The Letter to the Hebrews
Chapter 4
Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Ridgefield, Washington


    1. Christians urged to claim the OT promise of rest (Heb 4:1-11).
    2. The word of God is powerful (Heb 4:12, 13).
    3. Christ our great High Priest (Heb 4:14, 15).
    4. Mercy from the throne of grace (Heb 4:16).

Chapter[ 1 ] 4 urges Christians to claim the OT promise of rest that remains. Readers are reminded of the powerful word of God. The chapter closes with a consideration of Christ, our great High Priest and the help available through Him (see chart HEBREWS 4 OUTLINE).


4:1 Therefore, since a promise remains of entering His rest, let us fear lest any of you seem to have come short of it.

Therefore.[ 2 ] The Hebrew writer refers to the discussion in chapter 3. In that chapter, he exhorted Christians to hold fast their confidence (Heb 3:6; compare 4:14; 10:23). He warned about an evil, unbelieving heart (Heb 3:12) and the deceitfulness of sin (Heb 3:13). The Israelites who provoked God perished in the wilderness were held up as an example.

Since a promise remains [while the promise remains, a promise being left us [a promise being left, while the promise remains].[ 3 ] God has promised rest. The Greek present tense implies that the promise continues to be in effect. It still stands.


    (Heb 4:1)

    1. Heirs of salvation (Heb 1:14).
    2. The world to come (Heb 2:5-8).
    3. Delivered from fear of death (Heb 2:14, 15).
    4. Partakers of a heavenly calling (Heb 3:1).
    5. Participants in the rest of God (Heb 4:1-11).

Of entering His rest [of entering into his rest].[ 4 ] Canaan is a type of heaven. The heavenly rest remains for Christians. The Israelites were promised rest upon entering Canaan (see De 3:18-20). God said to Moses:

Let us fear.[ 5 ] The fact that God has promised rest does not guarantee that every Christian will enjoy it. The fact that there is a promise is not a reason to relax. It is, in reality, cause for concern, even fear. There is a need for fear lest there be an evil heart of unbelief (Heb 3:12), lest any be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin (Heb 3:13) and lest Christians fall through unbelief as did the Israelites (Heb 3:18, 19).

Lest any of you [lest haply any one of you, lest some of you].[ 6 ] Although the original readers were Jewish Christians, every believer is addressed. There is none to whom it does not apply. Any one may fall (see 1Co 10:12).

Seem to have come short of it [be judged to have failed to reach it, should seem to come short, to have come short, of it].[ 7 ] Should the promise of rest concern us? Yes. Are Christians too late for the promise? Not at all (see Heb 4:6). In the present verse, a possibility of being lost is indicated. Just as the Israelites did not enter Canaan because of unbelief, it is possible for Christians to miss the heavenly rest for the same reason.


    (Heb 4:2)

    1. The word was not mixed with faith
    (Heb 4:2, 6).
    2. Murmured and complained.
    3. Set up alternate plans.
    4. Sought alternate leaders.
    5. An evil heart of unbelief (Heb 3:12, 19).
    6. Disobedient (Heb 3:18; 4:11).


    (Heb 4:2)

    1. Their hearts were hardened (Heb 4:7).
    2. Grudgingly accepted God's plan.
    3. Openly rebelled against God's provision.
    4. Hardened by the deceitfulness of sin
    (Heb 3:13).


    (Heb 4:1)

    1. To the Israelites, the rest of God was Canaan.
    a. They did not enter His rest (Heb 4:3, 5).
    2. To Christians, the rest of God is heaven.
    a. They, like the Israelites may possibly fall by disobedience (Heb 4:11).
    b. The faithful shall "rest from their labors" (Re 14:13).


4:2 For indeed the gospel was preached to us as well as to them; but the word which they heard did not profit them, not being mixed with faith in those who heard it.

For indeed the gospel was preached to us [for good news, the good message, came to us, we have had good tidings preached unto us, for unto us was the gospel preached].[ 8 ] In the present verse, the "gospel" or "good news" does not require the death, burial and resurrection of Christ (see 1Co 15:1-4). Instead, it centers on the promise of entering into God's rest. However, the Hebrew Christians had heard and obeyed the gospel of Christ. They met the NT conditions of entering the rest: hearing, believing, repenting, confessing faith in Christ and being baptized for the remission of sins. The "good news" is that God wants His people to be faithful and to enter the heavenly rest.

As well as to them [just as unto them, even as also they, even as to them].[ 9 ] The Israelites heard the OT conditions not only of entering Canaan but of entering into the heavenly rest. Every Christian has heard and responded to the NT conditions.


    (Heb 4:2)

    1. So the people believed . . . they bowed their heads and worshiped (Ex 4:31).
    2. All that the LORD has spoken we will do
    (Ex 19:8).
    3. And all the people answered with one voice and said, "All the words which the LORD has said we will do" (Ex 24:3).
    4. Tell us all that the LORD our God says to you, and we will hear and do it (De 5:27).

But the word which they heard [but the message they heard, but the word preached, of hearing].[ 10 ] The Israelites heard the word of God from Moses (see Ex 6:2, 10, 13, 28, 29; 7:8, 19; 8:1, 5; 12:1; 13:1; 14:1, etc.). Did they, like the Bereans, hear with all readiness of mind (see chart ISRAELITE HEARERS)?

Did not profit them [did not benefit them].[ 11 ] The word that the Israelites heard did them little good because they did not believe it (see note on Heb 3:19). Jesus said:

Being baptized without belief profits no one.


    (Heb 4:2)

    1. The Israelites heard the word (Heb 3:16).
    2. They believed (Ps 106:12).
    3. They soon forgot His works; they did not wait for His counsel (Ps 106:13).
    4. They forgot God their Savior, who had done great things in Egypt (Ps 106:21).
    5. Then they despised the pleasant land; they did not believe His word (Ps 106:24).

No matter that a person has performed a large number of good works, a lack of belief is enough to condemn.

Not being mixed with faith in those who heard it [because it did not meet with faith, was not united by faith, in the hearers, in them, with them, that heard, that heard it, because the faith did not permeate those who heard].[ 12 ] The difference in the Greek participles is minor. The first would imply "they" were not united with Joshua and Caleb who brought back a good report (see Nu 14:1-10). The second, and likely the correct one, denotes not having been united by faith with "the word" in their hearts. The word did not profit because it was not mixed, integrated, incorporated or assimilated by faith in their hearts.


4:3 For we who have believed do enter that rest, as He has said: "So I swore in My wrath, they shall not enter My rest," although the works were finished from the foundation of the world.

