The Letter to the Hebrews
Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Ridgefield,
HEBREWS 9 OUTLINE
1. Structure and furniture of tabernacle (Heb 9:1-5).
2. Services in outer and inner rooms (Heb 9:6, 7).
3. Weakness of tabernacle services (Heb 9:8-10).
4. Superiority of Christ's sacrifice (Heb 9:11-15).
a. Eternal redemption (Heb 9:12).
b. Purifies conscience (Heb 9:14).
c. Eternal inheritance (Heb 9:15).
5. Christ's death necessary (Heb 9:16-24).
a. To validate the new covenant (Heb 9:16, 17).
b. To fulfill OT sacrifices (Heb 9:18-24).
c. One offering versus many under the Law
(Heb 9:25, 26).
6. To die once then the judgment (Heb 9:27).
7. Will appear a second time for salvation (Heb 9:28).
Chapter 9 begins[ 1 ] with a brief description of the structure and furniture of OT
tabernacle. The services in the holy place and the most holy place are described.
The deficiency of the tabernacle services is pointed out. Three aspects of the
superiority of Christ's sacrifice are listed: (1) eternal redemption, (2) purification
of the conscience, and (3) the eternal inheritance. Christ's death was required to
authenticate the NT and to fulfill OT sacrifices. Christ's one offering of Himself
replaced the many animal sacrifices that were made under the Law. It is appointed
for men once to die and then the judgment. Jesus will appear a second time for
salvation (see chart HEBREWS 9 OUTLINE).
THE SPLENDID EARTHLY TABERNACLE
[CHRIST'S HEAVENLY MINISTRY SURPASSES IT]
9:1 Then indeed, even the first covenant had ordinances of divine service and
the earthly sanctuary.
Then indeed, even the first covenant [now even, therefore also, then verily,
the first, a first covenant].[ 2 ] Some older versions supplied "tabernacle" whereas
several modern translators have supplied the word "covenant."
In chapter 8, the Hebrew writer gave us a prelude of the tabernacle when he
wrote of Moses being warned by God to make all things according to the pattern.
He also pointed out that Jeremiah had recorded the words of God to the effect that
the old covenant was to be replaced (Heb 8:8-12; compare Jer 31:31-34). The
first covenant was abolished at the cross (Col 2:14-16). The new covenant
continues throughout the church age (Da 2:44; Heb 12:28).
But now He has obtained a more excellent ministry, inasmuch as He is also
Mediator of a better covenant, which was established on better promises
Had ordinances [indeed had, had also, regulations, its regulations].[ 3 ] The
ordinances or regulations of the old covenant consisted of various rules and laws.
In particular consideration here were those ordinances regulating the building of
the tabernacle, its furnishings and its service.
Of divine service [of service, for worship].[ 4 ] The OT regulations were of
divine origin. They were so designed that worship could be continually performed
by the Aaronic priests in "the earthly sanctuary." The first covenant pointed
toward Christ and the second covenant or the NT. Even though it was shadowy,
if done from the heart, the OT worship pleased God. It was "a figure for the time
then present" or "a similitude for the present season" (see verse 9).
And the earthly sanctuary [and a worldly, of this world, and its sanctuary,
a sanctuary, one].
1. Outer tabernacle, Holy Place, behind the first veil.
b. Table and shewbread.
c. (Altar of Incense).
2. Inner room, Most Holy Place, behind the second veil.
a. (Golden incense burner).
b. Ark of the covenant.
(1) Golden jar of manna.
(2) Aaron's rod.
(3) Tables of the covenant.
(4) Above it cherubim of glory.
THE OUTER TABERNACLE
9:2-5 For a tabernacle was prepared: the first part, in which was the
lampstand, the table, and the shewbread, which is called the sanctuary; 3 and
behind the second veil, the part of the tabernacle which is called the Holiest
of All, 4 which had the golden censer and the ark of the covenant overlaid on
all sides with gold, in which were the golden pot that had the manna, Aaron's
rod that budded, and the tablets of the covenant; 5 and above it were the
cherubim of glory overshadowing the mercy seat. Of these things we cannot
now speak in detail.
For a tabernacle was prepared [for there was a tabernacle prepared, for a
tabernacle was set up, for a tent was prepared, for there was a tabernacle
made].[ 5 ] For there was a tabernacle prepared, for a tabernacle was prepared, was
made, was set up, for a tent was prepared.[ 6 ] The Hebrew writer goes all the way
back to the time of Moses and the building of the original tabernacle. By "the
outer one," the writer designates the holy place or the first room of the tabernacle.
Not only was it "prepared," but "these things" (its furniture) were also "thus
prepared" (verse 6). That is, they were constructed "according to the pattern" (Ex
25:40; see note on Heb 8:5). Instructional details of the "preparation" are
recorded in Ex 25:8-40).
God said to Moses:
And let them make Me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them (Ex
The "sanctuary" was the entire tabernacle. It was to be constructed "just so."
That is, it was to be made according to the pattern:
According to all that I show you, that is, the pattern of the tabernacle and
the pattern of all its furnishings, just so you shall make it (Ex 25:9).
Since the tabernacle Moses built was patterned after the "true tabernacle" (Heb
8:2) and the "things in the heavens" (Heb 9:23), it was nevertheless only an
"earthly sanctuary." It was "earthly" in that it was impermanent, temporal and
transient. It was earthly in contrast to the heavenly sanctuary where Christ
ministers. It was earthly because it was made from items contributed by the
And this is the offering which you shall take from them: gold, silver, and
bronze; blue, purple, and scarlet thread, fine linen, and goats' hair; ram
skins dyed red, [ 7 ]badger skins, and acacia wood (Ex 25:3-5).[ 8 ]
The first part [the first, the outer one, which was called the Holy Place].[ 9 ]
By "the first," the Holy Spirit alludes the first, or outer, room that we often call
the holy place. By "the first" some have seen an allusion to the physical body of
Jesus by way of which He entered heaven. At Calvary, He committed His spirit
into the hands of the Father (Lu 23:46). Later, He arose and ascended.
In which was the lampstand [wherein were, was, both the candlestick,
contained a lamp].[ 10 ] Instructions on how to make the lampstand are given in
Exodus 25:31-39.[ 11 ] The construction of it is described in Exodus 37:17-24.
Each of its seven lamps were trimmed every evening. Pure olive oil supplied a
continual flame from evening to morning when they were extinguished (Ex 27:20,
21; Le 24:1-4).
It was not within the scope of the Hebrew writer to give details such as the
antitypical meaning of each item of tabernacle furniture. Other Scriptures shed
light on this. The candlestick, like the church, supported the lights (see Zec 4:1-14; 1Ti 3:15). "The seven lampstands which you saw are the seven churches" (Re
1:20). The oil, like the Holy Spirit,[ 12 ] provided the basis for the light (Isa 61:1;
Ac 10:38; Heb 1:9 1Jo 2:20, 27). The same Holy Spirit chose not to "now speak
in detail" about them (verse 5).
The table and the shewbread [and the table of show-bread], the bread of the
Presence, the exposition of the loaves].[ 13 ] The table of shewbread is described
in Exodus 25:23-30. Its assembly and utensils are delineated in Exodus 37:10-16).
The showbread or "the bread of the Presence" was to be placed in two rows of
six loaves each on the table every Sabbath, at first by Aaron himself. A container
of frankincense was to be placed on each row (Le 24:5-9).[ 14 ] The loaves were
huge. Each was made from 0.2 ephah or about 6 quarts of fine flour. They were
eaten only by priests. Christ is the bread of life (Joh 6:51). Christians are priests
and feed on the spiritual food of God's word (1Pe 2:5, 9; Re 1:6; 5:10).
Which is called the sanctuary [it is called Holy, the Holy place].[ 15 ] The holy
place was off-limits to the people. Only the priests were allowed to enter. Its NT
counterpart is the church. All Christians, being priests, are in it. There are
several points of similarity between the holy place and the church of Christ. For
example, priests ministered in the holy place. Christians, as priests, serve in the
church. The holy place led toward the most holy place. The church leads to
THE INNER TABERNACLE
9:3, 4 And behind the second veil, there was a tabernacle which is called the
Holy of Holies, 4 having a golden altar of incense and the ark of the covenant
covered on all sides with gold, in which was a golden jar holding the manna,
and Aaron's rod which budded, and the tables of the covenant.
And behind the second veil [behind, and after, but after, but behind, the
second curtain].[ 16 ] There were two veils (Ex 36:31-37).[ 17 ] One was before the
door of the tent and the other before the holy of holies. After a priest passed the
first veil and entered the tabernacle, he could view the second veil in front of him.
Behind the second veil was the holy of holies. This veil signified that the way into
the Most Holy Place (heaven) had "not yet made manifest" or "not yet been
disclosed" (Heb 9:8). The second veil signified the flesh of Christ which He
passed through on His way to heaven (see Heb 10:20).
The part of the tabernacle [a tabernacle, stood a tent, was a place].[ 18 ] The
Holy Spirit calls the most holy place a tabernacle. Lest one get the impression
that the original tabernacle was still standing in the first century, consider that even
when Eli was a judge, in some versions reference was made to a "temple."
Now Eli the priest was sitting on the seat by the doorpost of the tabernacle
of the LORD (1Sa 1:9; compare the word "temple" in the ASV, KJV,
NAU, NIV, RSV).
And before the lamp of God went out in the tabernacle of the LORD where
the ark of God was, and while Samuel was lying down (1Sa 3:3; ;compare
the word "temple" in the ASV, KJV, NAU, NIV, RSV).
