The Letter to the Hebrews
Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Ridgefield,
THE GLORIOUS PRIESTHOOD
[REVIEW OF HEBREWS 7]
1. A priest forever.
2. Authenticated by God's oath.
2. Not contingent on nationality.
3. Death cannot terminate it.
4. Its sacrifice never needs repetition.
5. So spotless that no sacrifice for own sins is required.
It will be profitable to look again at chapter 7 before contemplating the present
chapter[ 1 ] (see chart THE GLORIOUS PRIESTHOOD [REVIEW OF HEBREWS
7]). Chapter 8 continues that discussion with only two main points. The first is
the more excellent ministry of Christ's High Priesthood. The second is the new
and better covenant with the old covenant vanishing away (see chart HEBREWS
HEBREWS 8 OUTLINE
1. The more excellent ministry of Christ's High
Priesthood (Heb 8:1-6).
2. The new and better covenant (Heb 8:7-13).
THE INCOMPARABLE MINISTRY OF CHRIST
8:1, 2 Now this is the main point of the things we are saying: We have such
a High Priest, who is seated at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in
the heavens, 2 a Minister of the sanctuary and of the true tabernacle which
the Lord erected, and not man.
Now this is the main point [now the sum, the point, the chief point is this,
now this is now a summary].[ 2 ] This chapter gives the climax to the entire
deliberation, introduced previously. Inasmuch as new material is immediately
introduced, the "main point" is not just a summary of chapter 7. The new point
is not simply that the ministry of Christ is associated with a better covenant but
that He is minister of a better and heavenly sanctuary.
Of the things we are saying [in what, in the things which, of which, we have
spoken, what has been said, we are speaking, is this].[ 3 ]
We have such a High Priest [we have such an, such a one, that we have a,
high priest].[ 4 ] The writer alludes to the statement in the previous chapter, "For
such a High Priest was fitting for us" (He 7:26). He "has been perfected forever"
(Heb 7:28). Jewish Christians had given up their old religious practices. They
were no longer served by a Levitical priest. In place of him, they received a High
Priest whose service for mankind is unparalleled.
GLORIFICATION OF OUR HIGH PRIEST
(Heb 8:1, 2)
1. Seated at right hand of Majesty in the heavens.
2. A minister in the true tabernacle.
3. A more excellent ministry.
4. A better covenant.
5. Enacted on better promises.
A BETTER MINISTRY
1. Better High Priest (Heb 8:1; compare 7:28).
2. Better minister (Heb 8:2).
3. Better tabernacle (Heb 8:2).
4. Better sacrifice (Heb 8:3).
5. More excellent ministry (Heb 8:6).
6. Better covenant (Heb 8:6).
7. Better promises (Heb 8:6).
Who is seated [one who is set, sat down, has sat down].[ 5 ] Coffman pointed
out that in the OT tabernacle there was no chair for the priest to be seated. Christ,
our High Priest, on the other hand, has taken His seat. Undoubtedly, this is
because His sacrificial work is finished. He is able to accomplish His work of
intercession while seated.[ 6 ]
At the right hand [on the, at the, right hand].[ 7 ] The position of honor given
to Christ is emphasized in a future chapter of Hebrews.
And every priest stands ministering daily and offering repeatedly the same
sacrifices, which can never take away sins. 12 But this Man, after He had
offered one sacrifice for sins forever, sat down at the right hand of God, 13
from that time waiting till His enemies are made His footstool (Heb 10:11-13).
Of the throne of the Majesty [of the throne of the greatness].[ 8 ]
In the heavens [in heaven.[ 9 ]
THE TRUE MINISTRY OF CHRIST
1. Now High Priest.
2. Minister of the true tabernacle.
a. Which the Lord pitched, not man.
b. Not the shadowy tabernacle.
c. But of the true substance.
CHRIST, A MINISTER IN HEAVEN
[8:2] A Minister [minister].[ 10 ] The Greek word translated "minister" originally
meant a high ranking public officer. It was sometimes applied to honored civic
rulers; sometimes to esteemed religious leaders. It applied to the kind of officer
who was essentially a servant of the people (see Ro 13:6). The word was also
used of angels (Heb 1:7; Ps 104:4), of the apostle Paul (Ro 15:16) and
Epaphroditus (Php 2:25). In the present context, the allusion is to the work of
Christ as High Priest.
Christ did not look forward to His heavenly throne as an end in itself. Its beauty
and glory were not His fundamental aspiration. He went into heaven in order to
save and to serve. He finds joy in this (Heb 12:2). His work involves the
restoration of all things, that is, the saving of as many souls as possible during the
gospel age. A major part of His service is intercession for the saved when they
come before the Heavenly throne in penitent prayer.
CHURCH OF CHRIST A TEMPLE
1. Holy place and most holy place correspond to
church and heaven.
a. The holy place leads into the most holy place.
b. The church leads to heaven.
2. You are a temple of God and the Spirit of
God dwells in you (1Co 3:16; compare 2Co 6:16).
d. A holy temple in the Lord (Eph 2:21).
3. Christ is High Priest over the house of God
Of the sanctuary [in the sanctuary, holy places].[ 11 ] The sanctuary and the
true tabernacle are figures alluding to heaven itself where Christ has gone. These
terms will be used several times in this epistle (see Heb 9:8, 12, 24, 25; 10:19;
1. The "sanctuary" corresponds to the heavenl where
Christ has gone (Heb 9:8, 12, 25; 10:19; 13:11).
2. The "Holy of Holies" [on earth] had items of
furniture corresponding to heavenly things
3. Heaven itself is called "a holy place" (Heb 9:24).
And of the true tabernacle [and the true tent].[ 12 ] The word
ALEETHIENEES true does not imply that the earthly tabernacle was false. It
was, however, only a dim copy, a fading shadow, an obscure sketch or
reproduction of the true tabernacle in heaven.[ 13 ] The materials from which the
it was made were perishable and transitory. Some were biodegradable. The
heavenly tabernacle is authentic, genuine, original and spiritual (see following
CHRIST A TEMPLE
1. And the word became flesh and dwelt among us
2. But He was speaking of the temple of His body
3. Jesus Christ Himself being the chief corner stone, in
whom the whole building, being joined together,
grows into a holy temple in the Lord (Eph 2:21).
4. The veil, that is, His flesh (Heb 10:20).
Which the Lord erected, and not man [which is set up not by man but by the
Lord, which the Lord pitched, has pitched, not man, and not a person].[ 14 ]
In describing the heavenly tabernacle as "spiritual," care must be taken not to think
of it as imaginary, ethereal or intangible. The Lord fixed, made fast, pitched or
set up a real, substantial and actual tabernacle. In contrast to the wilderness
tabernacle, the true tabernacle in heaven is imperishable. In the heavenly true
tabernacle Christ accomplished His ministry of offering Himself and there He
intercedes. The Most Holy Place is heaven itself.
NECESSARY THAT CHRIST HAVE AN OFFERING
8:3 For every high priest is appointed to offer both gifts and sacrifices.
Therefore it is necessary that this One also have something to offer.
CHRIST HEAVENLY HIGH PRIEST
1. Serves in heavenly sanctuary (Heb 8:1, 2).
2. All priests offer sacrifices, Christ too (Heb 8:3).
3. His Priesthood is heavenly.
a. On earth, He would not be a Priest (Heb 8:4).
b. There are priests who serve the earthly, shadowy
sanctuary (Heb 8:5).
c. His Priestly service is in heaven itself (Heb 9:24).
4. There He made one offering for all time (Heb 7:27).
a. Entered heavenly holy place once for all
(Heb 9:12, 26, 28).
b. Offered one sacrifice for all time (Heb 10:12).
5. Sat down at the right hand of God (Heb 10:12).
For every high priest is appointed to offer [for every high priest is ordained,
is constituted, for the offering].[ 15 ]
Both gifts and sacrifices [gifts, both of gifts, and sacrifices].[ 16 ] A part of the
work of any high priest is to make offerings for sins. The reason offerings are
necessary is that sin separates man from God (Isa 59:2). The work of a priest
helps man overcome that which estranges him from the Lord (see note on Heb
Therefore it is necessary [hence, whence, wherefore, it is needful, it is
necessary, of necessity].[ 17 ]
EVERY APPOINTED HIGH PRIEST
1. Must offer gifts and sacrifices.
2. Serves in a sanctuary.
3. Christ had to have a sacrifice [Himself].
4. His sanctuary is in heaven.
That this One also have something to offer [that this man, for this priest,
high priest, also to have, should have, somewhat which he may offer].[ 18 ] Just
as it was necessary for OT priests to offer sacrifices, it was essential for Christ to
do the same. His offering consisted of Himself (Ga 1:4). Hebrews 9 and 10 give
more information about this.
CHRIST NOT A PRIEST ON EARTH
8:4, 5 For if He were on earth, He would not be a priest, since there are
priests who offer the gifts according to the law; 5 who serve the copy and
shadow of the heavenly things, as Moses was divinely instructed when he was
about to make the tabernacle. For He said, "See that you make all things
according to the pattern shown you on the mountain."
For if He were on earth [now if, if then indeed, he were upon earth].[ 19 ] The
writer is beginning a line of reasoning to show why Christ's priestly work is done
in heaven. Priests on earth under the Law of Moses had to be of the lineage of
Aaron (Nu 18:1-7). However, because the OT Law had already been voided or
abrogated, they no longer served by divine authorization.
He would not be a priest [he should not, not even, be a priest at all].[ 20 ]
While on earth Christ forgave sins (Mk 2:10) and prayed for others (Joh 17:20,
21). Yet, he was not then a priest. He instructed people to seek the ministry of
existing priests (Mt 8:4). He did not offer animal sacrifices for anyone. No
sacrifices were needed for His own sins for He had nont. He never entered into
the most holy place of the Jerusalem temple.
Since there are priests who offer the gifts [seeing that there are those, there
being those priests, that offer gifts].[ 21 ] The Greek present tense implies the
temple was still standing and Jewish priests were, at the very date when Hebrews
was written, continuing to offer sacrifices. We may infer from this that the temple
had not been destroyed. This suggests that the date of the writing of Hebrews was
sometime before AD 70.