For we who have believed do enter that rest [for we which have believed, enter, do enter into, rest, the rest].[ 13 ] Inasmuch as believers enter "that rest" it is implied that unbelievers do not. The door to that rest is forever closed to them. That is, until they become believers. The plain meaning is that people who have believed enter into God's rest in accordance with His promise. This "rest" is thought by some to be a spiritual repose for believers who are harassed and persecuted.[ 14 ] If so, there is still another "rest" in this chapter, the heavenly SABBATISMOS Sabbath rest (see note on verse 9). Christians sing of that beautiful rest.[ 15 ]


As He has said: So I swore in My wrath [as I, as he, as he, even as he, said, hath said, As I swore, sware, have sworn, in my wrath].[ 16 ]

They shall not enter My rest [They shall never enter, if they shall enter, into my rest].[ 17 ] The rest spoken of here is not the seventh day Sabbath. We know this because at the time God made the oath at Kadesh Barnea (Nu 15:20-30), the Israelites had already been observing that. After He made the oath, we have this:

God's oath that "They shall not enter My rest" apparently was given near the end of the forty years of wandering.

Although the works were finished [although his works were finished].[ 18 ] The fact that God's works were "finished" implies that He had already prepared the promised rest. Although God had finished the preparation of a rest for His people, He did not reveal His holy Sabbath until the Jews were in the wilderness.


    (Heb 4:3)

    1. Things kept secret from the foundation of the world (Mt 13:35).
    2. Kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world (Mt 25:34).
    3. Blood of all the prophets which was shed from the foundation of the world (Lu 11:50).
    4. You loved Me before the foundation of the world (Joh 17:24).


    (Heb 4:3)

    1. Chose us in Him before the foundation of the world (Eph 1:4).
    2. He then would have had to suffer often since the foundation of the world (Heb 9:26).
    3. He indeed was foreordained before the foundation of the world (1Pe 1:20).
    4. Whose names have not been written in the Book of Life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world (Re 13:8).
    5. Whose names are not written in the Book of Life from the foundation of the world
    (Re 17:8).

From the foundation of the world [from the creation of the world].[ 19 ] Clarke understands the foundation of the world to be the time of "the completion of the work of creation in six days."[ 20 ] This is probably correct. The creation was made for man (Mk 2:27; Heb 2:1-8).


4:4, 5 For He has spoken in a certain place of the seventh day in this way: "And God rested on the seventh day from all His works"; 5 and again in this place: "They shall not enter My rest."

For He has spoken in a certain place [for he spake, hath said, somewhere, for somewhere he spoke].[ 21 ] The reference is to Genesis 2:2.

Of the seventh day in this way [of the seventh day on this wise, like this].[ 22 ]

And God rested on the seventh day from all His works [and God did rest the, in the, seventh day from all his works].[ 23 ] Although God rested on the seventh day of creation week, He did not make known to man the seventh-day Sabbath at that time (see note above on verse 3).

[4:5] And again in this place [and in this place, the same place again].[ 24 ]

They shall not enter My rest [he said, They shall never enter, if they shall enter, into my rest].[ 25 ] Compare Numbers 14:23, 28-30; Deuteronomy 1:34, 35).


4:6, 7 Since therefore it remains that some must enter it, and those to whom it was first preached did not enter because of disobedience, 7 again He designates a certain day, saying in David, "Today," after such a long time, as it has been said: "Today, if you will hear His voice, do not harden your hearts."


    (Heb 4:6)

    1. A rest was provided and offered to Israelites.
    a. Failed to enter because of sin of unbelief.
    2. God provides nothing in vain.
    a. Performs no useless experiments.
    b. Never disappointed in His purposes.
    3. The provided rest remains for all true Israelites.
    a. Those like Joshua and Caleb who have faith in God and rely on His promises.
    4. There is a rest remaining for the people of God.
    a. The faithful will enter into it.

Since therefore it remains that some must enter it [seeing therefore it remaineth, for some, that some are, to enter into it, should, must, thereinto, therein].[ 26 ] God intends and expects some people to enter His rest. Because the disobedient Israelites failed to enter, the promise of it remains. Since the promised rest remains, Christians are invited to enter into it:

And those to whom it was first preached [and they who formerly received the good news, to whom the good tidings were before preached].[ 27 ] The "good news" first preached has reference to the announcement of the promised rest to the Israelites in the days of Moses and Joshua (see note on verse 2).

Did not enter [failed to enter in, entered not in].[ 28 ] The generation of Israelites who came out of Egypt with Moses failed to enter Canaan.[ 29 ] After the forty years of wandering, the first generation had died off. After that, the second generation was allowed to enter the promised land. Was that the complete fulfillment of the promise of rest? It was not (see verse 7).

Because of disobedience [because of unbelief].[ 30 ] Some versions render the word APEITHEIAN as disobedience; others unbelief. Like the twins faith and obedience, Unbelief and disobedience go hand in hand.

[4:7] Again He designates a certain day [he again sets, defineth, limiteth, a certain day].[ 31 ] The designation of a certain day implies that the time of entering God's rest has not expired.

Saying in David, Today [Today, saying through David].[ 32 ] To Christians "today" is any time while life lasts.

After such a long time [so long afterward, so long a time afterward, after so long a time].[ 33 ] "Such a long time" is the time from Moses until David. There is a Biblical statement of the number of years from the exodus until the fourth year of Solomon's reign.

David reigned forty years and his son Solomon was in his fourth year when the statement above was made. Therefore, the time span from Moses to David would be less than 480 years.

As it has been said [in the words already quoted, as it is said, was said, even as hath been said before].[ 34 ] The Israelites in the wilderness at Kadesh were invited to go right on into the promised land and possess it (Nu 14:6-9). They rebelled and disobeyed and were sentenced to wander and die in the wilderness (Nu 14:22, 23).

Today, if you will hear His voice [Today, when you, if ye shall, hear his voice].[ 35 ] See notes on Hebrews 3:7, 15.

Do not harden your hearts [harden not your hearts].[ 36 ] One should never treat a command of God as non-essential. One should never contemplate reject or willfully delay obedience. To do so is to harden the heart.


4:8 For if Joshua had given them rest, then He would not afterward have spoken of another day.

For if Joshua [for if Jesus].[ 37 ]

Had given them rest [had given them that rest].[ 38 ] Joshua gave the Israelites a comparative degree of rest in Canaan. Nevertheless the rest he gave them was not the rest of God in the promise.

Then He would not afterward have spoken of another day [he, God, would not speak later, would not have spoken afterward, then would he not afterward have spoken, of another day later].[ 39 ] If Joshua had given the Israelites the rest that fulfilled God's promise, He would not afterward have spoken of "another" day through David. That promise of rest still remains (see verse 9). It is the heavenly Sabbath rest.


4:9 There remains therefore a rest for the people of God.


    (Heb 4:9)

    1. The ideal rest.
    2. A theme of Hebrews is the restoration of all things to God's original plan.
    3. The Israelite's sin and unbelief incompatible with God's rest.
    4. God's rest remained unappropriated until harmony was restored by the gospel.
    5. The Sabbath-rest consummates the new creation in Christ.

