinned from the beginning. For
this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that He might destroy the
works of the devil (1Jo 3:8).
Without Christ, there is no remedy for sin, no way to defeat death, no way to
gain eternal life in heaven. Satan had the power of death in that he had tempted
the first pair who sinned. As a result death passed upon all men (Ro 5:12). Death
will finally be obliterated. The last enemy to be destroyed is death (1Co 15:26).
That is, the devil.[ 79 ] W. E. Vine commented on this verse:
Death having been brought into the world by sin, the Devil had the power
of death, but Christ through His own Death, has triumphed over him, and
will bring him to nought, Hebrews 2:14; his power over death is intimated
in his struggle with Michael over the body of Moses, Jude 9."[ 80 ]
Jewish theology frequently acknowledges the fear of death and the accuser (the
devil) as life's continual companions. Jesus is victor over both the devil and
RELEASE FROM FEAR OF DEATH
[2:15] And release those who through fear of death were all their lifetime
subject to bondage.
And release [and might deliver, liberate, free].[ 81 ] Christ delivers from sin,
from the Law, from Satan's power. The great deliverance from death was
He will swallow up death forever, and the Lord GOD will wipe away tears
from all faces; the rebuke of His people he will take away from all the
earth; for the LORD has spoken (Isa 25:8).
Note that Isaiah 25:7 says this will happen "on this mountain," undoubtedly,
referring to Mount Calvary where Jesus was crucified. Long before Christ arose,
Isaiah and other OT writers had some understanding of the resurrection but it was
"brought to light" through the gospel.
But has now been revealed by the appearing of our Savior Jesus Christ, who
has abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the
gospel (2Ti 1:10).
Those who through fear of death [them, all them, all those, who through
fear of death]. Jews had a real fear of death, especially when approaching God
with unforgiven sins (see Nu 18:3, 5; Ps 115:17, 18; Isa 38:18). Intervention by
the priest could mitigate this fear (Nu 18:5). However, sins were remembered
again (Heb 10:1). Under Christ the fear of death in sins is removed by the
provision of salvation by grace by the merits of the blood of Calvary.
Were all their lifetime subject to bondage [were subject to slavery, lifelong
bondage, in servitude, all their lives].[ 82 ] Before Christ, even the most faithful
Jews were in bondage to sin and death.
HE GIVES HELP
2:16 For indeed He does not give aid to angels, but He does give aid to the
seed of Abraham.
For indeed [for surely, for verily].[ 83 ] Those who had heard and obeyed the
gospel were aware that Christ did not come to earth in order to save the angels.
He does not give aid [he took not on him, it is not that he is concerned,
concerned with, doth not, not doth he give help, give aid to, he took not on
him].[ 84 ] The Greek word EPILAMBANETAI give help, take hold is the same
word (EPILAMBOMENOU) used in the expression "take them by the hand" to
lead them out of Egypt (Heb 8:9). God took the Israelites by the hand in order
to give help to them. The same is true of Jesus. He "took hold" in order to help
the sons of Abraham. He did not "take hold" (take upon Himself the form of a
servant and the likeness of man, Php 2:7) in order to help the angels, that is, He
did not suffer and die for their salvation. The choice of words "take hold" is
interesting. Jesus had a pre-incarnate existence. He "took hold" of a human body
in which He dwelt upon earth. He "took" upon Himself the form of a servant.
To angels [angels, the nature of angels, with angels].[ 85 ] Jesus did not become
flesh in order to suffer for the angels.
But He does give aid [but with, but he gives, giveth, help, but he took on
him].[ 86 ] Jesus came to earth specifically to die for mankind (see chart CHRIST
OUR DELIVERER, HIGH PRIEST A and B at Heb 2:16).
To the seed of Abraham [the seed, the descendants, sons, of Abraham].[ 87 ]
Jesus came to earth as a physical descendant of Abraham (see Mt 1:1; Lu 3:34).
He did not come to give aid to them alone, nor in particular. He gives aid to the
spiritual seed of Abraham, those who by faith obey His will.
Therefore, be sure that it is those who are of faith that are sons of Abraham
(Ga 3:7 NASB).
OUR DELIVERER AND HIGH PRIEST (A)
1. Christ partook of flesh and blood to:
a. Render powerless the devil (Heb 2:14).
b. Deliver men and women from bondage
because of fear of death (Heb 2:15).
2. Christ "gives aid" to the seed of Abraham (those
saved by faith).
a. Was tempted so He might aid those tempted.
b. To become a merciful and faithful High Priest
c. To make propitiation for sin.
(See also chart B at Heb 4:15)
CHRIST INTRODUCED AS HIGH PRIEST
2:17 Therefore, in all things He had to be made like His brethren, that He
might be a merciful and faithful High Priest in things pertaining to God, to
make propitiation for the sins of the people.
Therefore [wherefore, and therefore].[ 88 ] Christ became like men in order to
serve mercifully and with compassion.
In all things [in every respect, like the brethren in all things].[ 89 ] Christ was
without sin but in all other ways He became perfectly like His brethren. For
example, He suffered with them and for them. He did so especially when
humbled as He suffered on the cross.
He had to be [it behooved him, he had to become].[ 90 ] When Christ came to
earth, one of His duties was to become like His brethren in all things. One reason
was because it was prophesied that He would come from among His brethren like
Moses was (De 18:15). Another reason is so that He could serve compassionately
and faithfully as High Priest.