According to the law.[ 22 ] The OT law had already been taken out of the way
(Eph 2:14-16; Col 2:14; Ro 7:6; Heb 7:12). Sacrifices made according to it had
been ineffective even while the Law was binding in that they brought no real
forgiveness or remission of sins.[ 23 ] They became absolutely useless after the
better sacrifice of Christ was offered. However, many Jews did not understand
that or did not believe it. They kept on following OT practices pertaining to
sacrifices--all in vain. OT COPIES AND SHADOWS
[8:5] Who serve the copy [they serve, who serve that which is, a copy, unto
the example, the representation, in a type].[ 24 ] A reason Jewish sacrifices were
inferior to that of Christ is that the tabernacle (or temple) was, at best, only a dim,
though accurate, copy of the heavenly sanctuary. It was like an indistinct outline
or a faint sketch of the real object. The effectiveness of sacrifices under the Law
was feeble and faint when compared to the reality of the heavenly sacrifice of
And shadow [and a shadow].[ 25 ] A shadow is like a picture or silhouette. The
use of a shadow is a figure of speech denoting a lack of real substance.
Of the heavenly things [of heavenly things, sanctuary].[ 26 ] The "heavenly
things" are purified by the sacrifice of Christ.
Therefore it was necessary that the copies of the things in the heavens
should be purified with these, but the heavenly things themselves with better
sacrifices than these (Heb 9:23).
The earthly tabernacle (and temple) foreshadowed the real thing. The Holy
Spirit has already made the points that Christ serves in heaven and that the
heavenly sanctuary is the true tabernacle.
As Moses was divinely instructed [even as, according as, for when, Moses,
was instructed, admonished, was oralacularly told, is warned of God, by God,
just as God warned Moses].[ 27 ] Before Moses built the tabernacle, God
meticulously instructed and commanded him. His explanation was important to
him and to us. The goal was that Hebrew Christians understand that their earthly
tabernacle was made exactly according to a particular and precise heavenly pattern.
Because it was faithfully built, it had an exact correspondence to items in the
church and heaven (see charts CHURCH OF CHRIST A TEMPLE; HOLY
PLACE FURNITURE [PARALLELS ITEMS IN CHURCH AGE]).
HOLY PLACE FURNITURE
[PARALLELS ITEMS IN CHURCH AGE]
1. Laver [in court of tabernacle] - baptism
(Eph 5:26; Tit 3:5).
2. Table of showbread with twelve loaves - Bread of
Life pictured in Lord's Supper
(Joh 6:33, 35, 48, 50, 53-56).
3. Candlestick with seven lamps - light of the Holy
Spirit. Christians are the light of the
world (Isa 60:1; Mt 5:14; Re 1:20).
3. Altar of incense - prayer
(Ps 141:2; Lu 1:9, 10; Re 5:8; 8:3, 4).
When he was about to make the tabernacle [he was, when, when he is, about to
erect the tent].[ 28 ] Even though Moses was trustworthy, God thought it necessary
to instruct him carefully about building the tabernacle. In spite of the fact that the
earthly tent together with its furniture was only a copy of the true one in heaven,
the accurate building of it was of great importance.
For He said, See [saying, saith he, he said, for See].[ 29 ] The words "For He
said" indicate the seriousness of obedience to God's commands. It is important
to obey Him in the very manner intended. God did not make suggestions to Moses
or lay down general guidelines. He told him exactly what to do. He had no right
to deviate from the details given. Neither do men today have the right or authority
to change what God has said. To please Him, they must not alter His word to
please themselves or others or to suit the times.
That you make all things [that thou make everything].[ 30 ] Moses' response to
God's orders was that of being faithful to Him (Heb 3:5). That is, he obeyed in
every detail of making the tabernacle and its furniture. A reason why this was
very important is that each item of furniture is typical of something in the NT age.
For Moses to have rejected "patternism" and failed to build according to God's
blueprint, would have been a tragedy indescribable.
PATTERN FOR BAPTISM
1. For believers (Mk 16:15, 16; Ac 2:36).
2. For those who have repented (Ac 2:38;
Ac 17:30, 31).
3. For those who have confessed faith in Christ
(Ac 8:37; Ro 10:9, 10).
4. Immersion in water (Mt 3:16; Joh 3:23; Ac 8:38,
39; Ro 6:3, 4; Col 2:12).
5. For remission of sins (Ac 2:38; 22:16; 1Pe 3:21).
6. Puts one into Christ (Ro 6:3, 4; Ga 3:27).
7. Puts one into the one body (1Co 12:13).
According to the pattern.[ 31 ] After giving Moses instructions for the various
articles of furniture for the tabernacle, God said:
And see to it that you make them according to the pattern which was shown
you on the mountain (Ex 25:40).
Stephen recognized that God had directed Moses to build the tabernacle
according to the pattern. He said:
Our fathers had the tabernacle of witness in the wilderness, as He appointed,
instructing Moses to make it according to the pattern that he had seen (Ac
GOD'S PATTERN FOR WORSHIP
1. Prayer (Ac 2:46; 1Co 14:15; 2Th 5:17).
2. Lord's Supper (Ac 2:46; 20:7; 2Co 11:28).
3. Teaching, reading (Ac 2:46; 20:7; 2Ti 4:2).
4. Contribution (Ac 20:35; 1Co 16:2; 2Co 8:7-14).
5. Singing (1Co 14:15; Eph 5:19; Col 3:16).
It is equally important for Christians to consider God's revelation a pattern for
living and worship[ 32 ] (see Mk 7:7; Joh 4:24; Ac 17:24, 25; 1Co 4:6; 2Jo 9; Re
22:18). The church has a NT pattern for its organization and work. It is a grave
error to teach that anything is acceptable to God just so long as one is "sincere"!
ACCORDING TO THE PATTERN
1. The pattern of the plan of salvation.
2. The pattern of church organization.
3. The pattern of worship.
4. The pattern of the work of the church.
5. The pattern of moral living.
Shown you on the mountain [shewed to thee, that was, which was, showed
thee, which has been shewn to thee, in the mount].[ 33 ] Moses was to use only
the pattern that God showed him. Just any sketch would not do. It would have
been wrong for him to have made even tiny alterations in the God-given pattern.
Neither was he to "err on the side of caution" by building additional walls or
stronger furniture. Christians today have no right to "build negative fences"
unauthorized in Scripture in order "to keep the church pure." It is an error to
make religious laws where God has made none.
BETTER COVENANT, BETTER PROMISES
8:6 But now He has obtained a more excellent ministry, inasmuch as He is
also Mediator of a better covenant, which was established on better promises.
But now [but, but now, but as it is].[ 34 ] The Hebrew writer alludes to verse
4. If Christ were on earth He would not be a priest. But now, since He is High
Priest, He has obtained a more excellent ministry.
He has obtained a more excellent ministry [hath he, Christ has, got a
ministry the more excellent, which is as much more excellent than the old, a
much superior ministry].[ 35 ] The ministry of Christ, relative to that of the
Levitical priesthood, is much more excellent (see chart WHY THE NEW
COVENANT IS BETTER).
Inasmuch as He is also Mediator [as he mediates, by so much, how much,
also he is, and he is, the mediator].[ 36 ] As a result of His death for our sins,
Christ became our Mediator. As such, like an arbitrator or umpire, He restores
harmony between man and God.
1. Moses (Ex 20:19-21; 24:2, 12, 13, 18;
Ga 3:19, 20).
2. High priests [on Day of Atonement] (Le 16:29-34).
3. Christ (1Ti 2:5).
a. Through Him, Christians find mercy (Heb 4:16).
b. Guarantees the covenant (Heb 7:22).
c. Pleads the cause of erring Christians (Heb 7:25).
d. Makes purification for sins (Heb 9:12).
Of a better covenant [the covenant is better, of a much better covenant].[ 37 ]
The "better covenant" of Hebrews 7:22 is now mentioned again. It is the same
as the "second" covenant of Hebrews 8:7. The fact that it is new and better than
the old makes the ministry of Christ superior.
TEN COMMANDMENTS THE COVENANT
1. And He wrote on the tablets the words of the
covenant, the Ten Commandments (Ex 34:28).
2. His covenant which He commanded you to perform,
that is, the Ten Commandments; and He wrote them
on two tablets of stone (De 4:13).
3. Take heed to yourselves, lest you forget the
covenant of the LORD your God which He made
with you, and make for yourselves a carved image
4. Nothing was in the ark except the two tablets of
stone which Moses put there at Horeb, when the
LORD made a covenant with the children of Israel
WHY NEW COVENANT IS BETTER
1. Established on better promises (Heb 8:6).
2. Old covenant not faultless, could not justify or save
3. Written on the heart, not stone (Heb 8:10;
compare 2Co 3:3, 7).
4. All know the Lord (Heb 8:11).
5. Accountable persons believe, repent and are
baptized to enter kingdom (Mk 16:16; Ac 2:38).
6. Sins remembered no more (Heb 8:13).
7. Abides throughout the age (implied in Heb 8:13).
In some OT passages the covenant was, literally, the ten commandments (see
chart TEN COMMANDMENTS, THE COVENANT).
WORDS OF THE COVENANT
In addition to the Ten Commandments being "the covenant" there were "words
of the covenant" that were likewise commanded.
These are the words of the covenant which the LORD commanded Moses
to make with the children of Israel in the land of Moab, besides the
covenant which He made with them in Horeb (De 29:1).
Others have suggested that a covenant is nothing more than an agreement
between two or more parties. Indeed it is used in that sense in some passages of
Scripture but not here.[ 38 ] A special Greek word SUNTHEEKEE describes such
an agreement. In the NT, the verb form of that word is used.[ 39 ] It describes the
kind of agreement attained in the marriage vows or covenant. It is used in
ordinary Greek for any kind of covenant or contract.