    (Adapted from Vincent 4.424)

There remains therefore a rest [so then, therefore, there remaineth therefore a sabbath rest].
[ 40 ] The use of the word SABBATISMOS Sabbath rest or keeping of a sabbath is significant. However, it is not the rest of the seventh-day Sabbath. Neither is it the rest of entering into Canaan. Some have suggested that it means rest from sin but this is not probable because the Hebrew writer is encouraging Christians. The context strongly suggests that the rest is heaven (see Mt 11:28, 29; Re 14:13):

For the people of God [to the people of God].[ 41 ]


    (Heb 4:9)

    1. A people for His name (Ac 15:14).
    2. The Israel of God (Ga 6:16).
    3. His own special people (Tit 2:14; 1Pe 2:9).
    4. The people of God (Heb 4:9).


4:10 For he who has entered His rest has himself also ceased from his works as God did from His.


    (Heb 4:10)

    1. Lazarus in Abraham's bosom (Lu 16:22).
    2. The penitent thief (Lu 23:43).
    3. Paul (2Co 5:8; Php 1:23).
    4. Twenty-four elders (Re 4:10, 11).
    5. 144,000 (Re 7:4).
    6. A great multitude which no one could number (Rev 7:9).

For he who has entered His rest [for whoever enters, is entered into, God's rest].[ 42 ] Some refer the singular verb to Christ who ascended to heaven and entered into the rest of God. Perhaps so, but it may be general enough to apply to Him plus any other person who has entered God's rest.

Has himself also ceased from his works [also ceases, hath himself rested, also rested, he also hath ceased, from his labors, from his own works].[ 43 ] Those who have entered God's heavenly rest have ended the agonizing toil and weariness of this life. This does not mean they are completely inactive in the better land (see Re 14:13; 21:4).

As God did from His.[ 44 ] IDIOON own (see footnote) implies that the works were not merely owned but were peculiarly God's own. His works of creation were unique. They characteristically declare His handiwork (Ps 19:1-6). Although He rested from creation, He is not without activity (see Lu 11:7; 18:5-8; Joh 5:17; Ga 6:17).


4:11 Let us therefore be diligent to enter that rest, lest anyone fall according to the same example of disobedience.


    (Heb 4:11)

    1. Because of unbelief they were broken off
    (Ro 11:20).
    2. Let him who thinks he stands take heed lest he fall (1Co 10:12).
    3. Do you not know yourselves, that Jesus Christ is in you?-- unless indeed you are disqualified (2Co 13:5).
    4. Work out your own salvation with fear and trembling (Php 2:12).
    5. You have become estranged from Christ, you who attempt to be justified by law; you have fallen from grace (Ga 5:4)

Let us therefore be diligent [let us then strive, give diligence, put forth every effort, labor therefore].[ 45 ] Our first and foremost task on earth is to respond to God's invitation to to strive enter into His rest (compare Lu 13:24; 1Co 10:1-12; 2Pe 1:5-11).

To enter that rest [to enter into that rest].[ 46 ] The heavenly rest of God is the original rest promised first to the faithful Israelites. The unbelieving ones did not enter into it because of unbelief. It is imperative that Christians make every effort to enter it.

Lest anyone fall according to the same example of disobedience [that no one, no man, lest any man, fall by the same sort, fall after the same example, of unbelief].[ 47 ] The Greek PESEE fall does not indicate falling into the example of disobedience but to fall from the grace of God.


4:12 For the word of God is living and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the division of soul and spirit, and of joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.

For the word of God.[ 48 ] God's holy word is not mere history, philosophy or theory. Just as His works characterize Him, so does His word (see note on verse 10). Like Him, it is pure, dependable and powerful. It includes the promise of rest.


    (Heb 4:12)

    1. Shall not return to Me void, but it shall accomplish what I please (Isa 55:11).
    2. The words that I speak to you are spirit, and they are life (Joh 6:63).
    3. The word of this salvation (Ac 13:26).
    4. The sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God (Eph 6:17).
    5. The word which they heard (Heb 4:2).


    (Heb 4:12)

    1. Living.
    2. Powerful, active.
    3. Sharp, severs, pierces.
    4. A discerner, a judge.


    (Heb 4:12)

    1. With the breath of His lips He shall slay the wicked (Isa 11:4).
    2. And He has made My mouth like a sharp sword (Isa 49:2).
    3. The sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God (Eph 6:17).


    (Heb 4:12)

    1. Sharper than any two-edged sword
    (Heb 4:12).
    2. Out of His mouth went a sharp two-edged sword (Re 1:16).
    3. These things says He who has the sharp two- edged sword (Re 2:12).
    4. Will fight against them with the sword of My mouth (Re 2:16).

Is living [is quick].[ 49 ] Although "living" is primarily true of the promise of rest, it is also a characteristic of the entire revealed message recorded in the pages of the Bible. Stephen called God's word the "living oracles" (Ac 7:38). This also agrees with Peter's evaluation of that word. In fact, since "living" is placed first in the series, it is given a degree of importance over the subsequent attributes of the Word.

And powerful [and active].[ 50 ]

And sharper [sharper, and sharper than any two-edged sword].[ 51 ] The word of God is the sword of the Spirit (Eph 6:17). It will prick the heart of sinners (Ac 2:37).

Than any two-edged sword.[ 52 ] As Marshall Keeble said, a two-edged sword cuts coming and going.

Piercing [ and piercing].[ 53 ] The sword which is the Word of God is piercing.

Even to the division of soul and spirit [even to the dividing, the dividing asunder, of soul and spirit].[ 54 ] Greek philosophers regarded man as a triune being having a material body, an animal soul and an eternal spirit. The soul, according to them, is the seat of "animal" life, passions and appetites. The spirit is the seat of higher thought and morality. Guy N. Woods wrote:

Woods continues to point out that "spirit" is a specific term and designates "that part of us which is not susceptible to death and which survives the dissolution of the body (see Ge 25:8; 35:18; Ps 90:10; Ac 7:59; 2Co 5:1, 6-8). The spirit comes from God. Death occurs when the spirit leaves the body.

"Soul" is not so easy to define. The word is used in at least four difference senses in Scripture. Its meaning has to be determined from the context. To illustrate, the word "ship" may mean an ocean-going vessel or as a verb meaning to send some material by any means. The context determines the appropriate meaning.


    (Heb 4:12)

    1. Person (Ac 2:41; 1Pe 3:20).
    2. "Animal" life (Ps 78:50).
    3. The thinking part of man
    (1Co 1:18-28; 2:6-16).
    4. Synonymous with "spirit" (Ac 2:27).

And of joints and marrow [of joints, of both joints, the joints, and marrow].[ 55 ] Joints and marrow may be used figuratively to allude to man's innermost spiritual recesses. The word of God is extremely thorough in its work both within the physical and spiritual parts of man.

And is a discerner [and discerning, and quick to discern, and is a judge].[ 56 ] One translation says the word "judges" (compare Joh 12:48).

Of the thoughts and intents of the heart [of the thoughts, purposes, intentions, of the heart].[ 57 ]


    (Heb 4:12)

    1. Living, full of energy and power.
    2. Lays bare ideas, affections and desires.
    3. Affects man's physical nature.
    4. Judges thoughts and purposes.