Much later, David pitched a tent for the ark of the Lord (2Sa 6:17). Since that
time, three successive temples were built on Mount Moriah (see 2Ch 3:1). After
Solomon's temple was Zerubbabel's (after return from captivity), and, finally,
Herod's. The construction of the latter during Jesus' earthly ministry had already
been "forty-six years" in building (Joh 2:20). Its continued construction dragged
on until AD 64. Herod's fine temple was destroyed six years after it was finished.
Most of the references to the tabernacle in the book of Hebrews relate, not to the
temple, but to the tabernacle in its original or early state. Some think that the
most holy place in Herod's temple was empty.[ 19 ]
PROBLEM OF LOCATION OF GOLDEN CENSER
Which is called the Holiest of All [called the Holy of Holies].[ 20 ] In OT days,
only the high priest was allowed to enter the Holy of Holies. Ordinary priests and
the people in general had no access to it.
[9:4] Which had the golden censer [having a, the, golden altar of incense, a
golden censer].[ 21 ] The altar of incense is described in Exodus 37:25-28. It was
to be placed "in front of the veil that is near the ark of the testimony, in front of
the mercy seat that is over the ark of the testimony" (Ex 30:6).[ 22 ] The high priest
was to burn fragrant incense on it every morning and every evening at twilight
when he trimmed the lamps (Ex 30:7, 8; compare Ex 40:26, 27). The fragrance
of the burning incense drifted into the Most Holy Place.[ 23 ]
Originally, a golden censer was not in the Holy of Holies. Some think that the
censer mentioned here is not the "ark of Incense" but a censer placed there by
someone at a time unknown to us. The "ark of incense" not being mentioned in
verse 3, and a golden censer being listed in verse 4, may be the result of someone
who copied the Scriptures.[ 24 ] The Holy Place contained the altar of incense,
located at the curtain (Ex 30:1-6; 40:1-5; Le 16:18). The high priest made
atonement on it with blood of the sin offering once a year (Ex 30:10). According
to the Mishna,[ 25 ] the high priest burned incense once a year in the Most Holy
Place (see Le 16:12). Did he use a censor on that occasion? Did he move the
altar of incense inside the most holy place?
Some see a difficulty here because Exodus 30:6 "has"[ 26 ] the altar of incense "in
front of" or "before" the veil, presumably in the holy place. It all depends on the
frame of reference. If one were inside the most holy place the altar of incense
could be described as "before the veil" and still be inside the Most Holy Place.
You shall make an altar to burn incense on; you shall make it of acacia
wood. 2 A cubit shall be its length and a cubit its width-- it shall be square-- and two cubits shall be its height. Its horns shall be of one piece with it.
3 And you shall overlay its top, its sides all around, and its horns with pure
gold; and you shall make for it a molding of gold all around. 4 Two gold
rings you shall make for it, under the molding on both its sides. You shall
place them on its two sides, and they will be holders for the poles with
which to bear it. 5 You shall make the poles of acacia wood, and overlay
them with gold. 6 And you shall put it before the veil that is before the ark
of the Testimony, before the mercy seat that is over the Testimony, where
I will meet with you (Ex 30:1-6).
The whole temple he overlaid with gold, until he had finished all the temple;
also he overlaid with gold the entire altar that was by the inner sanctuary
Is it a satisfactory solution to the problem to say that the altar of incense, though
not within but by the most holy place, was closely connected with it? Regardless,
on the Day of Atonement it was sprinkled with the blood just like that sprinkled
inside the most holy place (Ex 30:6-10; Le 16:11).
Another proposed solution to the difficulty surrounding the location of the altar
of incense involves the translation of the Greek in Hebrews 9:4.
THUMIATEERION a utensil for fumigating or burning incense or "incense
burner."[ 27 ] Might this refer to the golden censer which, at that time, was kept
behind the curtain inside the most holy place?[ 28 ] According to this explanation,
on the Day of Atonement, the high priest would get it, perhaps by reaching his
hand under the curtain into the most holy place, take a fire pan of coals from the
altar, put two handfuls of incense thereon, and then enter the most holy place with
the smoking incense (Le 16:12, 13). In addition, he took bull's and goat's blood
inside. He sprinkled blood of the sin offering upon the altar of incense, wherever
it was placed (see Ex 30:10; Le 16:14). The burning of incense relates to prayer.
The "incense burner" was in the holy of holies. Incense was burned within it.
The prayers of Christians actually enter into heaven.
And the ark of the covenant [and the ark of the covenant].[ 29 ] The ark of the
covenant was so-called because it was a chest that contained the tables of the
covenant, the ten commandments. It was two and one-half cubits long by one and
one-half cubits wide[ 30 ] (Ex 25:10-22; 37:1).
Overlaid on all sides with gold [covered round about, round in every part,
covered on all sides, completely covered, with gold].[ 31 ] In spite of all the gold,
the tabernacle was impermanent and transitory compared to heavenly things.
In which [wherein, which].[ 32 ] Originally, the pot of manna and Aaron's rod
were "before the Testimony" or "before the Lord" (Ex 16:34; Nu 17:10). Moses
put the two tablets of stone containing the ten commandments into the ark (De
10:2-5). During the reign of Solomon, only the two tablets of stone were in it
(1Ki 8:9; 2Ch 5:10).[ 33 ]
Were the golden pot that had the manna [was, were, contained, a golden pot,
urn, holding the, that had, of, manna].[ 34 ] The pot or urn of manna was a
reminder to the Israelites of how God fed them in the wilderness (see Ex 25:16).
According to Exodus 16:33, 34, the manna was in a "jar," "urn" or "pot" before
the Testimony. I have not found the word "golden" in any OT reference to the pot
of manna, but it does appear in the Septuagint.[ 35 ]
Aaron's rod that budded [and Aaron's rod, and the rod of Aaron, that had
sprouted].[ 36 ] When there was a disagreement about who were really God's
priests, the budding of Aaron's rod proved that God's choice was Aaron. The rod
was kept as a proof of that (Nu 17:1-10). It is difficult or impossible, from the
original words, to distinguish between a "rod"[ 37 ] and a "staff"[ 38 ] (see Mt 26:47,
55).[ 39 ] Aaron's rod (called a "staff" in the NASB) precipitated lice upon Egypt
(Ex 8:16, 17). It was a length of almond wood that may have been fitted into the
ark of the covenant.[ 40 ] Not only did it sprout, but it produced blossoms and it
bore ripe almonds (Nu 17:8). The budding of his rod typifies the productive,
eternal rule of Christ.
USES OF A ROD
1. To lean upon (Ge 47:31 [Hebrew]; Heb 11:21).
2. As a weapon (Ex 21:20; Isa 10:24).
3. To count sheep (Le 27:32).
4. As a sign of authority (Ps 2:9; 45:8; Es 4:11; 5:2;
Jer 48:17; Heb 1:8; Re 2:27; 12:5; 19:15).
5. As a walking stick (Mt 10:10; Mk 6:8; Lu 9:3).
6. As a symbol of discipline (1Co 4:21).
7. As a standard of measure (Re 11:1).
And the tablets of the covenant [and the stone tablets of the covenant].[ 41 ]
God commanded Moses to put the tablets on which were written the decalogue into
the ark of "the testimony" (Ex 25:16). The two tablets of stone were called "the
testimony" (Ex 31:18). They were "the two tablets of the Testimony" (Ex 32:15).
The Ten Commandments were the tables of the covenant (De 4:13; compare Ex
34:28); 1Ki 8:9).
CHERUBIM OVERSHADOWING MERCY SEAT
9:5 And above it were the cherubim of glory overshadowing the mercy seat;
but of these things we cannot now speak in detail.
And above it were the cherubim of glory [above it, above over it, and over
it, the cherubim, cherubims, of glory].[ 42 ] Two cherubs (cherubim) were placed
on the golden mercy seat (Ex 25:18-20). A cherub (plural cherubim) was a
winged being thought to have had a human-animal head and body and served as
an attendant of God (see chart CHERUBIM).
1. With a flaming sword east of Eden (Ge 3:24).
2. Of gold, on the mercy seat (Ex 25:18-22; 37:7-9).
3. Embroidered on tabernacle curtains (Ex 26:1).
4. God dwelt between or above them (Nu 7:89; 1Sa
4:4; 2Sa 6:2; 2Ki 19:15; Ps 80:1; 99:1; Isa 37:16).
5. Solomon had new, larger ones made for temple (1Ki
6:23-28; 2Ch 3:10-13; 5:7, 8).
1. Carved on the temple walls (1Ki 6:29).
2. The Lord "rode upon a cherub and flew"
(2Sa 22:11; Ps 18:10).
3. Living beings with four faces (man, lion, bull, eagle),
four wings beneath which was the form of human
hands (Eze 11:15, 20, 21; compare 1:5-21; 10:14).
4. Carved on inner temple walls in Ezekiel's vision
(Eze 41:18-20, 25).
Overshadowing the mercy seat [shadowing the mercy-seat].[ 43 ] The mercy
seat is described in Exodus 25:17-22. Christ is our "mercy seat" or "propitiation."
Whom God set forth as HILASTEERION a propitiation by His blood,
through faith, to demonstrate His righteousness, because in His forbearance
God had passed over the sins that were previously committed (Ro 3:25).
Of these things we cannot now speak in detail [of which, concerning which,
we cannot not now, it is not the time to speak severally, particularly].[ 44 ] The
Holy Spirit emphasizes that tabernacle is composed of two rooms. He does not
emphasize details of the prefigurement of each item of furniture.
1. Tabernacle - Christ dwelt in a "tabernacle of clay."
2. Table - He is the bread of life.
3. Ark containing the covenant - He is the Word.
4. Lampstand - He is the light of the world.
5. Altar of incense - He was a sacrifice to God for a
sweet-smelling aroma (compare Eph 5:2).