When describing the new covenant, every NT writer uses another Greek word
(DIATHEEKEE).[ 40 ] Why? Because the new covenant is not so much an
agreement between two parties as it is the revealing of God's will to man. Man
may believe the covenant, be baptized and be saved, or he may disbelieve it and
be condemned (Mk 16:16; Joh 3:36). He may believe and have eternal life or not
obey and "not see life" (Joh 3:36). In other words, the new covenant is not
something man negotiates with God. It is something to be believed, heeded,
observed and followed.
Which was established [since it is, which is, which hath been, enacted].[ 41 ]
The OT Law was enacted. The better covenant has also been founded, legally
secured and enacted. It is the new law, the perfect law of liberty (Jas 1:25). It
has been established or enacted on the basis of better promises (see Heb 7:11).
On better promises [upon the footing of better promises].[ 42 ] One reason the
new covenant is better than the old is because of its better promises. All the
blessings promised to Abraham's spiritual descendants look toward the new and
better covenant (see notes on Heb 6:12; 7:6; 11:17). Of the many better promises,
the promise of eternal life is supreme (see 1Jo 2:25; Ac 2:39; Ga 3:26-29).
OT COVENANT NOT FAULTLESS
8:7 For if that first covenant had been faultless, then no place would have
been sought for a second.
For if that first covenant had been faultless [for if that first was faultless].[ 43 ]
James Burton Coffman observed that:
"The first covenant," as used in these verses, means the whole religious
system of the Jews, the Decalogue, the priesthood, the sacrifices, the
tabernacle ritual, the judgments, and the commandments, and embracing the
entire ceremonial and moral constitution of Judaism.[ 44 ]
The first covenant had something wrong with it. A significant factor was
lacking. It did not save imperfect man because it required perfect obedience in
order to be righteous. Without the sacrifice of Christ on Calvary to take away
sins, it was ineffective for salvation. God never intended it to be permanent.
Although the first covenant was not faultless, do not think that it was all bad.
In fact, several of its teachings were repeated in the new. Some of these were
commands not to murder, lie and commit adultery. There were other aspects of
it that God saw fit not to bring over. Some of these were plural marriages,
burning of incense, sabbath observance, animal sacrifices, worship with
instruments of music, and a robed priesthood. Although the Mosaic covenant
accomplished what God gave it for, it was never free from defect.
OTHER COVENANTS (A)
1. The covenant with Noah (Ge 6:18; 9:9).
2. Land covenant with Abraham (Ge 15:18-21).
3. The covenant to multiply Abraham (Ge 17:2).
4. The covenant of circumcision with Abraham
(Ge 17:10, 13).
5. Land covenant extended to Isaac, Jacob and
children of Israel (Ex 6:4; Le 26:42, De 7:9, 12,
13; Jg 2:1).
6. The covenant of showbread (Le 24:8).
7. Covenant of salt (Le 2:13; Nu 18:19).
OTHER COVENANTS (B)
1. Covenant of peace and perpetual priesthood
(Nu 25:12, 13).
2. Everlasting covenant with David (2Sa 7:12; 23:5;
Ps 89:28; Jer 33:21).
3. Abrahamic covenant extended to Israel
(1Ch 16:16, 17; Ps 105:10).
4. Covenant of "the sure mercies" of David
(Isa 55:3; Jer 32:40; 33:20).
5. Covenant of day and night (Eze 16:60).
6. Covenant of peace (Eze 37:26).
Then no place would have been sought for a second [there would, then
would, should, have been no occasion, no place, have been sought, place had
not been sought, for the second].[ 45 ] While the old covenant was still in force,
wise Jews wondered when it would be replaced and tried to comprehend how
things would be under a new covenant. Prophets made careful search and inquiry
about it (1Pe 1:10, 11). Angels desired to look into it (1Pe 1:12).
RECOGNIZING THE FIRST COVENANT
1. Written by Moses (Ex 34:27; see also Ex 31:18;
2. Ten commandments its basis (Ex 34:28).
3. God promised to replace it (Jer 31:31-34;
Heb 8:8, 10).
4. Made with Israel and Judah (Heb 8:8, 9).
5. Made when Israel came out of Egypt (Heb 8:9).
6. Fathers did not continue in it (Heb 8:9).
7. Had regulations of divine worship (Heb 9:1).
GOD'S PREDICTION OF THE NEW COVENANT
8:8, 9 Because finding fault with them, He says: "Behold, the days are
coming, says the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of
Israel and with the house of Judah-- 9 not according to the covenant that I
made with their fathers in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them
out of the land of Egypt; because they did not continue in My covenant, and
I disregarded them," says the Lord.
Because finding fault with them [he, for, finds fault with them].[ 46 ] There
was imperfection in both the Law and the people (but see Ps 19:7). During the
days of the prophet Jeremiah, the idolatrous people were about to be taken into
Babylonian captivity.[ 47 ] It is believed that after the second attack, while the
captives were being held at Ramah, God inspired Jeremiah to write chapters 30
and 31, from which Hebrews 8:8-12 are quoted. God certainly found fault with
the sinful people. He also found fault with the Law. It was flawless in its
intended objective to point out sin. It was an efficient tutor to bring people to
Christ. But it was faulty in one important thing--it could not ultimately save from
He says [when he says, he saith, said, to them].[ 48 ] The prophet Jeremiah
implied a deficiency in the old covenant when he recorded God's prediction of a
new covenant (see Jer 31:31-34).
Behold, the days are coming [the days will come, behold, days come].[ 49 ]
Jeremiah was called to be a prophet in 626 BC during the thirteenth year of King
Josiah (Jer 1:1, 2). Even though there had been a great religious revival about
five years before that under King Josiah (see 2Ki 21:23-23:30), the Jews were still
headed down an idolatrous road. They were moving steadily toward the great
apostasy that took them into captivity some forty years later. If Moses was born
in 1520 BC[ 50 ], the law was given about 1440 BC. It had only been in force for
a little over half of its duration when Jeremiah predicted the new covenant.
Says the Lord [saith the Lord].[ 51 ] The Lord Himself said that the new
covenant would take the place of the old covenant.
When I will make [that, and, I will establish, consummate].[ 52 ] God would
establish the new covenant according to "the good pleasure" or "the kind intention"
of His will" (Eph 1:5; compare Lu 12:32; 1Co 1:21; Ga 1:15). God Himself
would effect, conclude or accomplish the new covenant. NT revelation is not
something that man may negotiate with heaven. As Jesus said:
Whatever you shall bind on earth shall have been bound in heaven (Mt
16:19 NASB, 1975 edition).
A new covenant].[ 53 ] A "covenant" is an arrangement God has given to man.
The word is even used of the promise to Abraham (Ga 3:17). It was also applied
to the Law given to Moses 430 years after the promise to Abraham. The new
covenant did not take effect until the old Mosaic covenant was abrogated at the
Much emphasis in Scripture is given to the new covenant (see chart FACTS
ABOUT NEW COVENANT). We are thankful for that. It is both new in point
of time as well as new in quality or character. The Greek word for "new in point
of time" is NEOS or NEAS. Jesus is "the mediator of a NEAS new covenant"
(Heb 12:24). The new covenant is also new in quality (see Heb 8:13; 9:15).[ 54 ]
The Greek word for "new in quality" is KAINOS or KAINEN. This is the word
used in Hebrews 8:7.
FACTS ABOUT NEW COVENANT
1. Predicted 600 years before Christ (Jer 31:31-34).
2. A "better covenant" (Heb 7:22; 8:6).
3. The "new covenant" (Lu 22:20; 1Co 11:25;
2Co 3:6; Heb 8:8; 9:15; 12:24).
4. The "eternal covenant" (Heb 13:20).
5. Had been "sought for" (Heb 8:7).
6. Jesus its Mediator (Heb 9:15).
7. The "blood of the covenant" sanctifies
(Heb 10:29; see Mt 26:28; Mk 14:24).
With the house of Israel [as regards the house of Israel].[ 55 ] "Israel"[ 56 ] was
a name first given to Jacob (Ge 32:28). It was also applied to his descendants (Ex
4:22; 16:31; 1Sa 7:2; Mt 10:6; 15:24; Ac 7:42). It was used to designate the ten
northern tribes who revolted and separated from Judah (1Ki 12:19, 20). Finally,
the name "Israel" is applied to all Christians (Ro 9:6).[ 57 ] In the present verse,
both "the house of Israel" and "the house of Judah" appear. We may infer that
here the name "house of Israel" is used to specify the ten northern tribes.
And with the house of Judah [and as regards the house of Juda]. Judah was
the fourth son of Jacob (by Leah). His descendants were called the tribe of Judah
(Nu 1:7). "Judah" was also the name given to the southern kingdom, that is, all
who followed Rehoboam when the nation of Israel was divided.[ 58 ] The mention
of the house of Israel and the house of Judah are all inclusive. The inclusiveness
alludes to the unity that would be effected under the new covenant. Not only were
all the Jews to be unified in Christ but Jews and Gentiles would in Him become
"one new man" in peace (Eph 2:15; compare Ga 3:28).
1. Promise to Abraham (1921 BC).
2. Circumcision commanded (1892 BC).
3. Old covenant given at Sinai (1491 BC).
4. The Law taken out of the way at the cross (AD 34).
5. New covenant took effect (AD 34).
6. Jerusalem destroyed (AD 70).
(Dates are from Milligan 232)
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE COVENANTS
[8:9] Not according to the covenant [not like, it will not be like, the
covenant]. There are similarities between the old and new covenants such as
condemnation of immorality and idolatry. Both covenants teach love for God and
man. Both enjoin faith, obedience and prayer.
Among the differences between the old and new covenants were these. The old
covenant required every male to be circumcised. The old sacrificial system
required the continual slaying of animals. Besides the weekly Sabbath, there were
monthly and annual days to keep. Incense was burned. Instruments of music
were played. Polygamy was tolerated.
Differences between the covenants are seen mainly in the ministry of Christ and
the response of to man to the gospel. Under the old covenant, there was no
confession of faith in Christ and no new birth. The first day of the week was not
a primary day of worship. There was no weekly communion like the Lord's
Supper. A special robed priesthood served the people. Under the new covenant,
every Christian is a priest.