Made like His brethren [to be made like unto his brethren].[ 91 ] Since the
Sanctifier (Christ) and the sanctified (Christians) have one origin, they are brethren
(verse 11). Because they are consecrated or sanctified, they are called "holy
brethren" (Heb 3:1).
That He might be a merciful and faithful High Priest [that, so that, he might
become a merciful and faithful high priest].[ 92 ] Although the idea is alluded to
elsewhere, this is the first actual mention of Christ as High Priest in the NT. The
word ARCHIEREUS high priest is used of Him again and again in Hebrews 2
through 9. The topic is especially considered in Hebrews 4:14 through 7:10 (see
chart OUTLINE in Introduction).
Which of the OT priests were merciful and faithful? Which ones dealt gently
with the ignorant and misguided (Heb 5:2)? Which ones were known for mercy
and compassion? Some of the Sadducee priests were notorious for immorality,
cruelty and greed. In contrast, Christ was merciful and faithful in all things.
Having suffered and having been tempted, he sympathizes with humans. He is
unselfish and compassionate. He is faithful in that without wavering He completed
His task (Joh 19:30; Heb 3:2). He now faithfully intercedes for Christians (Heb
7:25). His faithfulness is discussed further in Hebrews 3:1-4; His mercy in
Regardless of commentaries to the contrary, I do not understand 1 Samuel 2:35
to refer to Christ. The verse reads:
Then I will raise up for Myself a faithful priest who shall do according to
what is in My heart and in My mind. I will build him a sure house, and he
shall walk before My anointed forever (1Sa 2:35).
Some make Christ the priest and the "enduring house" or "sure house" the
church. The problem is that the priest is to walk "before My anointed"[ 93 ] If the
priest is Christ, who is the anointed? Most likely, the priest is Samuel, who grew
up in the house of the Lord and "ministered to the Lord" (1Sa 2:11; 3:1). He
"walked before" King David (see 1Ch 9:22 26:28; 35:18). In fact, Samuel
anointed him king (1Ch 11:3). David wrote of him as being "among those who
called on His name" (Ps 99:6).
In things pertaining to God [in the service of God, in all things pertaining
to God, in the things relating to God].[ 94 ] The "things pertaining to God" have
to do with the worship of God. This Christ did as High Priest when He offered
Himself for our sins. Due to the intrinsic holiness of God, it is impossible for
people to come to Him in their sinful condition. It was necessary for Christ to
become a high priest, merciful and faithful, to offer His own life as an atonement
for sin (Heb 9:14). It was the high-priestly offering of His own life's blood that
made it possible for sinful man to approach God and be saved.
To make propitiation [to make expiation, reconciliation, atonement, to
expiate].[ 95 ] "Propitiation" is synonymous with expiation. It has to do with the
atoning sacrifice for sins. In reality, the sum total of OT sacrifices and offerings
could not accomplish this. By His death on the cross, Christ provided the only
remedy for sins (see Lu 18:13; Ro 3:25; 1Co 5:19; 1Jo 2:2; 4:10). This is what
our High Priest has done for us.
Sin had left a crimson stain,
He washed it white as snow.
The sins of the people [for the sins of the people]. The work of Christ brought
to people the actuality of the atonement. No longer were sins "passed over" or
"rolled forward." Through Christ, they are completely, wholly and entirely
forgiven. Christ died, not just for the sins of Adam, nor for the sins of "the elect"
only but for "the sin of the world" (Joh 1:29).
JESUS IS ABLE TO HELP US
2:18 For in that He Himself has suffered, being tempted, He is able to aid
those who are tempted. For since He Himself was tempted in that which He
has suffered, He is able to come to the aid of those who are tempted.
For in that He Himself has suffered [for because, since, for since, in that,
in that which, He Himself, suffered, hath suffered, was tempted, being
tempted].[ 96 ] Christ was tempted in that which He suffered. To those who suffer
with Christ, James admonishes:
Consider it all joy, my brethren, when you encounter various trials" (Jas 1:2
James urges Christians to rejoice when suffering for Christ. He does not say
they are to be overjoyed when tempted to sin.
In addition to suffering, Jesus was tempted in all points like we are, yet without
sin (Heb 4:15). I have wondered if He was ever tempted to exceed the speed
limit, to overeat, to smoke, drink, gamble or to lust after material things. We may
be sure that He was tempted in relation to the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye
and the pride of life (1Jo 2:16). To be tempted in each of the three divisions of
temptation would, I think, suffice. I suppose that since He was the Son of God,
He was also tempted in some ways we are not. For example, Satan tempted Him
to make bread of stones. I have never had that particular temptation. He was
offered all the kingdoms of the world. Satan knows that is not the kind of
temptation to use on me. Neither have I been tempted to cast myself down from
the pinnacle of a temple. Some of them must have been strong temptations just
because Jesus was the Son of God.
Being tempted [and been tempted].[ 97 ]
Let us therefore come boldly to the throne of grace, that we may obtain
mercy and find grace to help in time of need (Heb 4:16).
So we may boldly say: "The Lord is my helper; I will not fear. What can
man do to me?" (Heb 13:6).
"God is opposed to the proud, but gives grace to the humble" (1Pe 5:5; compare
De 33:29; 2Ch 25:8; Ps 28:7; 27:9; 40:17; Is 41:10; 50:9).
He is able to come to the aid [he is able to come to the help of, to the aid of,
to succor, to help].[ 98 ] Because Jesus suffered, His compassion must be more
tender, His heart more willing to forgive. What kind of help do sinners need? (1)
They need some kind of assurance that will keep them from being totally
depressed. (2) They need understanding. (3) Most of all, they need free and
willing forgiveness. (4) They need strength to overcome. (5) They need a way
of escape in temptation (1Co 10:13). (6) They need succor and assistance in time
of persecution (see 1Pe 4:14).