4:13 And there is no creature hidden from His sight, but all things are naked and open to the eyes of Him to whom we must give account.

And there is no creature [no, and no, neither is there any, creature].[ 58 ]

Hidden from His sight [is hidden from his sight, before him is hidden, that is not manifest in his sight].[ 59 ] Out of shame, a child-molester may cover his face when reporters are taking photographs. A criminal may hang his head when the verdict is read. One may deceive himself (Ga 6:3). One may keep secrets from a spouse or the church. No matter how one may hide or be in darkness, the all-knowing God is aware of his secret thoughts, plans and activities (see Ac 1:24; 15:8).

But all things are naked [but all are open, but all things are bare].[ 60 ]

And open to the eyes of Him [and laid bare, and opened, laid open, exposed, before, unto, the eyes of him].[ 61 ] In ancient times, criminals heads were held back so that their faces could be viewed. Informers heads were forcibly up lifted so that their faces were clearly seen.[ 62 ] Wrestlers commonly hold back their opponents' heads to expose their agonizing faces to the crowd. Sacrificial animals were exposed to the eyes of the priest for inspection.

To whom we must give account [with whom we have to do, to whom we are accountable].[ 63 ] There is a relationship with God in everything a person does. Nothing is totally detached from Him. Nothing is neutral. Everything is either in accordance to His will or it is not. It is not before friends, enemies or even impartial arbitrators that we shall be judged. It is with God that "we must give account."


4:14 Seeing then that we have a great High Priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our confession.


    (Heb 4:14)

    1. Merciful and faithful (Heb 2:17).
    2. Made like His brethren (Heb 2:17; 10:5).
    3. Apostle and High Priest of our confession
    (Heb 3:1).
    4. A great High Priest . . . sympathizes with weaknesses (Heb 4:14, 15).
    5. Did not glorify Himself to become High Priest
    (Heb 5:4, 5).


    (Heb 4:14)

    1. A priest forever after the order of Melchizedek (Heb 5:6, 10; 6:20).
    2. According to the power of an endless life
    (Heb 7:16).
    3. Holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and has become higher than the heavens (Heb 7:26).
    4. Does not need daily to offer up sacrifices, first for His own sins and then for the people's, for this He did once for all when He offered up Himself (Heb 7:27).
    5. The word of the oath, which came after the law, appoints the Son who has been perfected forever (Heb 7:26-28).

Seeing then [since then, then].[ 64 ] Christ is a merciful and faithful High Priest on behalf of the sins of His people (see notes on Heb 2:17, 18).


    (Heb 4:14)

    1. Seated at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens (Heb 8:1).
    2. A Minister of the sanctuary and of the true tabernacle which the Lord erected, and not man (Heb 8:2).
    3. It is necessary that this One also have something to offer (Heb 8:3).
    4. In heaven (Heb 8:2; 9:11, 12, 24; 10:12, 19).
    5. Offered Self (Heb 8:3; 9:12, 14, 27, 28;


    (Heb 4:14)

    1. Christ came as High Priest of the good things to come, with the greater and more perfect tabernacle not made with hands (Heb 9:11).
    2. With His own blood He entered the Most Holy Place once for all, having obtained eternal redemption (Heb 9:12).
    3. How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without spot to God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?
    (Heb 9:14).

That we have a great High Priest [having, we have, a great high priest][ 65 ] (see charts CHRIST OUR HIGH PRIEST A, B, C and D; JESUS' PRIESTHOOD PROVIDES).

Who has passed through the heavens [who, who hath passed, that is passed, into the heavens].[ 66 ] Jesus has passed through the heavens right on to the throne at the right hand of God (compare 1Co 12:2).


    (Heb 4:14)

    1. Deliverance (Heb 2:15).
    2. Aids those tempted (Heb 2:18; 4:15; 7:25; 8:6; 9:15, 24).
    3. Mercy and grace to help (Heb 4:16).
    4. Hope (Heb 6:19, 20).
    5. Intercession (Heb 7:25).
    6. Cleanses conscience (Heb 9:14).
    7. Author and finisher of our faith (Heb 12:2).


    (Heb 4:14)

    1. Bears sins (Heb 9:28).
    2. Perfects forever those who are being sanctified (Heb 10:14).
    3. Hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience
    (Heb 10:22).
    4. Saving of the soul (Heb 10:39).
    5. By Him let us continually offer the sacrifice of praise to God, that is, the fruit of our lips, giving thanks to His name (Heb 13:15).

Jesus the Son of God.[ 67 ] We are reminded that our Mediator "the man Christ Jesus" is Himself the Son of God (see 1Ti 2:5).

Let us hold fast our confession [let us hold fast, firmly to, our profession, the confession].[ 68 ] The truth about Christ being our faithful High Priest motivates every Christian to strive to remain true to our confession (see Heb 3:6; 5:1).


4:15 For we do not have a High Priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but was in all points tempted as we are, yet without sin.

For we do not have a High Priest [for we have not an high priest].[ 69 ] Perhaps the readers were familiar with callous, insensitive, unsympathetic Levitical high priests such as Annas and Caiaphas.

Who cannot sympathize with [which, that, is unable to sympathize, cannot be touched].[ 70 ]

Our weaknesses [with the feeling of our infirmities].[ 71 ] Does Jesus care? I know He cares. His heart is touched with my grief!

But was in all points tempted [but One who was, who but was, but one that hath been, in every respect has been, tempted, in every respect].[ 72 ] Jesus was tempted with various desires (see Mt 4:1-11; Lu 4:2-12).

As we are [like as, just as, we are].[ 73 ] Some understand this to mean Christ's likeness to humans.

Yet without sin [yet without sin].[ 74 ] Jesus is without sin. He committed no transgression in spite of being tempted in every way (see Isa 53:9; Heb 7:26;, 1Pe 2:22). Our sinless High Priest is compassionate and able to help sinners who believe, trust and obey Him.


4:16 Let us therefore come boldly to the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy and find grace to help in time of need.

Let us therefore come [Let us then draw near, therefore let us come].[ 75 ] Because we have such a marvelous and gracious High Priest we may come near to Him. The Hebrew writer encourages Christians by showing how sympathetic and able is the Christian's High Priest. He is always available.

Boldly [with confidence, boldness].[ 76 ] Christians may draw near to the throne of Christ with confident assurance that He will hear them.

To the throne of grace [unto the throne of grace].[ 77 ] A king may rule from his throne with impulse, whim or caprice. Human suffering may not even touch his hard heart, but from the Lord's heavenly throne grace streams abundantly. His throne is a throne of grace!

That we may obtain mercy [that we may find, receive. mercy].[ 78 ] Penitent sinners receive mercy and forgiveness. God has provided salvation for all (Lu 1:71; Ro 15:9; Ga 6:16; 1Ti 1:2; Tit 1:16; 3:5; Jude 21). He is rich in mercy (Eph 2:4).

And find grace [and grace, and may find grace].[ 79 ] Our need for God's favor may be satisfied at the throne of grace.