That I made with their fathers [which I made to their fathers].
In the day when I took them by the hand [on the day that I took them by
their hand, of my taking their hand].[ 59 ] The word "day" may be used in a
general sense meaning "the time." God may have referred to the period of time
when the exodus began.
To lead them out of the land of Egypt [to lead them forth out of Egypt land].
God brought the people of Israel out of Egypt (De 29:25). He did so by Moses.
To Moses, God described them as "your people whom you brought out of the land
of Egypt" (Ex 32:7).
BREAKING THE COVENANT (A)
1. Graven images (Ex 32:1-4; 1Ki 12:28; 2Ch 28:2).
2. Blasphemy (Le 24:11; Da 7:25).
3. Breaking sabbath (Nu 15:32, 35; Ne 13:15;
Jer 17:27; Eze 20:13; 22:8).
4. Idolatry (Nu 25:2; Jg 3:7; 1Ki 16:31; 2Ki 17:12;
21:21; 2Ch 25:14; Isa 24:5; 65:7; Jer 11:10;
5. Covetousness (Jos 7:2; Isa 56:11; Jer 6:13;
Eze 33:31; Mic 2:2).
BREAKING THE COVENANT (B)
1. Theft (Jos 7:21; Ho 4:2; Zec 5:3).
2. Murder (Jg 9:5; 1Sa 22:18; 1Ki 21:13;
2Ch 24:21, 22).
3. Adultery (2Sa 11:2-5).
4. Dishonoring parents (2Sa 16:20-22; Mt 15:4-6).
5. False witness (1Ki 21:13).
6. Bringing uncircumcised and abominations into
sanctuary (Eze 44:7).
Because they did not continue in My covenant [for they continued not in my
covenant].[ 60 ] Jeremiah recorded God's words, "My covenant they broke" (Jer
31:32). How did they break the covenant? At one time or another, by committing
almost every sin in the book (see chart BREAKING THE COVENANT).
Contrary to what Coffman wrote, it is the opinion of the present writer that the
major sin in the OT was idolatry.[ 61 ]
And I disregarded them [and so I paid no heed to them, and I regarded
them not, did not regard them, did not care for them].[ 62 ] After Moses' death,
God predicted that the Israelites would forsake Him and break the covenant.
Then, He said, "I will forsake them, and I will hide My face from them" (De
32:17; compare Jos 23:14-16). They rejected His statutes and His covenant (2Ki
17:15). After that, the Lord "was very angry with Israel, and removed them from
His sight" (2Ki 17:18).
Says the Lord [saith the Lord]. This is a repeat of a phrase from verse 8. It
is not inserted idly but gives authority to the prediction of the removal of the old
covenant, the replacement of it with the new covenant and God's reasons for not
"regarding" the violators of the old covenant.
At this point in the quotation from Jeremiah 31:32, God said, "Though I was a
husband to them." God's marriage contract with Israel was canceled when Christ
died on the cross (see Ro 7:1-4). James Burton Coffman observes:
Thus, sinful as Israel was, God did not dissolve his marriage with them
except on the basis of his own death in the person of Christ.[ 63 ]
THE COVENANT THAT I WILL MAKE
8:10 "For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after
those days, says the Lord: I will put My laws in their mind and write them on
their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people."
For this is the covenant that I will make [this is, because this is, the covenant
I will make].[ 64 ]
With the house of Israel [to the house of Israel].[ 65 ] The house of Israel stands
for the entire Jewish nation who would submit to the new covenant. The only
ones who now belong to spiritual Israel are those who believe and obey Christ.
The inclusiveness of the new covenant is much wider than fleshly Israel. This is
made abundantly clear by Paul.
There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is
neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus (Ga 3:28).
After those days.[ 66 ] The establishment of the new covenant, like the death of
Christ, was accomplished according to God's timetable in "the fullness of time"
Says the Lord [saith the Lord]. The words "says the Lord" emphasize that the
promise of the new covenant came from the Lord and not from man.
I will put My laws [giving my laws][ 67 ] The new covenant is a covenant of
In their mind [into their minds].[ 68 ] Understanding is highlighted in the NT.
God's NT laws are put into the minds of people by His Word (Joh 20:30, 31; Ro
1:16; 10:17). God's laws are put into the mind by teaching. "And they shall all
be taught by God" (see Joh 6:44, 45; compare Isa 54:13).
And write them on their hearts [and on their heart also will I write them, I
will write them in, upon, also upon, their hearts].[ 69 ] To have the law of God
written on the heart is another way of saying that a person loves the will of God,
desires to obey it and is afraid not to (see Hebrews 10:16; charts LAW ON THE
HEART A and B).
Service to Christ is voluntary (Ps 110:3). Before one becomes a Christian, he
must hear and understand the gospel (Ro 10:17). Believers are brought forth by
the word of truth (Jas 1:18). They are "born again" through "the word of God
which lives and abides forever" (1Pe 1:23). Only believers may come to Him.
"He who comes to God must believe that He is" (Heb 11:6). But faith is not all.
Obedience from the heart is not optional (Ro 6:17, 18; 2Th 1:7-9; Heb 5:8, 9).
LAW IN THE HEART (A)
1. And these words which I command you today shall
be in your heart (De 6:6).
2. The law of his God is in his heart; none of his steps
shall slide (Ps 37:31).
3. I delight to do Your will, O my God, and Your law is
within my heart (Ps 40:8).
4. Your word I have hidden in my heart, that I might
not sin against You! (Ps 119:11).
LAW IN THE HEART (B)
1. I will put My fear in their hearts so that they will not
depart from Me (Jer 32:40).
2. Then I will give them one heart, and I will put a new
spirit within them, and take the stony heart out of
their flesh, and give them a heart of flesh
(Eze 11:19, 20; 36:26, 27).
3. For I delight in the law of God according
to the inward man (Ro 7:22).
And I will be their God [and I will be to them a God, for God].[ 70 ] God
speaks of His relationship to Christians. He is their Lord, their Heavenly Father,
And they shall be My people [and they will be to me a people, for people].[ 71 ]
Some of the Jews believed in Christ and obeyed the gospel. Those who did so
became sons of God by faith (see Ga 3:26, 27). Gentiles, who were previously
called "no people," as Christians, are "the people of God" (Ro 9:25, 26). God's
people are special (see Tit 2:14; charts GOD'S OT PEOPLE; GOD'S NT
GOD'S OT PEOPLE
1. God's own possession [special treasure] (Ex 19:5;
compare De 26:18).
2. Chosen for His own possession (De 14:2).
3. Above all nations; consecrated to Lord (De 26:19).
4. A people for Himself (1Sa 12:22).
5. Led like sheep (Ps 78:52; 100:3).
GOD'S NT PEOPLE
1. Prepared for the Lord (Lu 1:17).
2. Chosen in Him before foundation of world (Eph 1:4).
3. Purified, zealous for good deeds (Tit 2:14).
4. Law written on hearts (Heb 8:10).
5. God chose the poor of this world, heirs of the
kingdom (Jas 2:5; 1Pe 2:9).
6. Had not received mercy; now have received mercy
7. Were no people; now called sons of the living God
(Ro 9:26; Re 21:3).
ALL SHALL KNOW ME
8:11 "None of them shall teach his neighbor, and none his brother, saying,
'Know the Lord,' for all shall know Me, from the least of them to the greatest
None of them shall teach [they, and they, shall not, will not, teach][ 72 ]
During the Mosaical age, after a son was born, his mother was unclean for seven
days. On the eighth day he was to be circumcised (Le 12:2, 3). An
uncircumcised male was to be "cut off" from his people because, God said, "He
has broken my covenant" (Ge 17:14). We may infer that those circumcised were,
by that token, recognized as God's people.[ 73 ]
The practice of infant circumcision has been cited by denominational
traditionalists to justify baby-sprinkling and infant church membership. Think for
a minute. This is the very thing God intended to prevent. The prophet taught that
every person in new covenant-relationship with God would already know Him. If
an infant, by baptism, is supposed to enter into a covenant-relationship with God,
why is it that he must be taught about God and confirmed subsequent to his
"baptism"? Teaching him to "know the Lord" after baptism is contrary to the
present verse. But infant baptism is wrong in the first place. NT baptism is for
believers (Mk 16:15, 16), for those who have repented (Ac 2:38; 17:30, 31) and
for those who have confessed their faith in Christ (Ac 8:37; Ro 10:9, 10). Babies
fulfill none of the prerequisites to Scriptural baptism.
What about baby boys who were circumcised in OT days? Did they have to be
taught later? Absolutely. In fact, if they did not also have that inner circumcision
of faith, penitence and dedication to God, their outward circumcision was
worthless in His sight (see De 30:6; Le 26:41; Eze 44:7; Jer 9:25, 26).
What about "new-born babes" in the kingdom of Christ? The difference between
them and OT babies is basic and fundamental. Those born into the kingdom are
not begotten by physical seed. They do not enter the kingdom of Christ as literal
babies. They are begotten by spiritual seed which is the word truth (Lu 8:11; Jas
1:18). They enter the kingdom as accountable persons. A prerequisite to being
born into the kingdom of Christ is that people know the Lord. Thus, all of the
citizens under the new covenant have been taught the gospel.
His neighbor [each, each one, every one, every man, his fellow, fellow-citizen].[ 74 ] Fellow-citizens or "neighbors" are people in Christ. They are citizens
of the kingdom of heaven (Php 3:20; compare Eph 2:19; Php 1:27 [Greek]).
And none his brother [or every one, and every man, and each, and each one,
his brother].[ 75 ] The brothers [and sisters] are members of the family of God.
They have been born again into His family by faith and baptism (Joh 3:3-5; Ga
Saying, Know the Lord.[ 76 ] The Greek word for "know" implies a primary
introduction to God. To "know the Lord" is the kind of teaching a Christian
parent might give to his children in order to introduce them to the love and power
For all shall know Me [because all will know me in themselves].[ 77 ] Who shall
know the Lord? Those in the new covenant. How is this accomplished? By
teaching them prior to baptizing them (Joh 6:44, 45; 1Co 3:16; 15:1-4; Tit 2:11-14). This clenches the argument that gospel baptism is not for babies. The Greek
word here implies a fullness of knowledge that babies are incapable of having.