Of those who are tempted [them, of them, that are tempted]. Some of the
Hebrew Christians were meeting the supreme test of suffering at the time the letter
[ 1 ]The basic text in this chapter is the NKJV. Scripture taken from the New King James Version.
Copyright 1979, 1980, 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved.
Alternate phrases in brackets are from ASV, ESB, KJV, RSV and occasionally another version. Greek
transliteration tends to follow the BibleSoft method.
[ 2 ]DIA TOUTO, therefore (Marshall 855); because you have received a revelation superior to that
of the old dispensation, and given to you through one who is superior to the angels (Vincent 4.393);
for this reason [presented at length in chapter 1] (Lenski 63); this is why (Williams).
[ 3 ]DEI, it behooves (Marshall 855); third person singular, present active impersonal verb (Han 394);
an impersonal verb, signifying "it is necessary" or "one must," one ought" (Vine 765); it is necessary
(Lenski 63); we must (Williams).
[ 4 ]PERISSOTEROOS PROSECHEIN, more abundantly to give heed (Marshall 855); PROSECHEIN
is the present active infinitive of PROSECHOO (Han 394); [PROSECHEIN to give heed, literally, to
hold (the mind) to; PERISSOTEROOS more abundantly], literally, to give heed more abundantly
(Vincent 4.393); the more earnestly to give heed (Lenski 63); pay much closer attention (Williams).
[ 5 ]TOIS AKOUSTHEISIN, to the things heard [by us] (Marshall 855); AKOUSTHEISIN is the first
aorist passive participle, dative plural neuter of AKOUOO (Han 394); literally, to the things which were
heard, that is, from the messengers of the gospel (Vincent 4.393); to the things that were heard (Lenski
(63); to the message once heard (Williams).
[ 6 ]MEEPOTE PARARRUOOMEN, lest we drift away (Marshall 855); PARARRUOOMEN is first
person plural, second aorist active subjunctive of PARARREOO (Han 394); second aorist passive
subjunctive, lest we be carried past, pass by, [ERV drift away from them] (missing the thing), that is,
lest the salvation which the things heard show us how to obtain slip away from us (Thayer 485);
literally, flow past, glide by . . . to find oneself flowing or passing by, without giving due heed to a
thing, here "the things that were heard," or perhaps the salvation of which they spoke . . . the KJV "let
them slip." The KJV margin "run out as leaking vessels," does not give the meaning (Vine 331); flow
by, slip away, figuratively, be washed away, drift away . . . lest we drift away (Arndt 622);
PARARUOOMEN, [PARA by, RHEIN to flow], should drift past them (Vincent 4.393). It is also used
in Greek literature as "a thing that escapes me" or "slips from my mind" (compare Thayer 486); lest
we ever get to be drifted past [them] (Lenski 63); to keep from drifting to one side (Williams).
[ 7 ]EI GAR, for if (Marshall 855; Lenski 64; Williams); to sentences in which something is
commanded or forbidden, GAR annexes the reason why the thing must either be done or avoided
[ 8 ]HO DI ANGELOON LALEETHEIS LOGOS, the through angels spoken (Marshall 855);
LALEETHEIS is the first aorist passive participle, nominative singular masculine of LALEOO (Han
394); the Mosaic legislation which was conveyed through the mediation of angels (Vincent 4.393); that
was [once] spoken by means of angels (Lenski 64); the message spoken through angels (Williams); see
Deuteronomy 33:2; Acts 7:38, 53; Galatians 3:19.
[ 9 ]EGENETO BEBAIOS, was firm (Marshall 855); EGENETO is third person singular, second
aorist middle indicative of GINOMAI (Han 394); proved sure (Vincent 4.394; compare Mt 5:18);
became firm (Lenski 64); proved to be valid (Williams).
[ 10 ]KAI PASA PARABASIS, and every transgression (Marshall 855; Lenski 64); stepping over the
line], the violation of a positive divine enactment (Vincent 4.394); and every violation (Williams).
[ 11 ]KAI PARAKOE, and disobedience (Marshall 855); a disobedience which results from neglecting
to hear, from letting things drift by (Vincent 4.394); and refusal to hear (Lenski 64); and infraction of
[ 12 ]ELABEN ENDIKON MISTHAPODOSIAN, a just recompense (Marshall 855; Vincent 4.394);
ELABEN is third person singular, second aorist active indicative of LAMBANOO (Han 394); just
payment in full (Lenski 64, 65); had its adequate penalty (Williams).
[ 13 ]POOS HEEMEIS EKPHEUXOMETHA, how we shall escape (Marshall 855);
EKPHEUXOMETHA is first person plural, future middle indicative of EKPHEUGOO (Han 394); a
participle may be used as an equivalent to a conditional clause (Nunn 245); literally, flee out from; we
is emphatic (Vincent 4.395); [EK out of, PHUEGOO to flee], of escape with reference to the judgments
of God (Vine 370); how shall we on our part escape? (Lenski 65); how can we escape (Williams).
[ 14 ]AMELEESANTES, neglecting (Marshall 855); AMELEESANTES is the first aorist active
participle, nominative plural masculine of AMELEOO (Han 394); literally, having neglected, Vincent
4.395; [are] careless of, neglect (Vine 779); after having neglected (Lenski 65); if we pay no attention
at all (Williams).