To help in time of need [to help us in time of need, for timely help].[ 80 ] None of us is so strong and wise that he does not have many times of need. God comes to our rescue with His gracious help in every season, day or night.


[ 1 ]The basic text in this chapter is the NKJV. Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright 1979, 1980, 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. Alternate phrases in brackets are from ASV, ESB, KJV, RSV and occasionally another version. Greek transliteration tends to follow the BibleSoft method.
[ 2 ]OUN, therefore (Marshall 860); since then (Thayer 464); so (Williams); then (Lenski 125).
[ 3 ]KATALEIPOMENEES EPANGELIAS, being left a promise (Marshall 860); KATALEIPOMENEES is the present passive participle, genitive singular feminine of KATALEIPOO (Han 396); the act of promising, a promise given or to be given (Thayer 226); still remaining (Vincent 4.420); the promise is still remaining valid (Williams); although there is [still] being left a promise (Lenski 125);
[ 4 ]EISELTHEIN EIS TEEN KATAPAUSIN AUTOU, to enter into the rest of him (Marshall 860); [EIS in, ERCHOMAI to come]; in the NT, rest, repose, used of God's rest (Vine 364, 960); for us to be admitted to His rest (Williams); to enter into his rest (Lenski 125).
[ 5 ]PHOBEETHOOMEN, let us fear (Marshall 860; Williams; Lenski 125); first person plural, first aorist passive subjunctive of PHOBEOO (Han 396); show reverential fear (Vine 661).
[ 6 ]MEEPOTE . . . TIS EX HUMOON, lest anyone of you (Marshall 860); lest ever, lest perhaps (Vine 415); some one of you (Williams); someone of your number (Lenski 125).
[ 7 ]DOKEE HUSTEREEKENAI, to have come short (Marshall 860); DOKEE is third person singular, present active subjunctive of DOKEOO (Han 396); [should seem] to be behind (Vine 198); lest any one of you think he has come too late for it (Vincent 4.420, 421); may be found to have missed it (Williams); imagine he has come to be behind (Lenski 125).
[ 8 ]KAI GAR ESPEN EUEENGELISMENOI, for indeed we are having had good news preached [to us] (Marshall 860); ESPEN is first person plural, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 396); literally, we have had good tidings proclaimed to us (Vincent 4.421); for we have had the good news told to us (Williams); for also we have been told glad tidings (Lenski 125).
[ 9 ]KATHAPER KAKEINOI, even as those also (Marshall 860); as well as they (Williams); just as also they (Lenski 125).
[ 10 ]ALL' HO LOGOS TEES AKOEES, but the word of hearing (Marshall 860); literally, the word of the message (Vincent 4.42); the word of hearing (R. Milligan 130); but the message heard (Williams); but the word of hearing [the Word heard] (Lenski 125).
[ 11 ]OUK OOPHELEESEN EKEINOUS, did not prophet those (Marshall 860); OOPHELEESEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of OOPHELEOO (Han 396); did them no good (Williams); did not profit them (Lenski 125).
[ 12 ] MEE SUNKEKERASMENOS [or SUNKEKERASMENOUS] TEE PISTEI TOIS AKOUSASIN, not having been mixed together with faith in the [ones] hearing (Marshall 860); SUNKEKERASMENOS is the perfect passive participle, nominative singular masculine of SUNKERANNUMI (Han 396); literally, mixed with [SUN with, KERANNUM to mix, mingle], (Vine 749); because not incorporated by faith in them that heard; the perfect passive participle SUNKEKERASMENOUS relates to LOGOS in the nominative singular; SUNKEKERASMENOUS is the accusative plural (Vincent 4.421); permeate, did not influence them to obey the Lord (Littrell); because they were not by faith made one [following Westcott-Hort--mixed by faith, etc.] with those who heeded it [who heard, Joshua, Caleb] (Williams); not having mixed itself by faith with those who heard (Lenski 125).
[ 13 ]EISERCHOMETHA GAR EIS [TEEN] KATAPAUSIN HOI PISTEUSANTES, we enter For into the rest the [ones] believing (Marshall 860); EISERCHOMETHA is first person plural, present middle indicative of EISERCHOMAI; PISTEUSANTES is the first active participle, nominative plural masculine of PISTEUOO (Han 396); aorist participle, entering into the rest is a fact which characterizes us as believers (Vincent 4.422); for we who believed are being admitted to that rest (Williams); for we are entering into the rest, [we] who have come to believe (Lenski 129).
[ 14 ]Downer.
[ 15 ]Some of the songs about the heavenly rest are: No Tears in Heaven, When We All Get to Heaven, Encamped along the Hills of Light, Wonderful City of God, I Am Bound for the Promised Land, O Land of Rest For Thee I Sigh, Sing to Me of Heaven, Won't it Be Wonderful There? In the Sweet By and By, Shall We Gather at the River, Just Over in Glory Land, Where the Gates Swing Outward Never.
[ 16 ]KATHOOS EIREEKEN: HOOS OOMOSA EN TEE ORGEE MOU, as he has said: As I swore in the wrath of me (Marshall 860); EIREEKEN is third person singular, perfect active indicative of EIPON (Han 396); just as He has said: "As in my anger I took oath" (Williams); even as he has said: So I swore in my wrath (Lenski 129).
[ 17 ] EI EISELEUSONTAI EIS TEEN KATAPAUSIN MOU, If they shall enter into the rest of me (Marshall 860); EISELEUSONTAI is third person plural, future middle indicative of EISERCHOMAI (Han 397); they shall not be admitted to my rest (Williams); they shall not enter into my rest (Lenski 129).
[ 18 ]KAITOI TOON ERGOON GENEETHENTOON, thou the works having come into being (Marshall 860); GENEETHENTOON is the first aorist passive participle, genitive plural neuter of GINOMAI (Han 397); became, came into existence, that is, were brought to their predestined end (Vine 431); although God's works had been completed (Williams); the works certainly existing (Lenski 129).
[ 19 ]APO KATABOLEES KOSMOU, from [the] foundation of [the] world (Marshall 860); from the foundation of the world (Thayer 330; Arndt 409); of a foundation, as that which is laid down, or in the sense of founding; metaphorically, of the foundation of the world . . . looks back to the past eternity (Vine 458); at the creation of the world (Williams); since the foundation of the world (Lenski 129).
[ 20 ]Adam Clarke 6.710.
[ 21 ]EIREEKEN GAR POU, for he has said somewhere (Marshall 860; Lenski 129); for somewhere He speaks (Williams).
[ 22 ]PERI TEES HEBDOMEES HOUTOOS, concerning the seventh [day] thus (Marshall 860); of the seventh day (Williams); regarding the seventh day thus (Lenski 129, 130).
[ 23 ]KAI KATEPAUSEN HO THEOS EN TEE HEMERA TEE HEBDOMEE APO PANTOON TOON ERGOON AUTOU, and rested God in the day seventh from all the works of him (Marshall 860); KATEPAUSEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of KATAPAUOO (Han 397); on the seventh day God rested from all His works [see Ge 2:2] (Williams); and God rested on the seventh day from all his works (Lenski 130).