Infant members cannot "know" God in this sense. Therefore, baptizing babies is
a practice utterly unauthorized in Scripture.[ 78 ]
From the least of them to the greatest of them [from the least, from the little
one among them, unto the greatest, the great among them].[ 79 ] The "least of
them to the greatest of them" includes younger members of the church as well as
the older, uneducated or educated, poor or rich. In other words, every person
who becomes a Christian must have been already taught about God. Let a pedo-baptist[ 80 ] try to explain this passage.
MERCIFUL TO INIQUITIES
8:12 "For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their sins and their
lawless deeds I will remember no more."
For I will be merciful [because I will be merciful][ 81 ] In order to better
understand the meaning of the word "merciful" as used here, let us look at another
passage of Scripture and a few different translations. Keep in mind that the Greek
for "merciful" is HILEOOS in this verse and in Matthew 16:22. Peter said,
"HILEOOS SOI, KURIE Far be it from You, Lord (NKJV) or God forbid it, Lord
(Mt 16:22 NASB). The margin reads, "God have mercy on thee." "The meaning
[there] is, may God be gracious to thee[ 82 ] or "[God] have mercy on Thee,"
literally, "propitious to Thee" [KJV margin, "Pity Thyself"].[ 83 ] "Propitious" has
to do with an atoning sacrifice.
To their unrighteousness [toward their iniquities, to their iniquities, to their
unrighteousnesses].[ 84 ] A blessing by means of which in the distant past God
graciously predicted that He would be merciful and forgiving of the unrighteous
deeds of those under the new covenant.
And their sins [and their lawless deeds, and their iniquities, and their
lawlessnesses].[ 85 ] Note the parallelism between sins and unrighteousness:
If we confess our HAMARTIAS sins, He is faithful and just to forgive us
our sins and to cleanse us from all ADIKIAS unrighteousness (1Jo 1:9).
GOD'S MERCY AND FORGIVENESS (A)
1. Forgives iniquity, transgression, sin (Ex 34:7).
2. Gracious and compassionate (2Ch 30:9; Ps 103:8).
3. With great compassion I will gather you (Isa 54:7).
4. Return to the Lord; He will have compassion, will
abundantly pardon (Isa 55:7).
5. Gracious, not angry forever (Jer 3:12).
GOD'S MERCY AND FORGIVENESS (B)
1. Will forgive iniquity, and sin remember no more
2. Will cleanse from all iniquity (Jer 33:8).
3. Will cleanse from all filthiness and idols (Eze 36:25).
4. Pardons iniquity (Mic 7:18).
5. Faithful and just to forgive (1Jo 1:9).
Sin and unrighteousness are used interchangeably in Scripture. For example,
"All ADIKIA unrighteousness is HAMARTIA sin" (1Jo 5:17). Under the old
regime, there was a remembrance made of sins year by year (Heb 10:3). Under
the NT, Christians are cleansed from all unrighteousness (1Jo 1:9).
I will remember no more [will I remember no more, never remember any
more].[ 86 ] Sins forgiven under the new covenant are never remembered again (Isa
54:17; Ro 8:33; 9:14).
SINS NOT REMEMBERED (A)
1. The LORD also has put away your sin [literally,
caused your sin to pass away] (2Sa 12:13).
2. You have covered all their sin (Ps 85:2).
3. As far as the east is from the west, so far has He
removed our transgressions from us (Ps 103:12).
4. You have lovingly delivered my soul from the pit of
corruption, for You have cast all my sins behind
Your back (Isa 38:17).
SINS NOT REMEMBERED (B)
1. Blotted out like a thick cloud (Isa 44:22; compare
2. Will cast all our sins into the depths of the sea
3. I will remove the iniquity of that land in one day
THE COVENANT FIRST MADE OBSOLETE
8:13 In that He says, "A new covenant," He has made the first obsolete. Now
what is becoming obsolete and growing old is ready to vanish away.
In that He says, "A new covenant" [in speaking of, in that he saith, but
when he said, a new covenant].[ 87 ] The Holy Spirit is pointing out that, in
Jeremiah's day, God spoke of the coming of a "new covenant." By introducing
that expression at that time long ago God Himself designated the then existing
Mosaical covenant as "old".
He has made the first obsolete [the first has become, he treats the first as,
he hath made the first, old].[ 88 ] The covenant under Moses was designated as
obsolete by God Himself even though it would continue to serve as Law for about
600 additional years. The Lord, through Jeremiah had labeled it "old." OT
People who understood His statement were anticipating and longing for a new
Now what is becoming obsolete [and what is, but that which, now that which
decayeth, is, grows, old].[ 89 ] The Hebrew writer makes a general statement about
about the obsolescence of things. Entropy takes over.[ 90 ] Decay sets in. Unless
saved for the photograph, old driver's licenses are usually discarded. Last month's
trolley passes are useless. Expired grocery coupons are no longer any good.
Whatever is becoming obsolete is about to be discarded.
And growing old [and aged, and waxeth aged].[ 91 ] The Greek verb here means
a little more than mere aging. It implies the infirmity that comes with age. Old
soldiers are retired. Preachers, no matter how much they are respected and loved,
they are replaced by more competent men when they no longer can remember their
lessons, This may not be totally due to age but to the infirmity that accompanies
Is ready to vanish away [is nigh unto vanishing away, is near disappearing,
and is ready to vanish].[ 92 ] The Holy Spirit knew that when Jeremiah wrote, the
Old Covenant was already out of date. The fact that God promised a new
covenant was His way of letting the Jewish people know that they were under a
covenant that was somewhat inadequate, becoming antiquated and which was one
day to be abolished. There was a "readiness" of the old covenant to "disappear"
sometime subsequent to Jeremiah's day. It eventually came to an end at the
cross.[ 93 ] It now has been fulfilled and taken out of the way (Col 2:14).
However, many Jewish Christians were still conscience-bound to keep the dead
works of the Law. The writer is impressing upon them that the old Law is
finished. A new has taken its place (see Heb 9:14-16).
PRECIOUS NEW COVENANT
1. Written in the heart (Heb 8:10; 2Co 3:3).
2. Every person under it already "knows the Lord"
3. Sin is dealt with mercifully, remembered no more
[ 1 ]The basic text in this chapter is the NKJV. Scripture taken from the New King James Version.
Copyright 1979, 1980, 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved.
Alternate phrases in brackets are from ASV, Darby, ESB, KJV, RSV and occasionally another version.
Greek transliteration tends to follow the BibleSoft method.
[ 2 ]KEPHALAION DE, now a summary (Marshall 871); [akin to the adjective KEPHALAIOS
belonging to the head, and KEPHALE the head], the chief point or principal thing in a subject (Vine
178); the chief point . . . the main point of the present discussion (Vincent 4.467); now the main point
(Williams); now the main point (Lenski 250).
[ 3 ]EPI TOIS LEGOMENOIS, over [of] the things being said (Marshall 871); LEGOMENOIS is the
present passive participle, dative plural masculine of LEGOO (Han 400); EPI is in the case of, or in
the consideration of: not of, nor in addition to. TOIS LEGOMENOIS "the things which are being
spoken": the matters now under discussion (Vincent 4.467); a characteristic of LEGOO [to say] is that
it refers to the purport or sentiment of what is said as well as the connection of the words; this is
illustrated in Hebrews 8:1 "[in the things which] we are saying," LEGOO refers especially to the
substance of what is said, LALEOO [to speak], to the words conveying the utterance (Vine 995); in
what I am saying is this (Williams); in this discussion [is this] (Lenski 248).
[ 4 ]TOIOUTON ECHOMEN ARCHIEREA, such we have a high priest (Marshall 871); ECHOMEN
is first person plural, present active indicative of ECHOO (Han 400); of such a sort (Vine 1102); such
as this, of this kind or sort (Thayer 627); we have such a High Priest as this (Williams);such a High
Priest we have (Lenski 248).
[ 5 ]HOS EKATHISEN, who sat (Marshall 871); EKATHISEN is third person singular, first aorist
active indicative of KATHIZOO (Han 400); sat down (Vincent 4.467); of Christ's position of authority
(Vine 1049); sat down, with specification of the place or seat (Thayer 314); who has taken His seat
(Williams); as sat down (Lenski 248).
[ 6 ]I am aware that "taken His seat" may be metaphorical. Yet, even a figure of speech has a true
interpretation. In this case, the implication is that Christ is not continually and actively offering His
sacrifice in heaven but He is a priest on His throne (Zec 6:13).
[ 7 ]EN DEXIA, at [the] right (Marshall 871); the right hand [of the throne] (Arndt 174); at the right
hand of God (Thayer 128); at the right hand (Williams; Lenski 248, 249).
[ 8 ]TOU THRONON TEES MEGALOOSUNEES, of the throne of the greatness (Marshall 871);
throne of God (Arndt 364); assigned metaphorically to God, the governor of the world (Thayer 292);
of God's majestic throne (Williams); of the throne of the Majesty (Lenski 249).
[ 9 ]EN TOIS OURANOIS, in the heavens (Marshall 871; Lenski 249); construe with sat down, not
with majesty, which is complete in itself and needs no qualifying epithet (Vincent 4.467); as the abode
of the divine, the dwelling-place [or throne] of God (Arndt 594); this heaven is the abode to which
Christ ascended after his resurrection (Thayer 465); in heaven (Williams).
[ 10 ]LEITOURGOS, a minister (Marshall 871); sat down as a minister. From an old adjective
LEITOS [found only in this compound], belonging to the people, and ERGON work; originally, the
service of the state in a public office (Vincent 4.468); a minister (Arndt 471); a minister, servant of the
temple, that is, one busied with holy things, of a priest (Thayer 376); as officiating Priest [ministering
attendant] (Williams); a ministrant (Lenski 249); a minister about holy things [usually] (Littrell).