6. Altar of burnt offering - He is the victim.
(Adapted from Cyril via Clarke 6.744)
OT PRIESTLY SERVICE
9:6 Now when these things had been thus prepared, the priests always went
into the first part of the tabernacle, performing the services.
Now when these things had been thus prepared [now, now after, these
things, having been, being, thus ordered, were thus ordained, had been
prepared in this manner, these preparations having thus been made].[ 45 ] The
tabernacle and all its furnishings were "prepared," that is, they were made
according to God's pattern and direction (see note on Heb 8:5).
The priests always went into [the priests go in continually, were continually
going, went always, into, enter at all times].[ 46 ] The priests performed daily and
weekly services. Twice each day, at the time of the morning and evening
sacrifices, priests entered the holy place to burn incense on the golden altar. Each
evening they dressed the seven lamps. Each Sabbath day they changed the twelve
loaves of shewbread.
The first part of the tabernacle [the first tabernacle, into the outer tent, the
first part of the tabernacle].[ 47 ] They offered sin offerings on the bronze altar
outside the holy place. They sprinkled blood from sin offerings seven times in
front of the veil (Le 4:6). On the Day of Atonement, a special sin offering was
made, the blood of which was applied by the high priest to the mercy seat in the
most holy place (see Ex 25:8, 9).
And let them make Me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them. 9
According to all that I show you, that is, the pattern of the tabernacle and
the pattern of all its furnishings, just so you shall make it (Ex 25:8, 9).
THINGS DONE CONTINUALLY
1. Priests continually entering holy place (Heb 9:6)
2. Angels continually behold the face of the Father
3. Continually in the temple praising God (Lu 24:53).
4. David said of Christ, "I foresaw the Lord always
before my face" (Ac 2:25; Ps 16:8-11).
5. Cornelius prayed to God continually (Ac 10:2).
6. May the Lord of peace Himself give you peace
always (2Th 3:16).
7. Continually offer the sacrifice of praise (Heb 13:15).
Performing the services [accomplishing their ritual duties, the services, the
service of God, ministering].[ 48 ]
WAY INTO HOLIEST WAS NOT YET MADE MANIFEST
9:7, 8 But into the second part the high priest went alone once a year, not
without blood, which he offered for himself and for the people's sins committed
in ignorance; 8 the Holy Spirit indicating this, that the way into the Holiest of
All was not yet made manifest while the first tabernacle was still standing.
But into the second part [but, however, into the second].[ 49 ] The second part
was the Most Holy Place.
The high priest went alone [the high priest alone, only, went the high priest
alone, only the high priest goes, went].[ 50 ]
Once a year [once every year, in the year, and he but once a year].[ 51 ] Once
each year, the high priest made atonement for himself and for the people.
And Aaron shall make atonement upon its horns once a year with the blood
of the sin offering of atonement; once a year he shall make atonement upon
it throughout your generations. It is most holy to the LORD (Ex 30:10).
Not without blood [and not without taking blood].[ 52 ] Blood was essential for
atonement. This lays the groundwork for Christ offering His blood in heaven.
Which he offered for himself [which he offereth for himself, which he offers
for himself]. Since the earthly high priest was himself a sinner, he had to offer
for his own sins.
And for the people's sins committed in ignorance [and for the errors of the
people, and for the people's sins of ignorance].[ 53 ] All were sinners (Ps 5:9;
14:1; Isa 53:6; Ro 3:9, 23).
HOLY SPIRIT EXPLAINS TABERNACLE SYMBOLISM
[9:8] The Holy Spirit indicating this [the Holy Ghost this signifying, shewing
this, this signifying, by this the Holy Spirit indicates, was showing].[ 54 ] The
Holy Spirit is signifying that the way into the holy place has not yet been
disclosed. By giving the instructions concerning the work of priests (verses 6, 7),
the Holy Spirit was signifying or implying the inaccessibility of God through the
old Levitical system, that is, while the outer tabernacle was still standing.
That the way into the Holiest of All [that the way of the holy place, the [holy
of] holies, into the sanctuary].[ 55 ] The inspired Hebrew writer alludes to heaven
as the Holiest of All.
Was not yet made manifest [hath not, has not, yet been made manifest, is
not yet opened, was not yet revealed].[ 56 ] Before Christ died, the temple veil
was intact. It symbolically blocked the way to heaven. When He expired, it was
torn from top to bottom (see Mt 27:51; Mk 15:38).
While the first tabernacle was still standing [while as, while as yet, as long
as, the outer tent is yet, has its, standing].[ 57 ] The holy place in the Levitical
tabernacle stood as a sentinel keeping everyone out of the most holy place (that
typified heaven). None of the people, none of the priests[ 58 ] were allowed to pass
the curtain. It set the Most Holy Place apart. In the words of Josephus, this was
because "heaven is inaccessible to men."[ 59 ] When the book of Hebrews was
written, the "outer tabernacle" was "still standing." As long as it "had its
standing," heaven would be inaccessible. In perhaps five years, Jerusalem and its
temple would soon be destroyed (AD 70).
Is it surprising that the writer pictures the most holy place standing after the holy
place was not? Does this allude to the coming of Christ when the earth will be
burned up and the righteous taken to heaven to be with the Lord? At that time,
there will be no more "first compartment" of the tabernacle. All of the saved will
be in the heavenly most holy place forever. Another way of looking at this is that
since the curtain was rent at Christ's death, we may think of only one room in the
SYMBOLIC FOR THE PRESENT TIME
9:9, 10 It was symbolic for the present time in which both gifts and sacrifices
are offered which cannot make him who performed the service perfect in
regard to the conscience-- 10 concerned only with foods and drinks, various
washings, and fleshly ordinances imposed until the time of reformation.
It was symbolic [which, the which, which was, is, a figure, an image, is
symbolic][ 60 ] The OT tabernacle with its sacrifices served as an illustration. It
prefigured the sacrifice and priestly ministry of Christ.
For the present time [for the time present, the present age, the time then
present].[ 61 ]
In which [according to which, to this arrangement].[ 62 ]
Both gifts and sacrifices [gifts and sacrifices].[ 63 ]
Are offered [were, were being, offered].[ 64 ] Evidently the Aaronic priests were
still offering sacrifices at the time the book of Hebrews was written.
Which cannot [unable, that cannot, which could not].[ 65 ]
Make him who performed the service perfect [make the worshipper, the one
ministering, him that did the service, perfect, to perfect him that worshipped,
of the worshiper].[ 66 ] OT ordinances were ineffective. They were mere figures
and types of the true sacrifice of Christ. OT services served God's purpose. They
looked forward to the real thing--the coming sacrifice of Christ. Without Christ,
OT sacrifices were meaningless. NT baptism, without a connection with the blood
of Christ would be just as meaningless. Baptism into the death of Christ
communicate with His blood and is truly "for the remission of sins" (see Ac 2:38).
In regard to the conscience [the, in, as, as to, touching, pertaining to, the
conscience].[ 67 ] One rudimentary flaw in the old covenant was that it did not
relate to the conscience as does the new. Under the old Law, no one could regard
himself as being so free from guilt that his conscience was clear and clean. The
new covenant system actually cleanses the conscience to serve God. It is not just
a "feel good" religion, but one that gets to the very heart of the sin problem.
When one obeys the gospel of Christ, sins are literally and actually forgiven. He
has a valid reason to go "on his way rejoicing" (Ac 8:39).
OT OFFERINGS INTENDED TO BE TEMPORARY
[9:10] Concerned only with [being only with, consisting only of, but deal only,
which stood only in, they related only to].[ 68 ] OT ordinances for cleansing were
based upon rules about activities to be carried out by people. Some of these had
to do with food and drink.
Foods and drinks [meats and drinks, food and drink].[ 69 ] Priests were not to
drink wine or strong drink when they went into the tent of meeting (Le 10:9). A
Nazirite was to abstain from wine, strong drink, vinegar, grape juice and raisins
(Nu 6:3). The Passover meal consisted of mutton, bitter herbs, unleavened bread
and other things. Rules forbade eating unclean animals (Le 11:2-47).
Various washings [and divers washings, and various ablutions].[ 70 ] Whoever
picked up the carcasses of certain unclean organisms had to wash his clothes (Le
11:25). If one touched or ate an animal that died of itself he likewise had to wash
his clothes (Le 11:40). The same applied if one ate an animal torn by beasts (Le
17:15). If a priest had touched "any creeping thing" or "any person by whom he
would become unclean" he could not eat of the holy gifts. Even though he would
"bathe in water" he would be unclean until evening (Le 15:10). The Jews added
other items to the list of what needed to be washed. Some of these were hands,
cups, dishes, pitchers and copper pots (Mt 23:25; Mk 7:2-4; Lu 11:38).[ 71 ]
And fleshly ordinances [and carnal ordinances, ordinances of flesh,
regulations for the body].[ 72 ] "Fleshly" or "carnal" simply refers to bodily
things. There is nothing especially degrading about "fleshly ordinances." Carnal
ordinances were regulations for the body. They were called physical requirements
"according to the law of a fleshly commandment" (Heb 7:16).
Imposed [imposed on them].[ 73 ] The "fleshly ordinances" were obligatory under
Until the time of reformation [until a time, the time, of setting things
right].[ 74 ] The rules about gifts, offerings and other OT regulations were
temporary. They were to last only until the time of reformation. The "time of
reformation" was the time of a change of the priesthood. At its beginning, there
was a change in both the priesthood and the Law (Heb 7:12). It began the age of
the better covenant and better Priesthood. During "the time of reformation," the
message of the new covenant is written on hearts. Souls are saved by the merits
of the blood of Christ. The fleshly regulations of the Law were brought to
completion by Christ's death in our behalf on the cross (Eph 2:14, 15; Col. 2:14).