[ 24 ]KAI EN TOUTOO PALIN, and in this [place] again (Marshall 860); while in this passage again (Williams); and in this [place] again (Lenski 130).
[ 25 ]EI EISELEUSONTAI EIS TEEN KATAPAUSIN MOU, if they shall enter into the rest of me (Marshall 860, 861); EISELEUSONTAI is third person plural, future middle indicative of EISERCHOMAI (Han 397); they shall not be admitted to my rest (Williams); they shall not enter into my rest (Lenski 130).
[ 26 ]EPEI OUN APOLEIPETAI TINAS EISELTHEIN EIS AUTEEN, since therefore it remains [for] some to enter into it (Marshall 861); APOLEIPETAI is third person singular, present passive indicative of APOLEIPOO; EISELTHEIN is the second aorist active infinitive of EISERCHOMAI (Han 397); APOLEIPETAI means "remains over from past times (Vincent 4.423); since then it still remains that some are being admitted to it (Williams); since, then, it remains for some to enter it (Lenski 133).
[ 27 ]KAI HOI PROTERON EUANGELISTHENTES, and the [ones] formerly having good news preached [to them] (Marshall 861); EUANGELISTHENTES is the first aorist passive participle, nominative plural masculine of EUANGELIZOO (Han 397); in the passive voice, of matters to be proclaimed as glad tidings . . . of persons to whom the proclamation is made (Vine 498); literally, they who were first the subjects of the announcement of the glad tidings (Vincent 4.423); and that those who first had the good news told to them (Williams); and those formerly given the glad tidings (Lenski 133).
[ 28 ]OUK EISEELTHON, did not enter (Marshall 861; Lenski 133); EISEELTHON is first person singular or third person plural, second aorist active indicative of EISERCHOMAI (Han 397); were not admitted (Williams).
[ 29 ]The exceptions were that Joshua and Caleb were allowed to enter Canaan.
[ 30 ]DI' APEITHEIAN, because of disobedience (Marshall 861; Williams; Lenski 133); disobedience (Vincent 4.423); [A negative, PEITHOO to persuade], literally, the condition of being unpersuadable; denotes obstinacy, obstinate rejection of the will of God; hence, "disobedience" (Vine 311); of disobedience of the Jews (Arndt 82).
[ 31 ]PALIN TINA HORIZEI HEMERAN, again a certain he defines day (Marshall 861); HORIZEI is third person singular, present active indicative of HORIZOO (Han 397); defineth . . . he gives another opportunity of securing the rest (Vincent 4.423); the reference is to the time of God's invitation to enter into His rest, in contrast to Israel's failure to do so, the word may mean either the appointing of the day [that is, the period], or the defining of the day, that is, marking its limits (Vine 279); He again fixes a definite day (Williams); he again fixes a day (Lenski 133).
[ 32 ]EN DAUID LEGOON, in David saying (Marshall 861); LEGOON is the poresent active participle, nominative singular masculine of LEGOO (Han 397); saying through David (Williams); in the person of David (Lenski 133).
[ 33 ]META TOSOUTON CHRONON, after such a time (Marshall 861); so long a space of time (Vine 682, 1149); long afterward (Williams); after so long a time (Lenski 133).
[ 34 ] KATHOOS PROEIREETAI, as he has previously said (Marshall 861); PROEIREETAI is third person singular, perfect passive indicative of PROLEGOO (Han 397); as it hath been before said (Vincent 4.424); as has been quoted (Williams); even as it has been said before (Lenski 133).
[ 35 ]SEEMERON EAN TEES PHOONEES AUTOU AKOUSEETE, To-day if the voice of him ye hear (Marshall 861); AKOUSEETE is second person plural, first aorist active subjunctive of AKOUOO (Han 397); if you but hear His voice (Williams); today if you shall hear his voice (Lenski 133).
[ 36 ]MEE SKLEERUNEETE TAS KARDIAS HUMOON, do not harden the hearts of you (Marshall 861); SKLEERUNEETE is second person plural present or first aorist active subjunctive of SKLEERUNOO (Han 397); you must not harden your hearts (Williams); do not harden your hearts (Lenski 133).
[ 37 ]EI GAR 'IEESOUS, for if Jesus [Joshua] (Marshall 861); whose help is Jehovah, Joshua [fully Jehoshua], the famous captain of the Israelites, Moses' successor (Thayer 300); Joshua (Vincent 4.424); the name 'IEESOUS Jesous [Jesus] is used in Hellenistic Greek for the Hebrew Y'HOSHUA in the earlier books of the OT, and for YESHUA in the later books (R. Milligan 134); for if Joshua (Williams; Lenski 133); see note on Matthew 1:21.
[ 38 ]AUTOUS KATEPAUSEN, them rested (Marshall 861); KATEPAUSEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of KATAPAUOO (Han 397); used transitively, signifies to cause to rest (Vine 960); had really given them rest (Williams); had given them rest (Lenski 133).
[ 39 ] OUK AN PERI ALLEES ELALEI META TAUTA HEEMERAS, not concerning another he would have spoken after these things day (Marshall 861); ELALEI is third person singular, imperfect active indicative of LALEOO (Han 397); after the entrance into Canaan under Joshua (Vincent 4.424); He would not afterward have been speaking of another day (Williams); he would not be speaking afterward about another day (Lenski 133).
[ 40 ] ARA APOLEIPETAI SABBATISMOS, then remains a sabbath rest (Marshall 861); APOLEIPETAI is third person singular, present passive indicative of APOLEIPOO (Han 397); the perpetual SABBATISMOS is appointed for believers (Vine 984); a Sabbath-keeping [akin to SABBATIZOO to keep the Sabbath, used, for example, in Exodus 16:30, not in the NT]; here the Sabbath-keeping is the perpetual Sabbath rest to be enjoyed uninterruptedly by believers in their fellowship with the Father and the Son, in contrast to the weekly Sabbath under the Law. Because this Sabbath rest is the rest of God Himself [4:10], its full fruition is yet future, though believers now enter into it. In whatever way they enter into Divine rest, that which they enjoy is involved in an indissoluble relation with God (Vine 960); a keeping Sabbath; SABBATISMOS instead of KATAPAUSIS (Vincent 4.424); so a sabbath of rest is still awaiting (Williams); accordingly, there [still] remains a Sabbath (Lenski 133).
[ 41 ]TOO LAOO TOU THEOU, to the people of God (Marshall 861); of Christians as the people of God (Vine 844); God's people (Williams); for the people of God (Lenski 133).
[ 42 ]HO GAR EISELTHOON EIS TEEN KATAPAUSIN AUTOU, for the [one] having entered the rest of him (Marshall 861); EISELTHOON is the second aorist active participle, nominative singular masculine of EISERCHOMAI (Han 397); the aorist tense marks the completeness of the appropriation--once and for all: whoever has once entered (Vincent 4.425); in the NT, rest, repose . . . in a general statement, applicable to God and man (Vine 960); His rest; those who die in the Lord are blessed and will find rest from their labors [see Re 14:13] (Littrell); for whoever [or, it may mean, He (Christ) who, etc.] is admitted into God's rest (Williams); for he who did enter into his rest (Lenski 137).