[ 15 ]TEELIKAUTEES SOOTEERIAN, so great a salvation (Marshall 855); deliverance, preservation,
salvation . . . this present experience on the part of believers is virtually equivalent to sanctification;
for this purpose . . . they are not to neglect it (Vine 988); so great salvation (Lenski 65); a salvation
that is so great [pronoun doubly emphasized] (Williams).
[ 16 ]HEETIS, which (Marshall 855); explanatory. A salvation which may be described as one which
was first spoken by the Lord (Vincent 4.395); such as (Lenski 65); this is so (Williams).
[ 17 ]ARCHEEN LABOUSA LALEISTHAI DIA TOU KURIOU, a beginning having received to be
spoken through the Lord (Marshall 855); LABOUSA is the second active participle, nominative singular
feminine of LAMBANOO; LALEISTHAI is the present passive infinitive of LALEOO (Han 394);
literally, having taken beginning to be spoken (Vincent 4.395); literally, having received a beginning
to be spoken (Vine 103); after having received a start in being spoken through the Lord (Lenski 65);
because it was first proclaimed by the Lord Himself (Williams).
[ 18 ]EIS HEEMAS EBEBAIOOTHEE, unto us was confirmed (Marshall 855); EBEBAIOOTHEE
is third person singular, first aorist passive indicative of BEBAIOOO (Han 394); was confirmed, proved
to be real (Vincent 4.395); made firm, established, made secure . . . the salvation spoken through the
Lord and confirmed by the Apostles (Vine 218); made firm, established, confirmed, made sure (Thayer
99); was made firm for us (Lenski 65); and then it was proved to us to be valid (Williams).
[ 19 ]HUPO TOON AKOUSANTOON, by the [ones] hearing (Marshall 855); AKOUSANTOON is
the first aorist active participle, genitive plural masculine of AKOUOO (Han 394); by those who heard
it (Lenski 65); by the very men who heard Him themselves (Williams).
[ 20 ]SUNEPIMARTUROUNTOS TOU THEOU, bearing witness with God (Marshall 855);
SUNEPIMARTUROUNTOS is the present active participle, genitive singular masculine of
SUNEPIMARTUREOO (Han 394); [SUN along with other witnesses, EPI giving additional testimony,
MARTUREIN to bear witness] (Vincent 4.396); [SUN with], joins in bearing witness with others (Vine
1238); attesting together with; joining in bearing witness, uniting in adding testimony (Thayer 603);
God supporting with additional testimony (Lenski 65); while God continued to confirm their testimony
[ 21 ]Gospel Advocate 8.94.
[ 22 ]SEEMEIOIS TE KAI TERASIN, by signs both and by wonders (Marshall 855); signs, marks,
tokens, indications; things strange, causing the beholder to marvel (Vine 1042, 1240); signs, prodigies,
portents, that is, unusual occurrences, transcending the common course of nature . . . of miracles and
wonders by which God authenticates the men sent by Him, or by which men prove that the cause they
are pleading is God's (Thayer 573); by means of both signs and wonders (Lenski 65); with sins,
[ 23 ]KAI POIKILAIS DUNAMESIN, and by various powerful deeds (Marshall 855); powers, not
the miraculous manifestations, as signs and wonders, but the miraculous energies of God as displayed
in his various forms of witness (Vincent 4.396); and various sorts of wonder-works (Williams); and my
means of manifold powers (Lenski 65); parti-colored, variegated, [POIKILLOO means to make gay]
(Vine 318); specifically the power of performing miracles (Thayer 159). "Parti-colored" means the
display of different colors or tints.
[ 24 ]KAI MERISMOIS, by distributions (Marshall 855); [MEROS a part], a dividing (Vine 477);
distributions or impartations (Vincent 4.396) distributions of various kinds (Thayer 400); and
apportionings (Lenski 65); distributed (Williams); see Division at Hebrews 4:12; notes on 1 Corinthians
[ 25 ]PNEUMATOS HAGIOU, Spirit of [the] Holy (Marshall 855); objective genitive, distributions
of the one gift of the Holy Spirit in different measure and in different ways (Vincent 4.396); of the
Holy Spirit (Lenski 65; Williams); see notes on 1 Corinthians 12:4-11.
[ 26 ]Vincent 4.396.
[ 27 ]KATA TEEN AUTOU THELEESIN, according to the of him will (Marshall 855); [THELEESIS
willing], his act of will, Vincent 4.396; denotes a willing, a wishing (Vine 1229; see 1Co 12; Eph
4:11); a willing, will (Thayer 285); in accord with his volition (Lenski 65); in accordance with His will
[ 28 ]OU GAR HUPETAXEN, for not subjected he (Marshall 855); HUPETAXEN is third person
singular, first aorist active indicative of HUPOTASSOO (Han 394); an economy; not merely subjecting
the angels, but arranging or marshalling them under a new order (Vincent 4.397); for not did he
subject (Lenski 71); for it was not (Williams); see 1 Corinthians 15:27, 28; Ephesians 1:22; Philippians
[ 29 ]TEEN OIKOUMENEEN TEEN MELLOUSAN, the inhabited [earth] coming (Marshall 855);
MELLOUSAN is the present active participle, accusative singular feminine of MELLOO (Han 395);the
inhabited [land or country], the world to come, the new order of things inaugurated by the sacrifice of
Christ (Vincent 4.397); the inhabited world in a coming age (Vine 1246). The OLAM HABBA the
world to come, among the Jews, meant the days of the Messiah (Clarke 6.695); the inhabited earth that
is to come (Lenski 71); over that world to be (Williams).