[ 11 ]TOON HAGIOON, of the holy things (Marshall 871); the heavenly sanctuary (Vincent 4.468);
in the sanctuary (Arndt 471); figuratively, of heaven (Thayer 7); in that sanctuary (Williams); the Holy
Place (Lenski 249).
[ 12 ]KAI TEES SKEENEES TEES ALEETHINEES, and of the tabernacle true (Marshall 871);
emphatic, the tabernacle, the genuine one, as compared with the tabernacle in the wilderness (Vincent
4.468); and in the true tabernacle; the Tabernacle or Tent that is called the Holy of Holies . . .
corresponds in Hebrews to another [heavenly] SKEENEE [tent]; Christ as High Priest, taking his own
blood [rather than that of goats and calves], goes in (Arndt 471, 754); heaven (Thayer 578); the
spiritual, antitypical Tabernacle, not that the wilderness Tabernacle was false, but that it was a weak
and earthly copy of the Heavenly (Vine 1171); which is also the true tent of worship [implied]
(Williams); and of the true tabernacle (Lenski 249).
[ 13 ]Josephus wrote, "When Moses distinguished the tabernacle into three parts, and allowed two of
them to the priests, as a place accessible and common, he denoted the land and the sea, these being of
general access to all; but he set apart the third division for God, because heaven is inaccessible to men"
(Josephus, Antiquities, 3.7.7).
[ 14 ]HEEN EPEEXEN HO KURIOS, OUK ANTHROOPOS, which erected the Lord, not man
(Marshall 871; Lenski 249); EPEEXEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of
PEEGNUMI (Han 400); made fast, fixed [compare PROSPEEGNUMI, Ac 2:23, of crucifixion], used
of pitching a tent, the true tabernacle, the Heavenly and spiritual, which "the Lord pitched" (Vine 857);
put together, built, pitched [a tent], set up (Arndt 656); made fast, fixed, fastened together, built by
fastening together (Thayer 508); which the Lord and not man set up (Williams); person is from
ANTHROOPOS, the generic word of man, a human being, a person (Littrell).
[ 15 ]PAS GAR ARCHIEREUS EIS TO PROSPHEREIN . . . KATHISTATAI, for every high priest
for the to offer . . . is appointed (Marshall 871); PROSPHEREIN is the present active infinitive of
PROSPHEROO; KATHISTATAI is third person singular, present passive indicative of KATHISTEEMI
(Han 400); usually signifies to appoint a person to a position . . . not a formal ecclesiastical ordination
is in view . . . used of the priests of old, of offerings according to the law (Vine 59, 802); used in the
Septuagint often of persons offering sacrifices, gifts, prayers to God; appointed (Thayer 314, 550); for
every high priest is appointed to offer (Williams); for every high priest is appointed for the offering
[ 16 ]DOORA TE KAI THUSIAS, gifts both and sacrifices (Marshall 871); of gifts offered to God
[and] animal or other sacrifices, as offered under the Law (Vine 476, 985); gifts, presents, of sacrifices
and other gifts offered to God (Thayer 161); gifts and sacrifices (Williams); of both gifts and sacrifices
[ 17 ]HOTHEN ANANKAION, whence [it is] necessary (Marshall 871); wherefore it is necessary
(Vincent 4.468); necessary [from ANANKEE necessity] (Vine 776); of the cause from which, for which
reason, wherefore, on which account [it is] necessary, what ought according to the law of duty to be
done, what is required by the condition of things (Thayer 36, 439); so this [High Priest] must
(Williams); hence it is necessary (Lenski 253).
[ 18 ]ECHEIN TI KAI TOUTON HO PROSENENKEE, to have something also this [priest] which
he may offer (Marshall 871); PROSENENKEE is third person singular, first aorist active subjunctive
of PROSPHEROO (Han 400); literally, what he may offer (Vincent 4.468); [PROS to, PHEROO to
bring], of the sacrifice of Christ Himself (Vine 802); so this High Priest too must have some sacrifice
to offer (Williams); that also this One have something which he may offer (Lenski 253).
[ 19 ]EI MEN OUN EEN EPI GEES, if therefore he were on earth (Marshall 871); now if he were
on earth (Vincent 4.468); however, if He were still on earth (Williams); now if he were on earth
[ 20 ]OUD' AN HEEN HIEREUS, he would not be a priest (Marshall 871); HEEN is third person
singular, imperfect active indicative of EIMI (Han 400); he would not be a priest at all (Vincent 4.468;
Williams); he would not [even] be a priest (Lenski 255).
[ 21 ]ONTOON TOON PROSPHERONTOON TA DOORA, [there] being the [ones] offering the gifts
(Marshall 871); ONTOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of EIMI;
PROSPHERONTOON is the present active participle, genitive plural masculine of PROSPHEROO
(Han 400); seeing that there are those who offer the gifts (Vincent 4.468); used of the priests of old,
of offerings according to the law (Vine 59, 802); used in the Septuagint often of persons offering
sacrifices, gifts, prayers to God (Thayer 550); because there are those who officiate [implied]
(Williams); there being [=since there are] those who offer gifts (Lenski 255).
[ 22 ]KATA NOMON, according to law (Marshall 871); according to the law (Vincent 4.469);
according to [the standard or requirement of] the law (Thayer 428); in accordance with the law
(Williams); according to law (Lenski 255).
[ 23 ]The failure of the OT priests to bring remission of sins may explain why John's baptism was so
popular and the tremendous response to the first gospel sermon on Pentecost (Ac 2).
[ 24 ]HOITINES HUPODEIGMATI LATREUOUSIN, who an example serve (Marshall 872);
LATREUOUSIN is third person plural, present active indicative of LATREUOO (Han 400); such as
serve the copy; omit unto (Vincent 4.469); [HUPOO under, DEIKNUMI to show], to show, properly
denotes what is shown below or privately (Vine 232); a sign suggestive of anything, delineation of a
thing, representation, figure, copy (Thayer 642); copy, imitation (Arndt 844); who serve the delineation
(Milligan 222); in mere copy (Williams); they [being] such as serve (Lenski 255).
[ 25 ]KAI SKIA, and a shadow (Marshall 871); of ceremonies under the Law; of the Tabernacle and
its appurtenances and offerings (Vine 1027); and shadow (Vincent 4.469); and shadow (Williams); a
foreshadowing of what is to come (Arndt 755); and shadow (Lenski 255); a sketch, outline,
adumbration (Thayer 578); an adumbration is a foreshadowing or a sketchy representation or outline.
[ 26 ]TOON EPOURANIOON, of the heavenly things (Marshall 871); of heavenly things (Vincent
4.469); the heavenly things (Arndt 306); the heavenly temple or sanctuary (Thayer 247); of the
heavenly one (Williams); of the heavenly [originals] (Lenski 255).
[ 27 ]KATHOOS KECHREEMATISTAI MOOUSEES, as has been warned Moses (Marshall 871);
KECHREEMATISTAI is third person singular, perfect passive indicative of CHREEMATIZOO (Han
400); by God . . . where Moses is commanded to make the tabernacle, God is expressly named
(Vincent 4.469); primarily, to transact business, then, to give advice to inquirers [especially of official
pronouncements of magistrates], or a response to those consulting an oracle, came to signify the giving
of a Divine admonition or instruction or warning, in a general way (Vine 23); of God, imparted a
revelation or injunction or warning (Arndt 885); was divinely commanded, admonished, instructed
(Thayer 671); as Moses was warned (Williams); even as Moses received divine direction (Lenski 255).
[ 28 ]MELLOON EPITELEIN TEEN SKEENEEN, being about to complete the tabernacle (Marshall
871); MELLOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of MELLOO;
EPITELEIN is the present active infinitive of EPITELEOO (Han 400); the sense is to carry out or
execute the plan given to him (Vincent 4.469); to brig to an end, accomplish, perfect, execute, complete
[the tabernacle] (Thayer 244); when he was about to make the tent of worship (Williams); when about
to construct the Tabernacle (Lenski 255).
[ 29 ]HORA GAR, PHEESIN, for See[,] he says (Marshall 871); HORA is second person singular,
present active imperative of HORAOO; PHEESIN is third person singular, present active indicative of
PHEEMI (Han 400); GAR for is not a part of the quotation, but is argumentative. Moses was
admonished, for God said "See," etc. (Vincent 4.469); see to it, he [that is, God] says (Arndt 856); to
make known one's thoughts, to declare; to say, inserted in a sentence containing the words of another
(Thayer 651); for, said He, See to it (Williams); namely [GAR] See to it, says he (Lenski 255).
[ 30 ]POIEESEIS PANTA, thou shalt make all things (Marshall 871); POIEESEIS is second person
singular, future active indicative of POIEOO (Han 401); a direct command. "See, thou shalt make"
(Vincent 4.469); [Ex 25:40], you must make everything (Arndt 856); that you make it all (Williams);
thou shalt make everything (Lenski 255).
[ 31 ]KATA TON TUPON, according to the pattern (Marshall 871); the meaning is that, in all
essential features, the Levitical system of worship was a copy of a heavenly reality (Vincent 4.470);
according to anything as a standard, agreeably to; in a technical sense, that is, the pattern in conformity
to which a thing must be made (Thayer 328, 632); [from a root TUP-, seen also in TUPTOO to strike],
an ensample, pattern (Vine 363, 841); in accordance with, just as, similar[ly] to [the] [arche]type,
pattern, model, technically design, pattern (Arndt 407, 830); just like the pattern (Williams); according
to the type (Lenski 255).
[ 32 ]Because of the use of the word LATREUOUSA serving night and day with fastings and prayers
(Lu 2:37), some have concluded that fasting is worship. The root verb LATREUOO may be translated
to serve or to worship.
[ 33 ]TON DEICHTHENTA SOI EN TOO OREI, shown to thee in the mount (Marshall 871; Lenski
255); DEICHTHENTA is the first aorist passive participle, accusative singular masculine of
DEIKNUMI (Han 401); first aorist passive participle, shown, that is, exposed to the eyes (Thayer 126);
shown, exhibited, (Vine 1033); pointed out, shown, made known (Arndt 172); shown you on the
[ 34 ]NUN DE, but now (Marshall 871); NUN is logical: as the case now stands (Vincent 4.470); but
now (Arndt 545); but, as the case with Him now stands (Williams); now, however (Lenski 257).