[ 43 ]KAI AUTOS KATEPAUSEN APO TOON ERGOON AUTOU, also [him]self rested from the works of him (Marshall 861); KATEPAUSEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of KATAPAUOO (Han 397); omit own. The statement is a general proposition: any one who has entered into God's rest has ceased from his works (Vincent 4.425); himself has rested from his works (Williams); did rest [or come to rest] from all his works (Lenski 137).
[ 44 ]HOOSPER APO TOON IDIOON HO THEOS, as from the [his] own God [did] (Marshall 861); as God [did] from his own (Vincent 4.425); just as God did (Williams); even as God from his (Lenski 137).
[ 45 ]SPOUDASOOMEN OUN, let us be eager therefore (Marshall 861); SPOUDASOOMEN is first person plural, first aorist active subjunctive of SPOUDAZOO (Han 397); earnestness, zeal or sometimes the haste accompanying this (Vine 303); give diligence, not hasten, which is the primary meaning (Vincent 4.425); strive earnestly (R. Milligan 137); so let us do our best (Williams); let us, then, be diligent (Lenski 138).
[ 46 ]EISELTHEIN EIS EKEINEEN TEEN KATAPAUSIN, to enter into that rest (Marshall 861); EISELTHEIN is the second aorist active infinitive of EISERCHOMAI (Han 397); to be admitted to that rest (Williams); to enter into that rest (Lenski 138).
[ 47 ]HINA MEE EN TOO AUTOO TIS HUPODEIGMATI PESEE TEES APEITHEIAS, lest in the same anyone example falls of disobedience (Marshall 861); PESEE is third person singular, second aorist active subjunctive of PIPTOO (Han 397); PESEE fall is to be taken absolutely; not fall into the same example . . . that no man fall in the same example of disobedience: the same as that in which they fell (Vincent 4.426); fall in the religious or moral sense, be completely ruined . . . fall from a state of grace (Arndt 660); so that not one of us may fail through the same sort of disobedience (Williams); lest anyone in the same type of the disobedience get to fall (Lenski 138).
[ 48 ]GAR HO LOGOS TOU THEOU, for the word of God (Marshall 861; Lenski 140); a saying or statement by God (Vine 1241); for God's message (Williams).
[ 49 ]ZOON [is] living (Marshall 861); ZOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine or accusative singular neuter of ZAOO (Han 397); [note the emphatic position of ZOON living]; living is the word of God, since it is the word of "the living God" [Heb 3:12] (Vincent 4.427); is alive (Williams); living is (Lenski 140).
[ 50 ]KAI ENERGEES, and operative (Marshall 861); and full of power in action [energetic, full of power, in action] (Williams); and effective (Lenski 140).
[ 51 ]KAI TOMOOTEROS, and sharper (Marshall 861; Lenski 140); [from TEMNEIN to cut], an incisive and penetrating quality (Vincent 4.427); sharper, adequate to pierce the heart and bring faith [Ac 2:37-41; 16:14, 15]. It is the sword of the Spirit [Eph. 6:17], and it is the source of our faith [Ro 10:17; Joh 20:30, 31] (Littrell); sharper (Williams).
[ 52 ]HUPER PASAN MACHAIRAN DISTOMON, beyond every sword two-mouthed [edged] (Marshall 861); [sharper] above every two-mouthed dirk or dagger (Vincent 4.427); than any double-edged sword (Williams); than any two-edged sword (Lenski 140).
[ 53 ]KAI DIIKNOUMENOS, and passing through (Marshall 861); DIIKNOUMENOS is the present middle participle, nominative singular masculine of DIIKNEOMAI (Han 397); [DIA through, IKNEOMAI to go], piercing, used of the power of the Word of God (Vine 855); literally, coming through (Vincent 4.427); piercing (Williams); and piercing (Lenski 140).
[ 54 ]ACHRI MERISMOU PSUCHEES KAI PNEUMATOS, as far division of soul and of spirit (Marshall 861); a dividing or separation. Some take this in the active sense, "as far as the cleaving asunder or separation of soul and spirit;" others in the passive sense, "as far as the division [that is, the dividing line] between soul and spirit," that is, where one differs from the other. The former seems more in keeping with the meaning of the word (Vine 320); the act of division; not the point or line of division (Vincent 4.428); even to the depths of soul and spirit (Williams); as far as division of soul and spirit (Lenski 140).
[ 55 ] HARMOON TE KAI MUELOON, of joints both and marrow (Marshall 861, 862); a joining, joint [akin to HARMOZOO to fit, join], figuratively, [with the word "marrow"] of the inward moral and spiritual being of man, as just previously expressed literally in the phrase "soul and spirit" (Vine 607); figuratively, of joints and marrow of the soul, the inmost recesses of our spiritual being (Vincent 4.428); joints and marrow are used metaphorically to refer proverbially to "the innermost essence of man's spiritual nature" (R. Milligan 139); to the dividing of joints and marrow (Williams); of both joints and marrow (Lenski 140).
[ 56 ]KAI KRITIKOS, and able to judge (Marshall 862); the word carries on the thought of dividing [from KRINEIN to divide or separate] which runs into the sense of judge, the usual meaning in the NT, the ideas of discrimination and judgment are blended; judgment involving the sifting out and analysis of evidence (Vincent 4.428); and passing judgment (Williams); and keen to judge (Lenski 140).
[ 57 ]ENTHUMEESEOON KAI ENNOIOON KARDIAS, of thoughts and intentions of a heart (Marshall 862); a cogitation, an inward reasoning [generally, evil surmising or supposition], is formed from EN in and THUMOS strong feeling, passion [compare THUMOOO in the middle voice, to be wroth, furious]; English fume is akin; the root THU signifies to rush, rage . . . the accompanying word ENNOIA denotes inward intentions (Vine 297, 1144); the sense is pondering or thinking out, the reflections [and] conceptions (Vincent 4.429); on the thoughts and purposes of the heart (Williams); a heart's considerations and thoughts (Lenski 140).
[ 58 ]KAI OUK ESTIN KTISIS, and there is no creature (Marshall 862); in the sense of the thing created (Vincent 4.429); ESTIN is third person singular, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 397); in the sense of the thing created (Vincent 4.429); no creature of His (Williams); and there is not a creature (Lenski 140).
[ 59 ]APHANEES ENOOPION AUTOU, unmanifest before him (Marshall 862); unseen, hidden, not manifest [A negative, PHAINOO appearing, visible] (Vine 708); can escape God's sight (Williams); unexposed before him (Lenski 140).
[ 60 ] PANTA DE GUMNA, but all things [are] naked (Marshall 862); unclothed, metaphorically, of things exposed to the all-seeing eye of God (Vine 771); but everything is bare (Williams); but everything naked (Lenski 140).