The new covenant and the law of Christ have taken the place of the old Law.
CHRIST BEGAN TIME OF REFORMATION IN HEAVEN
9:11 But Christ came as High Priest of the good things to come, with the
greater and more perfect tabernacle not made with hands, that is, not of this
But Christ came [but Christ, but when Christ, having come, being come,
appeared].[ 75 ] The Greek word for "came" or "appeared" can mean either that
Christ came or that He went. In this verse, His appearing is not His nativity but
His ascension into heaven. This is evident because He came "as High Priest." He
did not come to earth that way. On earth He was not a priest (Heb 8:4). In
speaking of the same event, the writer says Christ entered "into heaven itself"
As High Priest [high priest, a, an, as a, high priest].[ 76 ] Since Christ was not
a priest on earth, this has to refer to His ascension and entrance into heaven.
Of the good things to come [of good things that have come].[ 77 ] Good things
now enjoyed include the better covenant, a cleansed conscience and a special and
intimate association with God. In Christ, who is our King and High Priest, are
enjoyed all spiritual blessings, not the least of which is complete and absolute
forgiveness of sins (Eph 1:3, 7).
With the greater and more perfect tabernacle [by, through, then through,
he entered by, the better the greater tent].[ 78 ] If one regards the preposition
"with" or "through" as instrumental (expressing means or agency; see footnote)
instead of a space through which He passed, the difficulty of understanding how
He "passed through" the heavenly sanctuary vanishes.[ 79 ]
For Christ has not entered the holy places made with hands, which are
copies of the true, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of
God for us (Heb 9:24).
Not made with hands [not by hand].[ 80 ] The greater and more perfect heavenly
tabernacle is contrasted with the earthly one which was designated as a man-made
or hand-made tabernacle.
That is, not of this creation [that is to say, not of this building].[ 81 ] The Holy
Spirit contrasts the earthly tabernacle with the eternal "things which are not seen"
(2Co 4:18). Things "of this creation" are impermanent and transitory.
Now this, "Yet once more," indicates the removal of those things that are
being shaken, as of things that are made, that the things which cannot be
shaken may remain (Heb 12:27).
The OT system with its tabernacle has been "shaken." They have been removed
to make way for the better and more perfect ministry of Jesus Christ.
CHRIST PRESENTED HIS BLOOD IN HEAVEN
9:12 Not with the blood of goats and calves, but with His own blood He
entered the Most Holy Place once for all, having obtained eternal redemption.
Not with the blood of goats and calves [nor yet through, nor by, neither by,
taking not, blood of goats and calves][ 82 ] (see note on verse 13).
But with His own blood [but, but through, but by, his own blood].[ 83 ] The
blood of Christ is the price paid for the church (Ac 20:28). The church is "the
church of God" [the Son] "which he purchased with His own blood" (see also 1Co
1:2; 2Co 1:1).
He entered the Most Holy Place once for all [entered, has entered in, once
for all, he once for all entered, into, the holy of holies, the Holy Place].[ 84 ] On
the Day of Atonement, a Levitical high priest entered the most holy place with
blood (see verse 7). Christ's redemptive work was not completed until he entered
the "holy place" (heaven) for us all.
Having obtained eternal redemption [having found an, thus securing an,
having obtained our, eternal redemption, for us].[ 85 ] The OT high priest had
to offer a sacrifice each year. Not so with Christ. He died only once. His
redemption is permanent. He is the author of "eternal salvation" to all who obey
Him (Heb 5:9).
In Him we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of sins,
according to the riches of His grace (Eph 1:7).
CLEANSING THE CONSCIENCE
9:13, 14 For if the blood of bulls and goats and the ashes of a heifer,
sprinkling the unclean, sanctifies for the purifying of the flesh, 14 how much
more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself
without spot to God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the
For if the blood of bulls and goats [now if, taking not, the blood of goats,
and of goats, and calves].[ 86 ] On the Day of Atonement, sin offerings were
made. A bull was slain for a sin offering (Le 16:6). Two goats were selected.
Lots were cast to select the scapegoat. The other one was slain for a sin offering
(Le 16:9). Both of the two male animals prefigured Christ who, in His strength,
laid down His life on Calvary for our sins and carried our sins far away.
And the ashes of a heifer [and a heifer's ashes, and with the ashes of an
heifer].[ 87 ] The ordinance of the red heifer is recorded in Numbers 19. The
slaughtered heifer was burned along with cedar, hyssop and scarlet material.
And Eleazar the priest shall take some of its blood with his finger, and
sprinkle some of its blood seven times directly in front of the tabernacle of
meeting. 5 Then the heifer shall be burned in his sight: its hide, its flesh,
its blood, and its offal shall be burned. 6 And the priest shall take cedar
wood and hyssop and scarlet, and cast them into the midst of the fire
burning the heifer (Nu 19:4-6).
Flowing water was to be combined with the ashes (Nu 19:17).[ 88 ] One who was
unclean because of touching a corpse could purify himself by sprinkling with the
water from the ashes of the red heifer[ 89 ] on the third and seventh days (Nu 19:12,
Sprinkling the unclean [the sprinkling of them that have been defiled, the
defiled, defiled persons].[ 90 ] Sprinkling here has nothing whatsoever to do with
baptism. Baptism was always immersion. Besides, lye water was never indicated
in Scripture for baptizing anyone but if sprinkled or poured on the head it may
promote baldness. Instructions for the ritual for cleansing with the ashes of a red
A clean person shall take hyssop and dip it in the water, sprinkle it on the
tent, on all the vessels, on the persons who were there, or on the one who
touched a bone, the slain, the dead, or a grave. 19
The clean person
shall sprinkle the unclean on the third day and on the seventh day; and on
the seventh day he shall purify himself, wash his clothes, and bathe in
water; and at evening he shall be clean. 20 But the man who is unclean and
does not purify himself, that person shall be cut off from among the
assembly, because he has defiled the sanctuary of the LORD. The water of
purification has not been sprinkled on him; he is unclean. 21 It shall be a
perpetual statute for them. He who sprinkles the water of purification shall
wash his clothes; and he who touches the water of purification shall be
unclean until evening. 22 Whatever the unclean person touches shall be
unclean; and the person who touches it shall be unclean until evening (Nu
Sanctifies for the purifying of the flesh [sanctifieth, sanctify, to, unto, them
to, the cleanness, the purity, the purification, of the flesh].[ 91 ] Both the blood
of goats and bulls plus ashes of the red heifer were used to sanctify "for the
purifying of the flesh."
[9:14] How much more shall the blood of Christ [how much rather will the
blood of the Christ].[ 92 ] The blood of Christ is far more than a million times
more effective in taking away sin than the blood of animals. As a matter of fact,
animal blood was totally without merit compared with the precious blood of the
Lamb of God (1Pe 1:19).
Who through the eternal Spirit [who by the eternal Spirit].[ 93 ] Christ was put
to death in the flesh "but made alive by the Spirit" (1Pe 3:18). He was declared
to be the Son of God with power by the resurrection from the dead "according to
the Spirit of holiness" (Ro 1:4). In His own eternal spirit, He willingly offered
And so it is written, "The first man Adam became a living being." The last
Adam became a life-giving spirit (1Co 15:45).
Offered Himself without spot to God [offered himself spotless, without
blemish. unto God].[ 94 ] Christ offered to God His entire self "according to the
power of an endless life" (Heb 7:16). He gave Himself (see Ga 1:4; Heb 7:27).
He offered His eternal spirit to God. He offered His body (Heb 10:10).
Cleanse your conscience [purify, purge, our, your, conscience].[ 95 ] Peter
wrote about the similarity between Jewish and Gentile Christians.
So God, who knows the heart, acknowledged them by giving them the Holy
Spirit, just as He did to us, and made no distinction between us and them,
purifying their hearts by faith (Ac 15:8, 9).
Who gave Himself for us, that He might redeem us from every lawless deed
and purify for Himself His own special people, zealous for good works (Tit
The conscience of the original readers of the Hebrew letter apparently permitted
some of them to follow the Law of Moses about sacrifices, keeping of days and
other things. The works of the OT Law were dead works, not only because the
Law was nailed to the cross (Col 2:14) but those works never provided any
permanent cleansing of the conscience.
From dead works.[ 96 ] All works that bring death are dead works. Since no one
kept the Law perfectly, it condemned to death. OT works have no value in the
church age anyway (see note on Heb 6:1; Eph 2:8-10; Tit 3:5).
For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ
Jesus our Lord (Ro 6:23).
To serve the living God [to worship the living God].[ 97 ] In its various forms,
the Greek word here translated "to serve" is elsewhere rendered "serving,"
"worshiping" (see Lu 2:37) or the "worshipper" (Heb 9:9). It may be rendered
"to serve" or "to worship."[ 98 ]
CHRIST'S REDEMPTIVE WORK
1. Satisfies "legal" requirements.
2. Redeems from transgressions committed under the
3. Cleanses the conscience.
4. Purifies souls.
5. Delivers from power of darkness.
6. Provides eternal inheritance.
ETERNAL INHERITANCE BY CHRIST'S ATONING DEATH
9:15 And for this reason He is the Mediator of the new covenant, by means
of death, for the redemption of the transgressions under the first covenant,
that those who are called may receive the promise of the eternal inheritance.
And for this reason [therefore, and for this cause, because of this].[ 99 ]
Because of the efficacy of Christ's shed blood in washing away sins, Jesus is
Mediator of a better covenant. The old covenant was pretty good in pointing out
sins. In fact, that was probably its greatest achievement. What it failed in was to
take away even one of those terrible sins. The blood of Christ does what the old
covenant Law could not do. It completely takes them away. This is the main
reason that the new covenant is better.