[ 30 ]PERI HEES LALOUMEN, about which we speak (Marshall 855); LALOUMEN is first person
plural, present active indicative of LALEOO (Han 395); of which we are speaking (Williams);
concerning which we are speaking (Lenski 71).
[ 31 ]ANGELOIS HUPETAXEN, to angels subjected he (Marshall 853); HUPETAXEN is third
person singular, first aorist active indicative of HUPOTASSOO (Han 394); to angels that he gave
[ 32 ]Bruce 33.
[ 33 ]DIEMARTURATO DE, but solemnly witnessed (Marshall 856); DIEMARTURATO is third
person SINGULAR, FIRST AORIST MIDDLE INDICATIVE OF DIAMARTUROMAI (Han 395);
a solemn, earnest testimony (Vincent 4.397); now has solemnly testified (Lenski 72); has solemnly said
[ 34 ]POU, somewhere (Marshall 856; Lenski 72; Williams); signifying indefinite quotation (Vincent
[ 35 ]TIS LEGOON: TI ESTIN ANTHROOPOS, one saying: What is man? (Marshall 856; Lenski
72, 73); LEGOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of LEGOO; ESTIN
is third person singular, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 395); ESTIN is the Hebrew
interrogation, what, what kind of, implies "how small or insignificant" compared with the array of the
heavenly bodies; not "how great is man" (Vincent 4.397); What is man? (Williams).
[ 36 ]Woods 2.37.
[ 37 ]EE HUIOS ANTHROOPOU, or a son of man (Marshall 856); Hebrew, son of Adam (Vincent
4.397); or man's son (Lenski 73); or the Son of Man (Williams).
[ 38 ]HOTI EPISKEPTEE AUTON, that thou observest him (Marshall 856); EPISKEPTEE is second
person singular, present middle indicative of EPISKEPTOMAI (Han 395); [the verb primarily
means to look upon]; hence, look after or inspect; visit in order to inspect or help
. . . graciously and helpfully regarding; caring for (Vincent 4.398); in the middle
voice, remember, [are] mindful of, in the sense of caring for (Vine 743); that thou
art remembering him (Lenski 73); that you should think of him (Williams).
[ 39 ]Compare Woods 2.37.
[ 40 ]EELATTOOSAS AUTON BRACHU TI PAR ANGELOUS, Thou madest less him a little than
angels (Marshall 856); EELATTOOSAS is second person singular, first active indicative of
ELATTOOO (Han 395); [EELATTOUN to make less or inferior; BRACHU TI, the Hebrew a little;
of degree], thou didst for some little time make him lower than the angels (Vincent 4.398); messengers;
an order of created beings superior to man (Vine 47); Thou didst make him a little lower than the
angels (Lenski 73); You made Him inferior to angels for a little while (Williams).
[ 41 ]DOXEE KAI TIMEE ESTEPHANOOSAS AUTON, with glory and with honor thou crownedst
him (Marshall 856); ESTEPHANOOSAS is second person singular, first aorist active indicative of
STEPHANOOO (Han 395); [from STEPHOO to encircle], of the glory and honor bestowed by God
upon man in regard to his position in creation, Heb 2:7 (Vine 250); with glory and honor thou didst
crown him (Lenski 73); yet you have crowned Him with glory and honor (Williams).
[ 42 ]KATHISTEEMI. . . [KATA down, didst set him (Marshall 856 footnote); HISTEEMI to cause
to stand], literally, set [him] down, constitute (Vine 1022); and didst set him over the works of thy
hands (Lenski 73); You have set Him (Williams). Some manuscripts omit And didst set him over the
works of thy hands.
[ 43 ]PANTA HUPETAXAS HUPOKATOO TOON PODOON AUTOU, all things thou subjectedst
underneath the feet of him (Marshall 856); HUPETAXAS is second person singular, first aorist active
indicative of HUPOTASSOO (Han 395); you have put all things in subjection under his feet; [HUPO
under, TASSOO to arrange], primarily a military term, rank under, denotes put in subjection, subject,
put under (Vine 1099); You have put all things under His feet! (Williams); all things didst thou subject
under his feet (Lenski 73); see Genesis 1:28, 29; Psalm 104:14, 15.
[ 44 ]EN TOO GAR HUPOTAXAI [AUTOO] TA PANTA HUPOTETAGMENA, in the for to
subject[ing] to him all things having been subjected (Marshall 856); HUPOTAXAI is first aorist active
infinitive of HUPOTASSOO; HUPOTETAGMENA is the perfect passive participle, accusative plural
neuter of HUPOTASSOO (Han 395); GAR [is] explanatory. Thou hast put all things in subjection
under his feet, that is to say, nothing is excepted (Vincent 4.398); GAR adduces the cause or gives the
reason of a preceding statement or opinion (Thayer 109); in that he [God] subjected all the things to
him [man] (Lenski 74); now when He gave Him authority over everything (Williams).
[ 45 ]OUDEN APHEEKEN AUTO ANUPOTAKTON, nothing he left to him unsubjected (Marshall
856); APHEEKEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative (Han 395); literally, unsubjected
to him (Vincent 4.398); not made subject, unsubjected (Thayer 52); he left nothing unsubjected to him
(Lenski 74); He did not leave a single thing that was not put under His authority (Williams).