[ 35 ]DIAPHOROOTERAS TETUCHEN LEITOURGIAS, a more excellent he has obtained ministry
(Marshall 871); TETUCHEN is third person singular, second perfect active indicative of
TUNCHANOO (Han 401); the ministry of the heavenly sanctuary (Vincent 4.470); met with, lighted
upon, also signifies obtained, attained to, reached gotten [with regard to things], of the ministry
obtained by Christ (Vine 798); He has entered upon a priestly service as much superior to theirs
(Williams); he has obtained a more excellent ministration (Lenski 257).
[ 36 ]HOSOO KAI ESTIN MESITEES, by so much indeed [as] he is mediator (Marshall 871); a later
Greek word, signifying also umpire, arbitrator, and appears in the Septuagint only in Job 9:33 (Vincent
4.124); of measure and degree, in comparative sentences, by so much as' Christ is called MESITEES
THEOU KAI ANTHROOPOON [mediator also between God and man] since he interposed by his death
and restored the harmony between God and man which human sin had broken (Thayer 401, 457);
mediator, arbitrator, one who mediates between two parties to remove a disagreement or reach a
common goal. Of Christ (Arndt 506, 507); as the covenant of which He is the Mediator (Williams);
by as much as he is Mediator also of a better testament (Lenski 257).
[ 37 ]KREITTONOS ESTIN DIATHEEKEES, of a better covenant (Marshall 871); excellent
covenant, . . . in contradistinction to the English word "covenant" [literally, a coming together], which
signifies a mutual undertaking between two parties or more, each binding himself to fulfil obligations,
it does not in itself contain the idea of joint obligation, it mostly signifies an obligation undertaken by
a single person. . . a promise or undertaking on the part of God (Vine 114, 243); the essence of a
covenant is the establishment of a relationship (Vincent 4.470); God's decree or covenant directed
toward the Christians is a DIATHEEKEEN KAINEE [new covenant] [which] far excels (Arndt 183);
as the covenant is superior (Williams); of a better testament (Lenski 257).
[ 38 ]The Gibeonites came dressed in old clothing desiring to "make a covenant" with the Israelites
(Jos 9:6). The Lord said, "And you shall make no covenant with the inhabitants of this land" (Jg 2:2).
Of Jonathan and David it is said, "So the two of them made a covenant before the LORD" (1Sa 23:18).
[ 39 ]SUNTITHEEMI, [SUN with, TITHEEMI to put] literally, to put together, to determine, agree,
John 9:22; Acts 23:20; to assent, Acts 24:9; to covenant, Luke 22:5 (Vine 36, 243).
[ 40 ]DIATHEEKEE means not an agreement, but a will (Barclay 98); primarily signifies a disposition
of property by will or otherwise (Vine 242).
[ 41 ]HEETIS NENOMOTHETEETAI, which has been enacted (Marshall 871);
NENOMOTHETEETAI is third person singular, perfect passive indicative of NOMOTHETEOO (Han
401); for establish render enacted (Vincent 4.470); ordained by law, enacted [NOMOS a law,
TITHEEMI to put], passive voice, enacted (Vine 356); [a covenant] which has been [legally] enacted
on the basis of better promises (Arndt 542); because it has been enacted (Williams); that has been given
legal force (Lenski 257).
[ 42 ]EPI KREITTOSIN EPANGELIAS; on better promises (Marshall 871); more excellent divine
promises of blessing, especially of the benefits of salvation by Christ (Thayer 226, 359); excellent
promises, plural, because the one promise to Abraham was variously repeated (Vine 114, 891); upon
superior promises (Williams); on the score of better promises (Lenski 257).
[ 43 ]EI GAR HEE PROOTEE EKEINEE HEEN AMEMPTOS, for if first [covenant] that was
faultless (Marshall 871); HEEN is third person singular, imperfect active indicative of EIMI (Han 400);
[if] . . . without blame, faultless (Vine 413); free from fault or defect . . . in which nothing is lacking
(Thayer 31, 32); blameless, faultless, of the Mosaic covenant (Arndt 45); for if the first covenant had
been faultless (Williams); for if that first one [ that is, testament] were faultless (Lenski 260).
[ 44 ]Coffman 175.
[ 45 ]OUK AN DEUTERAS EZEETEITO TOPOS, of [for] a second have been sought (Marshall 871,
872); EZEETEITO is third person singular, imperfect passive indicative of ZEETEOO (Han 401);
passive imperfect third person singular of ZEETEOO to seek in order to find (Thayer 272; Arndt 338);
notice the imperfect tense EZEETEITO, literally, would have been being sought. A search would not
have been going on. This implies a sense of dissatisfaction while the old covenant was still in force,
and a looking about for something better (Vincent 4.471); there could have been no room for a second
one (Williams); a place would not be sought for a second one (Lenski 260).
[ 46 ]MEMPHOMENOS GAR AUTOUS, finding fault [with] For them (Marshall 872);
MEMPHOMENOS is the present middle participle, nominative singular masculine of MEMPHOMAI
(Han 401); them signifies the possessors of the first covenant (Vincent 4.471); some manuscripts have
the accusative [like our objective case] AUTOUS them; others the dative AUTOIS to or for them. If
the latter is correct, the reading probably should be "For finding fault, He says to them" (see Machen
96); he finds fault with them (Arndt 502); or for finding fault he saith to them (Milligan 228); for,
because He was dissatisfied with His people [pronoun in Greek, noun better in English] (Williams); for
faulting them (Lenski 260).
[ 47 ]Nebuchadnezzar attacked Jerusalem 605 BC, at which time he carried away the vessels of the
temple and certain of the nobility. He returned to burn the temple in 586 BC and took many captives
to Babylon. More captives were taken to Babylon five years later (see Jer 52:30).
[ 48 ]LEGEI, he says (Marshall 872); is third person singular, present active indicative of LEGOO
(Han 401); when he says (Arndt 502); he says (Williams); he says (Lenski 260).
[ 49 ]See Jeremiah 31:31.
[ 50 ]Zondervan 557.
[ 51 ]LEGEI KURIOS, says [the] Lord (Marshall 872); LEGEI is third person singular, present active
indicative of LEGOO (Han 401); says the Lord (Williams; Lenski 260).
[ 52 ]KAI SUNTELESO, I will effect (Marshall 872); SUNTELESO is first person singular, future
active indicative of SUNTELEOO (Han 401); I will conclude or consummate (Vincent 4.471); I will
bring a new covenant to accomplishment (Arndt 792); make, effect [compare our conclude] (Thayer
606); end, fulfil (Vine 703); I will accomplish (Milligan 229); when I will make (Williams); and I will
consummate (Lenski 260).
[ 53 ]DIATHEEKEEN KAINEEN, covenant a new (Marshall 872); a covenant is something arranged
between two parties (Vincent 4.472); new, of that which is unaccustomed or unused, not new in time,
recent, but new as to form or quality, of different nature from what is contrasted as old; new in
differing in character (Vine 781, 782); new, which as recently made is superior to what it succeeds
(Thayer 317); in the sense that what is old has become obsolete, and should be replaced by what is
new. In such a case the new is, as a rule, superior in kind to the old . . . the new covenant or
declaration (Arndt 394); a new covenant (Williams); a new testament (Lenski 260).
[ 54 ]The new wine of Matthew 9:17 is NEON, of recent production; the new wine of the kingdom
is KAINON (Mt 26:29), of different character from that of the world. The "KAINAIS new tongues"
of Mark 16:17 are the "HETERAIS other tongues" of Acts 2:4.
[ 55 ]EPI TON OIKON 'ISRAEEL, over the household of Israel (Marshall 872); the preposition
marking direction toward [the house of Israel] (Vincent 4.471); with the house of Israel (Williams); in
regard to the house of Israel (Lenski 260).
[ 56 ]Israel means prince of God, or wrestler with God.
[ 57 ]"Jew" is first found in 2 Kings 16:6. After the captivity, the name was used to distinguish the
Hebrew race from Gentiles (see Joh 2:6; Ac 14:1; Ga 2:15). It was applied to every descendant of
Jacob, no matter to which tribe he belonged. In the book of John, "Jews" often, but not always, refers
to the "ruling Jews." The term is later used of believers in Christ (Ro 2:28, 29).
[ 58 ]The southern kingdom of Judah consisted of the tribe of Judah and Benjamin. Some from the
tribes of Simeon and Dan were also included.
[ 59 ]EN HEEMERA EPILABOMENOU MOU TEES CHEIROS AUTOON, in [the] day taking
me=when I took the hand of them (Marshall 872); EPILABOMENOU is the second aorist middle
participle, genitive singular masculine of EPILAMBANOO (Han 401); literally, in the day of me having
taken hold (Vincent 4.472); the day I took them by the hand (Williams); in the day of my taking them
by their hand (Lenski 260).
[ 60 ]HOTI AUTOI OUK ENEMEISAN EN TEE DIATHEEKEE MOU, because they continued not
in the covenant of me (Marshall 872); ENEMEISAN is third person plural, first aorist active indicative
of EMMENOO (Han 401); [did not] remain in, continue in my covenant, agreement, mutual
undertaking [between God and Israel, described as a commandment] (Vine 228, 243); [did not]
persevere in, hold fast to, be true to, abide by, keep [my covenant] (Thayer 207); [did not] persevere
in, stand by [my covenant] (Arndt 255); for they did not abide by their covenant with me (Williams);
seeing that they themselves did not remain in my testament (Lenski 260).
[ 61 ]Coffman (176, 177) wrote, "Israel themselves had broken the old covenant by not continuing in
it; and it is pertinent to observe that it was preponderantly the "moral" part of the covenant that Israel
had so wantonly violated. The ceremonial was precisely the part of the Law they kept best . . . ."