[ 61 ]KAI TETRACHEELISMENA TOIS OPHTHALMOIS AUTOU, and having been laid open to the eyes of him (Marshall 862); TETRACHEELISMENA is the perfect passive participle, nominative plural neuter of TRACHEELIZOO (Han 397); TETRACHEELISMENA, perfect participle of TRACHEELIZOO, which appears to denote bending back the neck [TRACHEELOS] or seizing by the throat. The former sense is quoted from Theophrastus [bending back the sacrificial victim's neck for the fatal stroke]. E. K. Simpson quotes examples from Philo and Josephus in support of the rendering "exhausted"; "in the wrestler's art TRACHEELISMOS was a grip of the antagonist's throat akin to the bandit's GARROTE, rendering him limp and powerless . . . This characteristic figure then may be held to represent either the denuded or helpless plight of all created persons or forces when brought face to face with their Creator and Lord" [EQ xviii, 1946, page 38], at the end of an article on "The Vocabulary of the Epistle to the Hebrews"] (Bruce 83); to seize and twist the neck [from TRACHEELOS the throat], was used of wrestlers, in the sense of taking by the throat . . . the literal sense of the word seems to be "with the head thrown back and the throat exposed." . . . Some have considered that the metaphor is from the manner of treating victims about to be sacrificed . . . . The context serves to explain the meaning and the RV rendering is satisfactory (Vine 650, 651); evidently connected with TRACHEELOS neck, throat (Vincent 4.429); and exposed to the eyes of Him [literally, no creature is unseen before His face] (Williams); and laid open to the eyes of him (Lenski 140).
[ 62 ]Pliny, Panegyric 34.3.
[ 63 ]PROS HON HEEMIN HO LOGOS, with whom to us [is] the word [account]=is our account (Marshall 862); with whom is our reckoning; that is to whom we have to give account (Vincent 4.429); to whom we have to give account [literally, to whom is our account] (Williams); facing whom this Word is for us (Lenski 140).
[ 64 ]ECHONTES OUN, having therefore (Marshall 862); ECHONTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of ECHOO (Han 397); what has been said is used to prove something else (Thayer 464); since then (Williams); having then (Lenski 148).
[ 65 ]ARCHEIREA MEGAN, high priest a great (Marshall 862); a great high priest (Vine 883); a great High Priest (Williams; Lenski 148).
[ 66 ]DIELEELUTHOTA TOUS OURANOUS, having gone through the heavens (Marshall 862); passed through the heavens (Vincent 4.430); DIELEELUTHOTA is the second perfect active participle, accusative singular masculine of DIERCHOMAI (Han 397); passed through the heavens (Vincent 4.430); who has gone right up to heaven itself (Williams); who has gone through the heavens (Lenski 148).
[ 67 ] 'IEESOUN TON HUION TOU THEOU, Jesus the Son of God (Marshall 862; Lenski 149); in Jesus the Son of God (Williams).
[ 68 ]KRATOOMEN TEES HOMOLOGIAS, let us hold the confession (Marshall 862); KRATOOMEN is first person plural, present active subjunctive of KRATEOO (Han 397); let us continue to keep a firm hold on our profession (Williams); let us continue to hold fast to the confession! (Lenski 148).
[ 69 ]OU GAR ECHOMAN ARCHIEREA, not For we have a high priest (Marshall 862); ECHOMAN is first person plural, present active indicative of ECHOO (Han 397); for we do not have a High Priest (Williams; Lenski 148).
[ 70 ]MEE DUNAMENON SUMPATHEESAI, not being able to suffer with (Marshall 862); SUMPATHEESAI is the first aorist active infinitive of SUMPATHEOO (Han 397); more than knowledge of human infirmity. It is feeling it by reason of a common experience with [SUN] men (Vincent 4.430); who is incapable of sympathizing with us (Williams); unable to sympathize with (Lenski 148).
[ 71 ]TAIS ASTHENEIAIS HEEMOON, the weaknesses of us (Marshall 862); not sufferings, but weaknesses, moral and physical, which predispose to sin and facilitate it (Vincent 4.430); in our weaknesses (Williams); our weaknesses (Lenski 148).
[ 72 ]PEPEIRASMENON DE KATA PANTA, having been tempted but in all respects (Marshall 862); PEPEIRASMENON is the perfect passive participle, accusative singular masculine of PEIRAZOO (Han 397); who was tempted in every respect (Williams); but having been tried in all respects (Lenski 148).
[ 73 ]KATH' HOMOIOTEETA, according to [our] likeness (Marshall 862); literally, according to likeness (Vincent 4.430); as we are (Williams); in like manner [as we] (Lenski 148).
[ 74 ]CHOORIS HAMARTIAS, apart from sin (Marshall 862); and yet without committing any sin (Williams); except for sin (Lenski 148).
[ 75 ]PROSERCHOOMETHA OUN, Let us approach therefore (Marshall 862); PROSERCHOOMETHA is first person plural, present middle subjunctive of PROSERCHOMAI (Han 397); so let us continue coming (Williams); let us, then, continue to approach (Lenski 148).
[ 76 ]META PARREESIAS, with confidence (Marshall 862); with courage (Williams); with boldness (Lenski 148).
[ 77 ] TOO THRONOO TEES CHARITOS, to the throne of grace (Marshall 862); the throne of grace; a throne, a seat of authority, the throne of God . . . from which grace proceeds (Vine 1146); to the throne of God's unmerited favor (Williams); the throne of the grace (Lenski 148).
[ 78 ]HINA LABOOMEN ELEOS, in order that we may receive mercy (Marshall 862); LABOOMEN is first person plural, second aorist active subjunctive of LAMBANOO (Han 397); the outward manifesting of pity; it assumes need on the part of him who receives it, and resources adequate to meet the need on the part of him who shows it. . . . He is merciful to those who fear Him [Lu 1:50], for they are compassed with infirmity, and He alone can succor them. Hence they are to pray boldly for mercy (Vine 732, 733); to obtain His mercy (Williams); that we may receive mercy (Lenski 148).
[ 79 ]KAI CHARIN HEUROOMEN, and grace we may find (Marshall 862); HEUROOMEN is first person plural, second aorist active subjunctive of HEURISKOO (Han 397); the friendly disposition from which the kindly act proceeds, graciousness, loving kindness, goodwill generally (Vine 500); and to find His spiritual strength (Williams); and find grace (Lenski 148).
[ 80 ]EIS EUKAIRON BOEETHEIAN, for timely help (Marshall 862); literally, for seasonable help, or help in good time; before it is too late; while there is still time to seek God's rest (Vincent 4.431); to help us when we need it (Williams); for timely help! (Lenski 148).

Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Ridgefield, Washington, U.S.A.
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The basic text, and all quotations not designated otherwise, are from the New King James Version, copyrighted ©1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. All rights reserved. Used by permission. Bracketed alternatives are drawn from various sources such as the ASV, Darby, KJV and RSV. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.

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