[ 46 ]TON DE BRACHU TI PAR ANGELOUS EELATTOOMENON, the [one] but a little than
angels having been subjected (Marshall 856); EELATTOOMENON is the perfect passive participle,
accusative singular masculine of ELATTOOO (Han 395); [EELATON less], active voice, denotes made
less (Vine 696); but him who has been made a little lower than angels (Lenski 76); who was made
inferior to the angels for a little while (Williams); see verse 7.
[ 47 ]DIA TO PATHEEMA TOU THANATOU, because of the suffering of death (Marshall 856;
Rotherham 59); DIA with the accusative in NT expresses "the ground and not the object: because
something is, and not in order that something may be realized" (Bruce 39); because of the suffering
of the death [he underwent] (Lenski 76); because He suffered death (Williams).
[ 48 ]DOXEE KAI TIMEE ESTEPHANOOMENON, with glory and with honor having been crowned
(Marshall 856); crowned with glory and honor (Lenski 76; Williams).
[ 49 ]Milligan 89.
[ 50 ]Vine 250.
[ 51 ]The passive EELATTOOMENON was made a little lower and ESTEPHANOOMENON crowned
are in the same Greek tense and grammatical form, indicating contemporary rather than successive
states (Findlay, Expositor 3.9.229, quoted by Vincent). Commentators hold different views of Jesus'
crowning. Some say Jesus was crowned, not so much as the reward of his suffering as rather the
perfecting of his manhood. Since the crowning gives meaning to his death, it must have preceded it
(Rotherham 66). I cannot accept that "logic".
[ 52 ]CHARITI THEOU, by [the] grace of God (Marshall 856); [some texts have CHORIS THEOU
apart from God] (Vincent 4.400; Clarke 6.697); that by God's grace (Lenski 76); so that by God
s favor (Williams).
[ 53 ]GEUSEETAI THANATOU, he might taste of death (Marshall 856); GEUSEETAI is third
person singular, first aorist middle subjunctive of GEUOMAI (Han 395); to taste, metaphorically, of
Christ's tasting death, implying His Personal experience in voluntarily undergoing death (Vine 1123);
he should taste death (Lenski 76); He might experience [literally, taste] death (Williams).
[ 54 ]HUPER PANTOS, on behalf of every man (Marshall 856); for everyone (Lenski 76); for every
human being (Williams).
[ 55 ]EPREPEN GAR AUTOO, for it was fitting for him (Marshall 856; Lenski 79); EPREPEN is
third person singular, imperfect active indicative of PREPOO (Han 395); not logical necessity, nor
obligation growing out of circumstances, but an inner fitness in God's dealing (Vincent 4.401); for it
was appropriate for Him (Williams).
[ 56 ]Bruce 43.
[ 57 ]DI' HON TA PANTA, because of whom (Marshall 856); for whom, that is, for whose sake all
things exist (Vincent 4.401); on account of whom [are] all the [existing] things (Lenski 79); who is the
Final Goal (Williams).
[ 58 ]KAI DI' HOU TA PANTA, and through whom all things (Marshall 856); by whom, through
whose agency, all things came into being (Vincent 4.401); and through whom [are] all the [existing]
things (Lenski 79); and the First Cause [Greek for the sake of--by whom] of the universe (Williams).
[ 59 ]POLLOUS HUIOUS EIS DOXAN AGAGONTA, many sons to glory leading (Marshall 856);
AGAGONTA is the second active participle, accusative singular masculine of AGOO (Han 395);
leading along, bringing (Vine 144); bringing as he did, or in bringing (Vincent 4.401); that he as
bringing many sons to glory (Lenski 79); in bringing many children to glory (Williams).
[ 60 ]TELEIOOSAI, to perfect (Marshall 856); TELEIOOSAI is the first aorist active infinitive of
TELEIOOO (Han 395); literally, to carry the goal or consummation (Vincent 4.402); complete (Lenski
79); perfect (Williams).
[ 61 ]TON ARCHEEGON TEES SOOTEERIAS AUTOON, the author of the salvation of them
(Marshall 856); captain, leader (Vincent 4.402); the Pathfinder, the Pioneer of our salvation (Bruce 43);
those who are being saved are here represented as an army, with Jesus leading them on (Howson 858);
primarily signifies one who takes a lead in, or provides the first occasion of, anything . . . suggests a
combination of the meaning of leader with that of the source from whence a thing proceeds (Vine 80);
originator, founder (Arndt 112); the author (Thayer 77); the Author of their salvation (Lenski 79); the
Leader [Greek, author] in their salvation (Williams).
[ 62 ]The word "our" does not correspond to any word in the Greek text, and so, is omitted.
[ 63 ]DIA PATHEEMATOON, through sufferings (Marshall 856); that which is suffered or endured,
suffering, misfortune . . . of the sufferings of Christ (Arndt 602); by means of suffering (Lenski 79);
through the process of sufferings (Williams); see verse 9.
[ 64 ]Quoted by Adam Clarke, 6.697.
[ 65 ]HO TE GAR HAGIAZOON, the [one] both For sanctifying (Marshall 856); HAGIAZOON is
the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of HAZIAZOO (Han 395); for indeed
(Arndt 151); he who sanctifies; said of the Lord Jesus (Vine 990); ;for both the one sanctifying (Lenski
84); for both He who is purifying them (Williams).
[ 66 ]KAI HOI HAGIAZOMENOI, and the [ones] being sanctified (Marshall 856); HAGIAZOMENOI
is the present passive participle, nominative plural masculine of HAGIAZOO (Han 395); set apart for
God, to be, as it were, exclusively His, Thayer 7); literally, who are in the process of sanctification
(Howson 858); and the ones sanctified (Lenski 84); and those who are being purified (Williams).