[ 62 ]KAGOO EEMELEESA AUTOON, and I disregarded them (Marshall 872); EEMELEESA is
first person singular, first aorist active indicative of AMELEOO (Han 401); [did] not care, regarded
them not (Vine 938); and I was careless of, neglected [them] (Thayer 31, 311); neglected, was
unconcerned about [them] (Arndt 44); so I did not care for them (Williams); and I myself neglected
them (Lenski 260).
[ 63 ]Coffman 177.
[ 64 ]HOTI AUTEE HEE DIATHEEKEE HEEN DIATHEESOMAI, because this [is] the covenant
which I will covenant (Marshall 872); HEEN is third person singular, imperfect active indicative of
EIMI (Han 400); the noun and the verb are cognate--the arrangement which I will arrange (Vincent
4.472); for this is the covenant that I will make (Williams); so that this [is] the testament which I will
draw up (Lenski 265).
[ 65 ]TOO OIKOO 'ISRAEEL, with the household of Israel (Marshall 872); with the house of Israel
(Williams); for the house of Israel (Lenski 265).
[ 66 ]META TAS HEEMERAS EKEINAS, after those days (Marshall 872; Lenski 265); in those cays
[ 67 ]DIDOUS NOMOUS MOU, giving laws of me (Marshall 872); DIDOUS is the present active
participle, nominative singular masculine of DIDOOMI (Han 401); literally giving my laws: construct
with I will make: "the covenant which I will make by giving my laws" (Vincent 4.472); give is
rendered put, of laws into the mind (Vine 907); give, grant, impose, send . . . put into the hearts
(Arndt 193); put into the mind, fasten upon the heart (Thayer 146); I will put my laws (Williams); I
will give my laws (Lenski 265).
[ 68 ]EIS TEEN DIANOIAN AUTOON, into the mind of them (Marshall 872); the moral
understanding (Vincent 4.472); into their minds (Williams); upon their mind (Lenski 265); see previous
[ 69 ]KAI EPI KARDIAS AUTOON EPIGRAPHOO AUTOUS, and on hearts of them I will inscribe
them (Marshall 872); EPIGRAPHOO is first person singular, future active indicative of EPIGRAPHOO
(Han 401); not the affections as distinguished from the intellect (Vincent 3.115); write upon the mind,
that is, to fix indelibly upon it, cause to cleave to it and to be always vividly present to it (Thayer 237);
figuratively, write in or on [their hearts] (Arndt 291); and write them on their hearts (Williams); and
on their heart will I inscribe them (Lenski 265).
[ 70 ]KAI ESONTAI AUTOIS EIS THEON, and I will be to them for God (Marshall 872); ESOMAI
is first person singular, future middle indicative of EIMI (Han 401); literally, unto a God, a Hebraistic
form of expression, EIS signifying the designation of the substantive verb. The sense is, I will be to
them to serve as a God; or my being as related to them will amount to my being a God to them
(Vincent 4.472); and I will be their God (Williams; Lenski 265).
[ 71 ]KAI AUTOI ESONTAI MOI EIS LAON, and they shall be to me for a people (Marshall 872);
ESONTAI is third person plural, future middle indicative of EIMI (Han 401); and they will be my
people (Williams); and they shall be my people (Lenski 265).
[ 72 ]KAI OU MEE DIDAXOSIN, and by no means may they teach (Marshall 872); DIDAXOSIN
is third person plural, first aorist active subjunctive of DIDASKOO (Han 401); with accusative of the
person, [not] teach someone (Arndt 192); and nevermore will each one need to teach (Williams); and
they shall not each one teach (Lenski 265).
[ 73 ]In addition to eight-day old infant boys who were circumcised, many adult Gentiles became
proselytes to the Jewish religion. They, too, were circumcised.
[ 74 ]HEKASTOS TON POLITEEN AUTOU, each man the citizen of him (Marshall 872); literally
his citizen: his fellow-citizen (Vincent 4.472); fellow-citizen, fellow-townsman (Arndt 686); fellow-citizen, fellow-countryman (Thayer 528); his fellow-citizen (Williams; Lenski 265).
[ 75 ]KAI HEKASTOS TON ADELPHON AUTOU, and each man the brother of him (Marshall 872);
the repetition is noticeable, "every man" [that is, everyone] (Vine 338); each one, every (Thayer 192);
each one, every one (Arndt 236); and each one teach his brother (Williams); and each one his brother
[ 76 ]LEGOON: GNOOTHI TON KURION, saying: Know thou the Lord (Marshall 872; (Williams);
GNOOTHI is second person singular, second aorist active imperative of GINOOSKOO (Han 401);
second aorist active imperative of GINOOSKOO; become acquainted with, know the precepts of the
Lord (Thayer 117, 713); know, of the recognition of a stranger, as if commending God to the
knowledge of one who is ignorant of him (Vincent 4.472); GINOOSKOO frequently suggests inception
or progress in knowledge (Vine 628); saying: Know the Lord! (Lenski 265).
[ 77 ]HOTI PANTES EIDEESOUSIN ME, because all will know me (Marshall 872); EIDEESOUSIN
is third person plural, future active indicative of OIDA (Han 401); of an absolute acquaintance as of
one born under God's covenant (Vincent 4.473); OIDA suggests fullness of knowledge (Vine 628); for
all will know me (Williams); because all shall be acquainted with me (Lenski 265); to find OIDA in
certain Greek lexicons, look under EIDOO.
[ 78 ]Because there is no record of baptizing babies in Scripture in no way implies that babies are lost.
Those who have not reached the age of accountability are safe (see Ps 8:2; Mt 18:1-4; 19:14).
[ 79 ]APO MIKROU HEOOS MEGALOU AUTOON, from little to great of them (Marshall 872);
literally, from the little unto the great of them (Vincent 4.473); from the least to the greatest; small and
great, young and old (Thayer 394, 414); in age, the little ones, the children . . . the designation of all
the members of a group; small and great (Arndt 497, 521); small, little, with reference to rank or
influence; the whole phrase, literally, "from small to great," is equivalent to the English idiom "one
and all" (Vine 506, 655); from the lowest to the highest (Williams); from their small to [their] great
[ 80 ]A pedo-baptist is one who believes in or practices the baptizing of babies.
[ 81 ]HOTI HILEOOS ESOMAI, because merciful I will be (Marshall 872); ESOMAI is first person
singular, future middle indicative of EIMI (Han 401); only here and in Matthew 16:22 (Vincent 4.473);
propitious, merciful [akin to HILASKOMAI to be propitious, merciful, to expiate, make propitiation
for], the quality expressed by it [in Scripture] essentially appertains to God, though man is undeserving
of it. it is used only of God (Vine 734); for I will be merciful (Williams); because I will be merciful
[ 82 ]Vincent 1.97.
[ 83 ]Vine 734.
[ 84 ]TAIS ADIKIAIS AUTOON, to the unrighteousnesses of them (Marshall 872); unrighteousnesses
[the only occurrence of the word in the plural] (Vincent 4.473); [A negative, DIKEE right], literally
"unrighteousnesses" (Vine 590); misdeeds (Arndt 17); iniquities, misdeeds (Thayer 12); to their deeds
of wrong (Williams); to their unrighteousness (Lenski 265).
[ 85 ]KAI TOON HAMARTIOON AUTOON, and the sins of them (Marshall 872); [omit KAI TON
ANOMION AUTON and their lawless deeds], and their iniquities (Vincent 4.473); their sins
(Williams); and their sins (Lenski 265).
[ 86 ]OU MEE MNEESTHOO ETI, by no means I may remember more (Marshall 872, 873);
MNEESTHOO is first person singular, first aorist passive subjunctive of MIMNEESKOO (Han 401);
literally, I will by no means remember any more (Vincent 4.473); and never, never any more will I
recall (Williams); will I not remember any longer (Lenski 265).
[ 87 ]EN TOO LEGEIN KAINEN, in the to say=when he says new (Marshall 873); LEGEIN is the
present active infinitive of LEGOO (Han 401); literally, in his saying new (Vincent 4.473); in speaking
of a new covenant (Williams); in saying a new one (Lenski 270).
[ 88 ]PEPALAIOOKEN TEEN PROOTEEN, he has made old the first (Marshall 873);
PEPALAIOOKEN is third person singular, perfect active indicative of PALAIOOO (Han 401);
HALAIOUN to make old is only in Hebrews and Luke 12:33 (Vincent 4.473); active voice, made or
declared old (Vine 807); He makes the first one obsolete (Williams); he has declared the first one old
[ 89 ]TO DE PALAIOUMENON, and the thing being made old (Marshall 873); PALAIOUMENON
is the present passive participle, nominative singular neuter of PALAIOOO (Han 401); but that which
is becoming old (Vincent 4.473); and whatever is obsolete (Williams); now the thing declared old
[ 90 ]Entropy is from the Greek EN in plus TREPOO to turn, change. It denotes disorder and
[ 91 ]KAI GEERASKON, and growing aged (Marshall 873); GEERASKON is the present active
participle, nominative or accusative singular neuter of GEERASKOO (Han 401); and waxing aged [only
here and Joh 21:18] adds the idea of infirmity to that of age (Vincent 4.473); and antiquated (Williams);
and becoming aged (Lenski 271).
[ 92 ]ENGUS APHANISMOU, [is] near vanishing (Marshall 873); literally, is nigh unto vanishing
(Vincent 4.473); is on the verge of vanishing (Williams); [is] near to vanishing away (Lenski 271).
[ 93 ]This has nothing whatsoever to do with "King-ism" and the so-called "eschaton" during which
the Law is supposed to be still vanishing away when the book of Hebrews was written, the culmination
of which is supposed to have occurred in AD 70. The Law was taken out of the way at the cross (Col
Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Ridgefield, Washington,
This material may be copied for personal study only.
It may not be distributed or published in any form whatever
without the copyright
owner's written permission.
This copyright notice must be included on all copies
The basic text, and all quotations not designated otherwise,
are from the New King James Version, copyrighted ©1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc.
All rights reserved. Used by permission. Bracketed alternatives are drawn from various
sources such as the ASV, Darby, KJV and RSV.
Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.
Published in The Old Paths Archive
To the Index