He is the Mediator of the new covenant [he is mediator, the mediator, of a
new covenant, new testament].[ 100 ] "Mediator," in the present context, is used
in the same sense as in Hebrews 8:6 and 12:24. That is, Jesus guarantees the new
covenant that has important promises of forgiveness of sins and eternal life. These
could not be fulfilled without the One who mediated or guaranteed it by His death.
By means of death [that, so that, since, death, a death, having taken place,
has occurred, having experienced death].[ 101 ] The death of Christ provides a
ransom to release people from sins committed under the old covenant. Converted
Jews could better understand that to those under the Old Testament, His death was,
the death of the Testator.
For the redemption of the transgressions [which redeems them from the
transgressions, to gain redemption for those also who transgressed].[ 102 ]
Before the cross, sins were forgiven on a "passing over" basis (Ro 3:25). By the
death of Christ, there came to be actual redemption of the transgressions
committed under the first or old covenant. He obtained for them (and us) "eternal
redemption" (verse 12). It is sometimes expressed this way. The blood of Christ
flowed backward to save them as well as forward to save us.
Under the first covenant [that were under the first testament]. [ 103 ] The word
"committed"[ 104 ] or "they did"[ 105 ] in some versions is supplied by the translators
from verse 7.
That those who are called [they that have been called, they which are called,
the called].[ 106 ]
1. As many as the Lord our God will call (Ac 2:39).
2. That you may know what is the hope of His
calling (Eph 1:18).
3. God calls you into His own kingdom and glory
4. He who calls you is faithful (1Th 5:24).
5. He called you through our gospel (2Th 2:14).
6. Partakers of the heavenly calling (Heb 3:1).
7. You were called to this, that you may inherit
a blessing (1Pe 3:9).
May receive the promise of the eternal inheritance [might receive the promise
of, the promised, eternal inheritance].[ 107 ] The new covenant is the new
"testament" or "will" in the sense that it "wills" to those who have been called an
"eternal inheritance." Translators have wrestled with the term DIATHEEKEE
covenant throughout the years, trying to decide whether it could or should be
translated "testament." The NT is the will of God.
By that will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of
Jesus Christ once for all (Heb 10:10).
It is very much like a last will and testament because its promises were not
validated until Christ died. The major promise is eternal life (Joh 6:68; 10:28;
12:25; 17:2, 3; Ac 13:48; Ro 2:7; 5:21; 6:23; Ga 3:26-29; 1Ti 6:12, 19; Tit 1:2;
3:7; 1Jo 1:2; 2:25; 3:15; 5:11, 13, 20).
DEATH REQUIRED FOR A COVENANT TO BE OF FORCE
9:16 For where there is a testament, there must also of necessity be the death
of the testator.
For where there is a testament [for where a testament is, a will is involved,
there is a will].[ 108 ] Hebrew The writer is beginning to show the connection
between the shedding of blood and the effectiveness or force of a covenant.
There must also of necessity be the death of the testator [there must of
necessity be the death of him that made it, the death of the one who made it
must be established, shown, must needs come in].[ 109 ] There was an ancient
practice of "cutting" a covenant by slaying an animal. This was done to ratify a
covenant. There must of necessity be the death of the one who made it. How?
Representatively in the slain animal? Who made the old covenant? Obviously,
God. Who was its "testator"? The testator (the one who made the covenant) was
God. In what sense did He die? Figuratively, when the animals were sacrificed.
When? Representatively, when Christ was crucified.
A TESTAMENT IS OF FORCE ONLY AFTER DEATH
9:17 For a testament is in force after men are dead, since it has no power at
all while the testator lives.
For a testament is in force after men are dead [for a testament is of force,
for a will takes effect only, where there hath been death, at death, when men
are dead].[ 110 ] Was the OT covenant invalid until a death occurred? Whose
death? The deaths of slain animals prefigured the death of the Savior. In a sense,
therefore, both the old and new covenants were ratified by Christ's death.
Since it has no power at all while the testator lives [for it doth never avail,
since it is not, is in no way of, in, force, otherwise it is of no strength at all,
has no force at all, as long as the one, while he that, who, made it liveth, is
alive].[ 111 ] This is an important point that leads to a proper understanding of the
effective beginning of the new covenant. It was not of force before Christ died on
the cross. Thus, the thief on the cross was not under the new covenant. The
terms of pardon given in Acts 2:38, for example, did not apply to him.
OLD COVENANT INAUGURATED WITH ANIMAL BLOOD
9:18 Therefore not even the first covenant was dedicated without blood.
Therefore [wherefore, whence, hence, whereupon, so].[ 112 ] In retrospect, the
Hebrew writer considers that the OT, like the new, was dedicated or inaugurated
Not even the first covenant was dedicated without blood [neither the first, the
first testament, even the first covenant, was inaugurated, was not ratified,
hath not been dedicated, without blood].[ 113 ] Young men of the sons of Israel
were sent by Moses to offer burnt offerings and to sacrifice young bulls. Some
of the blood was sprinkled on the altar, some on the book of the covenant and
some on the people.
And Moses took the blood, sprinkled it on the people, and said, "This is the
blood of the covenant which the LORD has made with you according to all
these words" (Ex 24:8; compare Mt 26:28).
BLOOD SPRINKLED ON BOOK AND PEOPLE
9:19, 20 For when Moses had spoken every precept to all the people
according to the law, he took the blood of calves and goats, with water, scarlet
wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, 20
saying, "This is the blood of the covenant which God has commanded you."
For when every precept [for every commandment].[ 114 ] The old covenant was
a covenant of commandments. Notice that the covenant was inaugurated and that
Moses read every commandment. The NT likewise has hundreds of
Had been spoken by Moses [Moses spoke, for when Moses had spoken,
having been spoken, declared, by Moses].[ 115 ]
So Moses came and told the people all the words of the LORD and all the
judgments. And all the people answered with one voice and said, "All the
words which the LORD has said we will do" (Ex 24:3).
To all the people [unto all the people].[ 116 ] Think what a crowd that must have
been when 603,550 men marched out of Egypt (see Ex 38:26; Nu 1:46; 2:32).
With wives and children, there must have been two million of them. Reading all
the commandments to all the people was not an easy task.
According to the law [of the law].[ 117 ] As the Law directed, Moses read the
Law to the people:
Then he took the Book of the Covenant and read in the hearing of the
people. And they said, "All that the LORD has said we will do, and be
obedient" (Ex 24:7).
He took the blood of calves and goats [having taken blood of the calves and
the goats, of goats].[ 118 ] In Exodus 24, there is no mention of the sacrifice of
goats, but there is no doubt that it occurred. The Holy Spirit refers to the OT use
of blood in order to make more easily understood the essential death of Christ
which was, to many Jews, a stumbling-block (1Co 1:23).
With water.[ 119 ] Water is mentioned in several OT rituals but not in connection
with the dedication of the Law. Were it not for the NT, we would not know about
this particular use of water.
Scarlet wool [and scarlet wool].[ 120 ]
And hyssop.[ 121 ] There seems to be some uncertainty about the identity of
hyssop that "springs out of the wall" (1Ki 4:33). Some think it was the same as
marjoram. Zondervan describes one variety as the Egyptian marjoram, a member
of the mint family. The hairy stem of the much-branched inflorescence holds
water very well, a characteristic identifying it with its place in the Passover rites.
This type of hyssop may have been used to sprinkle blood on the doorposts in
Egypt (Ex 12:22).
While in Israel, I myself observed the latter variety at Caesarea Philippi as well
as growing out of cracks in walls in other towns. Along with cedar wood and
scarlet string, hyssop was used in the ceremonial cleansing of a leper (Le 14:4, 6)
as well as cleansing the leper's house (Le 14:49). It was cast into the fire of the
burning red heifer (Nu 19:6) and used to sprinkle the "clean" water (Nu 19:18).
Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean; wash me, and I shall be whiter
than snow (Ps 51:7).
Another kind of hyssop was a sorghum cane that reached a height of over six
feet. Others think When Jesus was on the cross, the sorghum variety may have
been used when they put a sponge full of the sour wine "upon a branch of hyssop"
and brought it up to His mouth (Joh 9:29).[ 122 ]
And sprinkled both the book itself [he sprinkled the book itself].[ 123 ] Why
would the book of the Law need to be sprinkled? Was it only a matter of
dedication? Did it need ceremonial cleansing because it had been written by
human hands? If the scroll had been made from animal skins, would the mere
touching thereof cause one to become unclean?
And all the people.[ 124 ]
[9:20] Saying, "This is the blood of the covenant" [saying, This is the blood
of the testament].[ 125 ] The blood of the old covenant was animal blood. It was
important in that it typified the blood of Christ.
Which God has commanded you [which God commanded to you-ward,
enjoined, hath enjoined, unto, upon, you].[ 126 ] Notice that it was the
"covenant" that God commanded the Israelites to keep.
And Moses took the blood, sprinkled it on the people, and said, "This is the
blood of the covenant which the LORD has made with you according to all
these words" (Ex 24:8).
BLOOD SPRINKLED ON TABERNACLE AND ITS VESSELS
9:21 Then likewise he sprinkled with blood both the tabernacle and all the
vessels of the ministry.
Then likewise [moreover, in like manner, and in the same way].[ 127 ] God
instructed Moses as to how Aaron was to consecrate the altar.
You shall take some of the blood of the bull and put it on the horns of the
altar with your finger, and pour all the blood beside the base of the altar (Ex
Moses also applied blood.