[ 67 ]EX HENOS PANTES, [are] of one all (Marshall 856); probably God, although the phrase may
signify of one piece, or of one whole (Vincent 4.402); [are] all from one (Lenski 84); all spring from
one Father (Williams).
[ 68 ]TOIS ADELPHOIS MOU, to the brothers of me (Marshall 857); his brethren in the worshipping
assembly (Vincent 4.403); to my brothers (Lenski 84; Williams).
[ 69 ]EN MESOO EKKLEESIAS, in [the] midst of [the church (Marshall 857); in the midst of the
assembly (Lenski 84); in the midst of the congregation (Williams).
[ 70 ]HUMNEESOO SE, I will hymn thee (Marshall 857); HUMNEESOO is first person singular,
future active indicative of HUMNEOO (Han 395); literally, hymn thee (Vincent 4.403); will I sing thy
praise (Lenski 84); I will sing your praise (Williams).
[ 71 ]IDOU EGOO KAI TA PAIDIA HA MOI EDOOKEN HO THEOS, behold[,] I and the children
whom to me gave God (Marshall 857); Lo! I and the children which unto me God hath given
(Rotherham 59); behold, I myself and the dear children whom God gave me (Lenski 84); Here I am
and the children God has given me (Williams).
[ 72 ]'EPEI OUN TA PAIDIA, since therefore the children (Marshall 857); the children, children of
men, the subjects of Christ's redemption (Vincent 4.404); since, then, the dear children (Lenski 88);
since then the children mentioned (Williams).
[ 73 ]KEKOINOONEEKEN HAIMATOS KAI SARKOS, has[ve] partaken of blood and of flesh
(Marshall 857); KEKOINOONEEKEN is third person singular, perfect active indicative of
KOINOONEOO (Han 395); are sharers in blood and flesh); have been in fellowship of blood and flesh
(Lenski 88); share our mortal nature [literally, blood and flesh; so our mortal nature] (Williams).
[ 74 ]KAI AUTOS PARAPLEESIOOS, in like manner (Marshall 857); in like manner, He took his
place PARA alongside and PLESIOS near: near by (Vincent 4.404); he, too, likewise (Lenski 88); He
[ 75 ]METESCHEN TOON AUTOON, he shared the same things (Marshall 857); METESCHEN is
third person singular, second aorist active indicative of METECHOO (Han 395); partake of, share in
(Vine 833); be or become partaker, partake (Thayer 406); shared the same (Lenski 88); He too took
on Himself a full share of the same (Williams).
[ 76 ]HINA DIA TOU THANATOU KATARGEESEE, in order that through the[?his] death he might
destroy (Marshall 857); KATARGEESEE is third person singular, first aorist active subjunctive of
KATARGEOO (Han 395); bring to nought (Vincent 4.404); in order that by means of the death he
might put out of commission (Lenski 88); in order that He by His death might put a stop to (Williams).
[ 77 ][IG ignore, NOMEN name, repute], characterized by disgrace or shame, dishonorable.
[ 78 ]TON TO KRATOS ECHONTA TOU THANATOU, the [one] the might having of death
(Marshall 857); ECHONTA is the present active participle, accusative singular masculine of ECHOO
(Han 395); sovereignty or dominion of death, a sovereignty of which death is the realm (Vincent 4.404);
it is significant that the sacred writer, in describing this action of the devil, uses for the word power
not EXOUSIA lawful action, but KRATOS power seized by trickery (Woods 2.111); him who has the
might of the death (Lenski 88); to the power of him who has the power of death (Williams).
[ 79 ]ESTIN TON DIABOLON, this is the devil (Marshall 857); the slanderer, specifically, the devil
(Arndt 182); [the] accuser, slanderer [from DIABALLOO to accuse, to malign], one of the names of
Satan. From it the English word "Devil" is derived, and should be applied only to Satan, as a proper
name (Vine 298); [the] calumniator, false accuser, slanderer . . . the one called . . . Satan, the prince
of demons, the author of evil, persecuting good men (Job 1; Zec 3:1 and following; compare Re 12:10),
estranging mankind from God and enticing them to sin, and afflicting them with diseases by means of
demons who take possession of their bodies at his bidding; the malignant enemy of God and the
Messiah (Thayer 135); that is, the devil (Lenski 88; Williams).
[ 80 ]Vine 298.
[ 81 ]KAI APALLAZEE, and release (Marshall 857); APALLAZEE is third person singular, first
aorist active subjunctive of APALLASSOO (Han 395); deliver from bondage (Vincent 4.406); and free
these (Lenski 88); and set at liberty (Williams).
[ 82 ]ENOCHOI EESAN DOULEIAS, involved in were slavery (Marshall 857); [EN in, ECHEIN
to hold], literally, holden of bondage (Vincent 4.406); were subject to slavery (Lenski 88); had been
subject to slavery (Williams).
[ 83 ]DEEPOU, for of course (Marshall 857; Williams); of course, we know (Vine 1197); doubtless,
as is well known (Vincent 4.406); for certainly [it needs hardly to be said] (Lenski 92).
[ 84 ]OU EPILAMBANETAI, not he takes hold (Marshall 857); EPILAMBANETAI is third person
singular, imperfect active indicative of OPHEILOO (Han 395); he doth not take hold (Vincent 4.406);
by a metaphor drawn from laying hold on another to rescue him from peril, help, succor (Thayer 240);
be concerned with, take an interest in; help is also possible (Arndt 295); the verb means to assist here.