And Moses killed it. Then he took the blood, and put some on the horns of
the altar all around with his finger, and purified the altar. And he poured the
blood at the base of the altar, and consecrated it, to make atonement for it
Instructions for the Day of Atonement were, in part:
Then he shall kill the goat of the sin offering, which is for the people, bring
its blood inside the veil, do with that blood as he did with the blood of the
bull, and sprinkle it on the mercy seat and before the mercy seat (Le 16:14;
see also Le 16:15-19).
He sprinkled with blood both the tabernacle [the, and the, tabernacle, both
the tent, he sprinkled too, in like manner, with the blood].[ 128 ] Moses
sprinkled the altar (Ex 24:6). In addition to blood, he anointed the tabernacle and
all in it with oil (Ex 40:9-11). He put blood on the horns of the altar and poured
out the rest at its base (Le 8:15). When Aaron and his sons were consecrated,
Moses slaughtered a ram. He put some of the blood on the lobe of their right ear,
on the thumb of their right hand, and on the big toe of their right foot. He then
sprinkled the blood around on the altar. He sprinkled Aaron, his sons and their
garments (Le 8:19, 23, 24, 30).
And all the vessels of the ministry [and all the vessels of service, used in
worship].[ 129 ]
With the blood.[ 130 ] Blood! There was much blood used in the OT. Besides
being implied, in this chapter blood is specifically mentioned in eight verses: 7,
12, 13, 14, 19, 20, 22, 25. Jewish readers were accustomed to it. They were not
offended by its frequent mention. How could they be offended by the death of
Christ (see note on 1Co 1:23)?
ALMOST ALL THINGS PURIFIED WITH BLOOD
9:22 And according to the law almost all things are purified with blood, and
without shedding of blood there is no remission.
And according to the law [according to, indeed, under, by, the law].[ 131 ]
1. Consecrated by washing clothes, bathing
(Ex 19:10; Le 15:5; Le 16:26-28; 22:6).
2. Prayer (Ex 32:30-32; Ps 51:1-17).
3. One-tenth of an ephah of fine flour for a sin offering
4. Burning incense (Nu 16:46-48).
5. Putting things through fire, water (Nu 31:23, 24).
6. Blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven,
whose sin is covered (Ps 32:1).
Almost all things [I may almost say, and almost, everything].[ 132 ] There were
exceptions to the cleansing all things by blood but almost all things were cleansed
Are purified with blood [is, be, purged, cleansed, by blood].[ 133 ] For
possible things cleansed without blood see chart WITHOUT BLOOD.
NO REMISSION WITHOUT SHEDDING OF BLOOD
And without shedding of blood [and apart from the shedding, of blood, and
without blood-shedding].[ 134 ]
There is no remission [is no, there is no, forgiveness of sins].[ 135 ] The old
covenant was introduced to the people by Moses who pointed out that God was
merciful and forgiving.
So he cut two tablets of stone like the first ones. Then Moses rose early in
the morning and went up Mount Sinai, as the LORD had commanded him;
and he took in his hand the two tablets of stone. 5 Now the LORD
descended in the cloud and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name
of the LORD. 6 And the LORD passed before him and proclaimed, "The
LORD, the LORD God, merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and
abounding in goodness and truth, 7 keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving
iniquity and transgression and sin, by no means clearing the guilty, visiting
the iniquity of the fathers upon the children and the children's children to
the third and the fourth generation." 8 So Moses made haste and bowed his
head toward the earth, and worshiped (Ex 24:4-8).
Contrast that introduction with the introduction to the new covenant on Pentecost
that all should agree is better.
Then Peter said to them, "Repent, and let every one of you be baptized in
the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins; and you shall receive the
gift of the Holy Spirit (Ac 2:38).
REMISSION OF SINS
1. For this is My blood of the new covenant, which is
shed for many for the remission of sins (Mt 26:28).
2. Repentance and remission of sins should be
preached to all nations (Lu 24:47).
3. Repent, and let every one of you be baptized in the
name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins
4. Without shedding of blood there is no remission
5. Now where there is remission of these, there is no
longer an offering for sin (Heb 10:18).
HEAVENLY PURIFICATION REQUIRES BETTER SACRIFICES
9:23 Therefore it was necessary that the copies of the things in the heavens
should be purified with these, but the heavenly things themselves with better
sacrifices than these.
Therefore it was necessary [it was necessary therefore, therefore necessary,
then, thus it was necessary].[ 136 ]
That the copies [for the, figurative representations, patterns].[ 137 ] The
earthly copies of the heavenly things served as types and shadows (Heb 8:5).
Of the things in the heavens [of the heavenly things, of things in the
heavens].[ 138 ]
Should be purified with these [to be, should be, cleansed, with these
rites].[ 139 ] Both the better sacrifice and the High Priest (Jesus) as one, have entered
the heavenly sanctuary.
Seeing then that we have a great High Priest who has passed through the
heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our confession (Heb 4:14).
But the heavenly things themselves.[ 140 ] The "heavenly things" were
mentioned in Hebrews 8:5. They served as the pattern shown to Moses in the
With better sacrifices than these [with sacrifices better than these].[ 141 ] Was
the most holy place itself defiled because of the sins of the Israelites (Le 16:16)?
Why did heavenly things need cleansing? Is the heavenly sanctuary defiled by
sinful angels or by the sins of people on earth? Forgiveness takes place in the
mind of God, not in man's heart. An alternative idea toward which I tend to
accept is that, by metonymy of the adjunct, heavenly things are cleansed in order
to indicate that sins are actually forgiven to mortals.
CHRIST ENTERED HEAVEN TO OFFER HIMSELF
9:24-26 For Christ has not entered the holy places made with hands, which
are copies of the true, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of
God for us; 25 not that He should offer Himself often, as the high priest
enters the Most Holy Place every year with blood of another-- 26 He then
would have had to suffer often since the foundation of the world; but now,
once at the end of the ages, He has appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice
For Christ has not entered [for Christ did not enter].[ 142 ]
The holy places made with hands [a Holy Place, into a sanctuary, made with
hands].[ 143 ] Christ has entered into heaven, not into an earthly sanctuary of
Which are copies of the true [like in pattern to, figures of, which are the
figures of, a copy of, the true one].[ 144 ] The earthly tabernacle was a copy and
shadow of the true tabernacle in heaven (Heb 8:5).
But into heaven itself [but, but he entered, heaven itself].[ 145 ] The ascension
of Christ is emphasized (see chart ASCENSION).
1. You have ascended on high (Ps 68:18; Eph 4:8).
2. He was received up into heaven, and sat down at
the right hand of God (Mk 16:19).
3. While He blessed them, that He was parted from
them and carried up into heaven (Lu 24:51)
4. While they watched, He was taken up, and a cloud
received Him out of their sight (Ac 1:9).
5. Passed through the heavens (Heb 4:14).
6. Into heaven itself (Heb 9:24).
7. Who has gone into heaven and is at the right
hand of God, angels and authorities and powers
having been made subject to Him (1Pe 3:22).
Now to appear [to appear now].[ 146 ] Christ appeared, not in a room smoky
with incense but openly before God in heaven, no doubt, as the answer to many
In the presence of God for us [before the face of God on our behalf].[ 147 ]
In God's very presence, Christ lives and intercedes for us (Heb 7:25)
[9:25] Not that [nor yet that, nor in order that, nor was it, not].[ 148 ] It is not
necessary that Christ offer Himself often. It is, however, appropriate for
Christians to partake of the Lord's Supper often (1Co 11:26). The underlying
thought is that because of the great sacrificial work that Christ did for us we
should worship and serve Him with greater devotion, diligence and constancy than
did the OT saints.
He should offer Himself often [to offer himself repeatedly].[ 149 ] Through the
eternal spirit Christ offered Himself (verse 14). He has been manifested to put
away sin by the sacrifice of Himself. In heaven, Christ does not have to present
the offering of Himself before God again and again. Such offerings would
necessitate repeated sufferings on His part, which was not the case (see verse 26).
As the high priest enters the Most Holy Place every year [as the high priest
entereth, entered, into the Holy Place, the holy places, year by year,
yearly].[ 150 ] The earthly high priest entered the Most Holy Place once per year
on the Day of Atonement (see Ex 30:10; Le 16:30; 23
With blood of another [with blood of others, not his own].[ 151 ] Blood is a
requirement of in order to have remission of sins. It was also necessary that the
heavenly things be cleansed with blood.
CHRIST'S ATONEMENT FINAL AND COMPLETE
[9:26] He then would have had to suffer often [for then he, for then must he,
else must he, since he had then been obliged, it would have been necessary for
him, often to suffer, have suffered, suffer repeatedly, to suffer many
times].[ 152 ]
Since the foundation of the world [from the foundation of the world].[ 153 ]
The kingdom of Christ had been prepared from the foundation of the world (Mt
25:34). He did not suffer from the foundation of the world but His suffering was
foreknown (1Pe 1:20). There is also a reference to names being in the book of
life. The probable meaning is to all people who have been saved since the
"foundation of the world."
All who dwell on the earth will worship him, whose names have not been
written in the Book of Life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the
world (Re 13:8).
But now, once at the end of the ages [but as it is, once, once for all, in the
consummation of, in the end of, the age, the world].[ 154 ] The "end of the ages"
is the close of the age of the earthly tabernacle. It was symbolized by the rending
or tearing of the temple curtain from top to bottom (Mt 27:51; Mk 15:38; Heb
He has appeared [he has been, hath he been, manifested, hath he
appeared].[ 155 ]
To put away sin [for the putting away of sin].[ 156 ]
By the sacrifice of Himself [by his, through the, sacrifice of himself].[ 157 ]
APPOINTED FOR MEN ONCE TO DIE
9:27, 28 And as it is appointed for men to die once, but after this the
judgment, 28 so Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many. To those
who eagerly wait for Him He will appear a second time, apart from sin, for
And as it is [and inasmuch, and forasmuch, just, even, as it is].[ 158 ] "As it
is" ties to "so" or "thus" in the next verse. "As it is" that man dies once, "so"
Christ was offered once.