The KJV mistranslates the present tense as past (Howson 858); not does he take helpful hold (Lenski
92); that He is to help (Williams).
[ 85 ]ANGELON, of angels (Marshall 857; Lenski 92); angels; the nature [KJV] is not in the Greek
(Vincent 4.406); angels (Williams).
[ 86 ]ALLA EPILAMBANETAI, but he takes hold (Marshall 857); EPILAMBANETAI is third person
singular, imperfect active indicative of OPHEILOO (Han 395); but he does take helpful hold (Lenski
92); that He is to help (Williams).
[ 87 ]SPERMATOS 'ABRAAM, of [the] seed of Abraham (Marshall 857); believers in both
dispensations (Vincent 4.406); of Abraham's seed (Lenski 92); but descendants of Abraham (Williams).
[ 88 ]HOTHEN, whence (Marshall 857); for which reason, wherefore, on which account (Thayer
439); hence (Lenski 92); therefore (Williams).
[ 89 ]KATA PANTA, by all means (Marshall 857); likeness is asserted without qualification . . .
poverty, temptation and violent and unmerited death (Vincent 4.407); in all respects (Lenski 92).
[ 90 ]OOPHEILEN, he owed [ought] (Marshall 857); OOPHEILEN is third person singular, imperfect
active indicative of OPHEILOO (Han 395); indicating an obligation growing out of the position which
Christ assumed: something which he owed to his position as the helper of his people (Vincent 4.407);
he was obliged (Lenski 92); He had to be (Williams).
[ 91 ]TOIS ADELPHOIS HOMOIOOTHEENAI, to the [his] brothers to become like (Marshall 857);
HOMOIOOTHEENAI is the first aorist passive infinitive of HOMOIOOO (Han 395); of making like,
or, in the passive voice, of being made or becoming like . . . of Christ in being "made like" unto His
brethren, that is, in partaking of human nature, apart from sin (Vine 873; compare verse 14); to be
made like his brothers (Lenski 92); to be made like His brothers (Williams).
[ 92 ]HINA ELEEEMOON GENEETAI KAI PISTOS ARCHIEREUS, in order that a merciful he
might become and faithful high priest (Marshall 857); GENEETAI is third person singular, second
aorist middle subjuncive of GINOMAI (Han 395); that he might be compassionate, and so [in
consequence of being compassionate], a faithful high priest (Vincent 4.408); in order to be merciful and
a faithful High Priest (Lenski 92); so that He could be a sympathetic High Priest (Williams).
[ 93 ]Septuagint ENOPION CHRISTOU MOU before my Christ. Is it possible that CHRISTOU refers
to the body of Christ, the church?
[ 94 ]TA PROS TON THEON, [in] the things in regard to God (Marshall 857); a technical phrase
denoting the functions of worship (Vincent 4.408); as to the things pertaining to God (Lenski 92); in
things relating to God (Williams).
[ 95 ]EIS TO HILASKETHAI, to make propitiation for (Marshall 857); HILASKETHAI is the present
middle infinitive of HILASKOMAI (Han 395); propitiation (Vincent 4.408; so as to expiate (Lenski
92); in order to atone for (Williams); see notes and charts on Romans 3:25.
[ 96 ]EN HOO GAR PEPONTHEN AUTOS PEIRASTHEIS, in what [way] For has suffered he being
tempted (Marshall 857); PEPONTHEN is third person singular, second perfect active indicative of
PASCHOO; PEIRASTHEIS is the first aorist passive participle, nominative singular masculine of
PEIRAZOO (Han 395); for having himself been tempted in that which he suffered (Vincent 4.408); by
the antagonism of the evil one; the context shows that the temptation was the cause of suffering to Him,
and only suffering, not a drawing away to sin (Vine 1103, 1127, 1128); literally, hath suffered when
in trial. This verb does not mean usually to be tempted to sin but to be tried by affliction (Howson 858,
859); for in that he has suffered, he himself having come to be tempted (Lenski 96); for inasmuch as
He has suffered by being tempted (Williams).
[ 97 ]TOIS PEIRAZOMENOIS, the [ones] being tempted (Marshall 857); PEIRAZOMENOIS is the
present passive participle, dative plural masculine of PEIRAZOO (Han 395); the context shows that the
temptation was the cause of suffering to Him, and only suffering, not a drawing away to sin, so that
believers have the sympathy of Christ as their High Priest in the suffering which sin occasions to those
who are in the enjoyment of communion with God; so in the similar passage in 4:15; in all the
temptations which Christ endured, there was nothing within Him that answered to sin (Vine 1128); try,
make trial of, put to the test (Arndt 640); of God; to inflict evils upon one in order to prove his
character and the steadfastness of his faith (Thayer 498); those who are tempted (Lenski 96); to succor
them that are in trial (Howson 858); to any that are tempted (Williams); see note above on For that He
Himself has suffered).
[ 98 ]DUNATAI BOEETHEESAI, he is able to help (Marshall 857; Lenski 96); BOEETHEESAI is
the first aorist active infinitive of BOEETHEOO (Han 395); [is] able, [has] power to come to the aid
of, succor (Vine 5, 544); help, come to the aid of (Arndt 144); help succor, bring aid (Thayer 104);
He is able to give immediate [in aorist infinitive] help (Williams).
Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Ridgefield, Washington,
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The basic text, and all quotations not designated otherwise,
are from the New King James Version, copyrighted ©1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc.
All rights reserved. Used by permission. Bracketed alternatives are drawn from various
sources such as the ASV, Darby, KJV and RSV.
Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.
Published in The Old Paths Archive
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