Appointed [the portion].[ 159 ]
For men to die once [unto men, of men, for people, once to die].[ 160 ]
But after this the judgment [and after this, that, judgment, cometh comes,
judgment].[ 161 ] For some, there is a fearful prospect of judgment (Heb 10:27).
For the good, there is comfort of the just judgment of Christ (Joh 5:30) and the
righteous judgment of God (2Th 1:5) in which the world will be judged in
righteousness by Christ (Ac 17:30, 31).
THE APPOINTMENT OF DEATH
1. For we will surely die and become like water spilled
on the ground (2Sa 14:14).
2. For I know that You will bring me to death, and to
the house appointed for all living (Job 30:23).
3. For he sees wise men die; likewise the fool and the
senseless person perish (Ps 49:10).
4. No one has power over the spirit to retain the spirit,
and no one has power in the day of death (Ec 8:8).
5. Thus death spread to all men, because all sinned
[9:28] So Christ [thus the Christ also, so also [ 162 ] Christ died one time, once
for all. His death was exceptional, unusual and unique. It was an offering for the
sins of many.
Was offered once [having been, who was, once offered].[ 163 ] The Holy Spirit
makes the point that Christ was destined to die just as much as anybody. In
addition, prophecies foretold His death. He was concerned about fulfilling
prophecies at the very time of His betrayal. To Judas Iscariot, He asked,
How then could the Scriptures be fulfilled, that it must happen thus? (Mt
And He opened their understanding, that they might comprehend the
Scriptures. Then He said to them, "Thus it is written, and thus it was
necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day"
One prophecy He no doubt kept in His mind was:
Then I said, "Behold, I come; in the scroll of the book it is written of me.
8 I delight to do Your will, O my God, and Your law is within my heart"
(Ps 40:7, 8; see notes on Heb 10:7-9).
To bear.[ 164 ] This phrase is from the beautiful fifty-third chapter of Isaiah.
Therefore I will divide Him a portion with the great, and He shall divide the
spoil with the strong, because He poured out His soul unto death, and He
was numbered with the transgressors, and He bore the sin of many, and
made intercession for the transgressors (Isa 53:12; compare above note).
The sins of many [the sins of many, of many people].[ 165 ]
To those who eagerly wait for Him [to them, and unto them, for those, that,
who, are eagerly waiting for him, wait for him, look for him].[ 166 ] Dear
reader, are you among those faithful Christians who are "eagerly" awaiting the
return of the Savior? Have you "loved His appearing"? Do you look forward to
the "crown of righteousness" (2Ti 4:8)? Are you "looking for the blessed hope
and glorious appearing of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ" (Tit 2:13)? Or
will you "be ashamed" or "shrink away" from Him at His coming" (1Jo 2:28)?
Christ died for our sins. He has been raised from the dead. He ascended into
heaven where He now serves as our great High Priest. He will make intercession
for you if you will return to Him in repentance, confession of sins and prayer. If
you are not in covenant relationship with Him, will you not come to Him today?
And now, little children, abide in Him, that when He appears, we may have
confidence and not be ashamed before Him at His coming (1Jo 2:28).
Behold what manner of love the Father has bestowed on us, that we should
be called children of God! Therefore the world does not know us, because
it did not know Him (1Jo 3:1).
CHRIST OUR SIN-BEARER
1. The reproaches of those who reproach You have
fallen on me (Ps 69:9).
2. That He, by the grace of God, might taste death for
everyone (Heb 2:9).
3. Who Himself bore our sins in His own body on the
tree (1Pe 2:24).
4. And you know that He was manifested to take away
our sins, and in Him there is no sin (1Jo 3:5).
5. To Him who loved us and washed us from our sins
in His own blood (Re 1:5).
He will appear [will, shall, shall he, appear].[ 167 ] There is a connection
between the second coming of Christ and the judgment mentioned in verse 27 (see
note below on For salvation).
A second time [the second time].[ 168 ] The appearance of Christ in the present
verse does not allude to the representative coming of Christ in AD 70. That
coming was not "for salvation" but for the destruction of Jerusalem. His second
coming will be for salvation.
THE JUDGMENT FOR SALVATION
(Heb 9:27, 28)
1. Blessed are those servants whom the master, when
he comes, will find watching (Lu 12:37).
2. Shall be saved from wrath through Him (Ro 5:9).
3. Whether we live or die, we are the Lord's (Ro 14:8;
4. Each one may receive the things done in the body
5. We also eagerly wait for the Savior (Php 3:20), who
is our life (Col 3:4).
6. When He is revealed, we shall be like Him (1Jo 3:2).
7. Boldness in the day of judgment (1Jo 4:17).
Apart from sin [without sin, not to deal with sin, without bearing a sin].[ 169 ]
For salvation [unto salvation, but to save, but with salvation].[ 170 ] For
Christians, the judgment will be a time of salvation and not condemnation (see
chart THE JUDGMENT FOR SALVATION [TO CHRISTIANS]). Salvation will
be received at "the end of your faith" (1Pe 1:9), that is, when the Lord returns.
[ 1 ]The basic text in this chapter is the NKJV. Scripture taken from the New King James Version.
Copyright 1979, 1980, 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved.
Alternate phrases in brackets are from ASV, Darby, ESB, KJV, RSV and occasionally another version.
Greek transliteration tends to follow the BibleSoft method.
[ 2 ]EICHE MEN OUN [KAI] HEE PROOTEE, had so then both the first [covenant] (Marshall 873);
now then, also the first [testament] (Lenski 273); so indeed the first covenant (Williams).
[ 3 ]EICHE DIKAIOOMATA, ordinances (Marshall 873); EICHE is third person singular, imperfect
active indicative of ECHOO (Han 401); righteous decrees or appointments, ordinances, laws, rules or
regulations relating to the worship of God (R. Milligan 242); ordinances connected with the Tabernacle
ritual (Vine 614); had ordinances (Lenski 273); had its regulations (Williams). The new testament,
likewise, has regulations that Matthew 16:19 has "DEDEMENON shall be bound in heaven," a perfect
passive participle that ought to be rendered: shall be having been bound (Marshall 71); see verse 10.
[ 4 ]LATREIAS, of service (Marshall 872); ordinances directed to or adapted for divine service
(Vincent 4.474); about [divine] service (Lenski 273); for worship (Williams).
[ 5 ]TO TE HAGION KOSMIKON, the and holy place worldly (Marshall 871); and its sanctuary a
sanctuary of this world. KOSMIKOS has three meanings: relating to the universe; of the world;
worldly, with an ethical sense--having the character of the sinful world. . . in contrast with the heavenly
sanctuary to be mentioned later (Vincent 4.474); a holy dwelling place, referring to the entire tabernacle
(R. Milligan 242); earthly, the earthly sanctuary [opposite to heavenly] (Arndt 445); and had the Holy
Place in the world (Lenski 273); and its earthly sanctuary (Williams).
[ 6 ]SKEENEE GAR KATESKEUASTHEE, For a tabernacle was prepared[,] (Marshall 873);
KATESKEUASTHEE is third person singular, first aorist passive indicative of KATASKEUAZOO
(Han 401); the verb includes not only erection, but furnishing with the entire equipment (Vincent
4.411); for a tabernacle was fitted up (Lenski 274); for the tent was equipped (Williams).
[ 7 ]Other translations have "goat skins" or "porpoise skins."
[ 8 ]"However, this proportion of the measures of the tabernacle proved to be an imitation of the
system of the world; for that third part thereof which was within the four pillars, to which the priests
were not admitted, is, as it were, a heaven peculiar to God" (Josephus, Antiquities 3.6.4).
[ 9 ]HEE PROOTEE, the first (Marshall 873); the first tabernacle, that is, the first division of the
tabernacle (Vincent 4.475); the foremost tent or tabernacle (Arndt 418); for a Tabernacle was fitted up,
the first (Lenski 274); for the first or outer part [of the tent] (Williams).
[ 10 ]EN HEE HEE TE LUCHNIA, in which [were] the both lampstand (Marshall 873); lampstand
(Vincent 4.475); in which [were] the candelabrum (Lenski 274, 275); was equipped with the lamp
[ 11 ]According to Josephus, the candlestick or lampstand was made of hollow gold and weighed 100
pounds (Antiquities 3.7.7). The rabbis said it was four cubits or six feet tall (R. Milligan 243). At
Capernaum, behind a metal fence there is a small replica of the candlestick carved in stone.
[ 12 ]The seven spirits of Revelation 1:4 are thought to be the Holy Spirit.
[ 13 ]KAI HEE TRAPEZA KAI HEE PROTHESIS TOON ARTOON, and the setting forth of the
loaves (Marshall 873); the table and the loaves are treated as one item. Literally, the table and the
setting forth of the loaves, that is, the table with its loaves set forth (Vincent 4.475); the table of
shewbread (Vine 1115); and the table and the shewbread (Lenski 275); and table and the presentation
[ 14 ]John wrote of heavenly frankincense as "the prayers of the saints" (Re 5:8).
[ 15 ]HEETIS LEGETAI HAGIA, which is called Holy (Marshall 873); LEGETAI is third person
singular, present passive indicative of LEGOO (Han 401); sanctuary, the front or outer part of the
temple, [this is] called, named (Arndt 10, 470); which is called Holy Place (Lenski 275); that is called
the holy place (Williams).
[ 16 ]META DE TO DEUTERON KATAPETASMA, and after the second veil (Marshall 873);
[KATA before, PETANNUMI that which is spread out]; hence, a veil, of the inner veil of the
Tabernacle (Vine 1196); and after the second veil (Lenski 276); but behind the second curtain
[ 17 ]The veil to "the inner house" was replaced with olive-wood doors by Solomon (1Ki 6:31, 32).
[ 18 ]SKEENEE, a tabernacle (Marshall 873); the Tabernacle or Tent (Arndt 754); a Tabernacle
(Lenski 276); is the tent (Williams).
[ 19 ]"The Temple of Herod was in many respects different from the Tabernacle, and especially
because its Holy of Holies did not contain either the Ark, the Tables of the Law, the Cherubim, or the
Mercy-seat (all of which had been burnt by Nebuchadnezzar with Solomon's Temple) but was empty"
[ 20 ]HEE LEGOMENEE HAGIA HAGIOON, the [one] being called Holy of Holies (Marshall 873);
LEGOMENEE is the present passive participle, nominative singular feminine of LEGOO (Han 401);
that is called the Holy of Holies (Arndt 754); called Holy of Holies (Lenski 276); that is called the holy
of holies (Williams).
[ 21 ]CHRUSOUN ECHOUSA THUMIATEERION, a golden having altar (Marshall 873);
ECHOUSA is the present active participle, nominative singular feminine of ECHOO (Han 401); a
utensil for fumigating or burning incense (Thayer 293); from THUMIAOO to burn incense (R. Milligan
245); may mean either the censer or altar of incense. In the Septuagint, the altar of incense is called
THUSIASTEERION THUMIAMATOS (Ex 30:1, 27; Le 4:7; compare Lu 1:11). THUMIATEERION
is used of a censer (2Ch 26:19; Eze 8:11). Never used in the Septuagint for the altar of incense.
Josephus uses it for both. The golden censer is not used in the OT as a part of the furniture of the holy
of holies (Vincent 4.475); having a golden altar of incense (Lenski 276); with its golden incense-altar
[ 22 ]Josephus (Antiquities 3.6.8) wrote, "Now between this candlestick and the table, which, as we
said, were within the sanctuary, was the altar of incense, made of wood indeed, but of the same wood
of which the foregoing vessels were made, such as was not liable to corruption; it was entirely crusted
over with a golden plate. its breadth on each side was a cubit, but the altitude double. upon it was a
grate of gold, that was extant above the altar, which had a golden crown encompassing it round about,
whereto belonged rings and bars, by which the priests carried it when they journeyed."
[ 23 ]David Lipscomb (Questions 13, 14) thought the difficulty was solved in that the smoke from the
golden altar drifted from the holy place into the most holy place. He said, "Because the incense arising
from this altar reached God in the most holy place, it is sometimes spoken of as though it belonged to
the most holy place."
[ 24 ]Littrell.
[ 25 ]The Mishna is a collection of oral Jewish traditions compiled about AD 200 and, along with the
Gemara, is embodied in the Talmud. The Gemera is basically a commentary on the Mishna.
[ 26 ]A proposed solution to the difficulty of the location of the golden altar of incense is that the
Hebrew writer only said the Holy of Holies was "having" a golden altar of incense. The claim is made
that he did not say the altar of incense was inside the veil! A similar argument could be made re the
ark of the covenant. It should be noted that the Holy of Holies "had" it as well.
[ 27 ]Philo and Josephus use this Greek word for the altar of incense (Howson 868).
[ 28 ]Macknight (546) translates verse 4, in part, "Having the golden censer, and the ark of the
covenant." He comments: "Having the golden censor. --The apostle may have learned from the
priests, that the censor used by the high-priest on the day of atonement was of gold, and that it was left
by him in the inward tabernacle, so near to the vail, that, when he was about to officiate next year, by
putting his hand under the veil he could draw it out to fill it with burning coals, before he entered into
the most holy place to burn the incense, agreeably to the direction, Leviticus 16:12, 13."
[ 29 ]KAI TEEN KIBOOTON TEES DIATHEEKEES, and the ark of the covenant (Marshall 873);
the ark of the Covenant in the Tabernacle (Vine 66); and the ark of the testament (Lenski 276); and the
chest for the covenant (Williams).
[ 30 ]Assuming a cubit to be the distance of man's forearm, sometimes considered to be two spans,
its length would be 17.5 or 18 inches (some have it 17.49 inches). Based upon this information, the
size of ark of the covenant was approximately 2.5 cubits, or about 3.75 feet long, longer than an
ordinary walking stick.
[ 31 ]PERIKEKALUMMENEEN PANTOTHEN CHRUSIOO, having been covered round on all sides
with gold (Marshall 873); PERIKEKALUMMENEEN is the perfect passive participle, accusative
singular feminine of PERIKALUPTOO (Han 401); properly, wrought gold (Vincent 4.476); overlaid
entirely with gold (Lenski 276); completely covered with gold (Williams).
[ 32 ]EN HEE, in which [were] (Marshall 873); nigh to which (Macknight 546). The pronoun HEEN
may possibly refer to its remote antecedent tabernacle. Consider also that, according to Deuteronomy
31:26, the book of the Law, was to be placed "beside the ark," probably not on the floor but possibly
on a shelf or nook constructed for it. If we grant this, then the other items such as the pot of manna
and Aaron's rod could have been stored in like manner. If so, the entire contrivance with its contents
probably would have been carried together and considered to be "the ark" (see Macknight 546); in
which [there was] (Lenski 276); and in it [that is, in the gold=covered chest] (Williams).
[ 33 ]I have no evidence that the golden vase of manna or Aaron's rod were even near the ark in
[ 34 ]STAMNOS CHRUSEE ECHOUSA TO MANNA, pot a golden having the manna (Marshall
873); ECHOUSA is the present active participle, nominative singular feminine of ECHOO (Han 401);
golden (Vincent 4.476); in which [there was] a golden pot containing the manna (Lenski 276); a golden
jar which held the manna (Williams).
[ 35 ]The Septuagint version of the OT was translated into Greek from the Hebrew into Greek. The
Pentateuch about 280 BC. It is generally believed the rest was finished in another 100 years.
[ 36 ]KAI HEE RHABDOS AAROON HEE BLASTEESASA, and the rod of Aaron budded (Marshall
873); BLASTEESASA is the first aorist active participle, nominative singular feminine of
BLASTANOO (Han 401); a staff, rod, scepter, used of Aaron's rod (Vine 974); and the rod of Aaron
that budded (Lenski 276); Aaron's staff that budded (Williams).
[ 37 ]Hebrew MAQQEL, MATTEH, SHEVET, Greek RHABADOS.
[ 38 ]Either RHABADOS or XULON wood.
[ 39 ]Vine 1083.
[ 40 ]According to Numbers 17:4, 7, 10, Aaron's rod was placed before the Lord in the tent of the
testimony "in front of the testimony" or "before the testimony." To fit inside the ark, we may infer
that Aaron's rod was slightly less than 3.5 feet long.
[ 41 ]KAI HAI PLAKES TEES DIATHEEKEES, and the tablets of the covenant (Marshall 873);
PLAKES primarily denotes things flat and broad, hence flat stones, tablets (Vine 1116);The ark of the
covenant and the two tables of stone were not found after the Babylonian captivity (Clarke 6.744); and
the tables of the testament (Lenski 276); and the tablets on which the covenant was written (Williams).
[ 42 ]HUPERANOO DE AUTEES CHEROUBEIN DOXEES, above and it cherubim of glory
(Marshall 873); setting forth or exhibiting the divine glory. The word signifies living creatures, and
they are described as ZOOA, usually with the neuter article TA (Vincent 4.476, 477); and above it
cherubim of glory (Lenski 276); and above the chest were the winged creatures [Cherubim, the symbol
of glory], the symbols of God's glorious presence (Williams). Compare the interesting KJV translation
of ZOOA as "beasts" (Re 4:6-8), where most translations have "living creatures."
[ 43 ]KATASKIAZONTA TO HILASTEERION, overshadowing the mercy-seat (Marshall 873; Lenski
276; Williams); KATASKIAZONTA is the present active participle, nominative plural neuter of
KATASKIAZOO (Han 401); throwing their shadow down upon the mercy-seat (Vincent 4.477); from
HILASTEERION, where God met with Moses and the high priest. Christ is our HILASTEERION,
mercy seat, atonement (Littrell).
[ 44 ]PERI HOON OUK ESTIN NUN LEGEIN KATA MEROS, concerning which things there is
not [?time] now to speak in detail (Marshall 873); ESTIN is third person singular, present active
indicative of EIMI; LEGEIN is the present active infinitive of LEGOO (Han 401); in detail (Vincent
4.477); concerning which it is not [in order] now to speak (Lenski 276); of which I cannot now speak
in detail (Williams).
[ 45 ]TOUTOON DE HOUTOOS KATESKEUASMENOON, These things now thus=Now when
these things had having been prepared been thus prepared (Marshall 873); KATESKEUASMENOON
is the perfect passive participle, genitive plural masculine or neuter of KATASKEUAZOO (Han 401);
[KATA used intensively, SKEUE equipment], prepared, made ready (Vine 877); furnished, equipped
(Arndt 418); constructed, erected, with the included idea of adorning and equipping with all things
necessary (Thayer 337); now these things having been thus fitted up (Lenski 279); with these
arrangements completed in this way (Williams).
[ 46 ]EIS MEN DIA PANTOS EISIASIN HOI HEREIS, into on one hand the first the priests
(Marshall 873); EISIASIN is third person plural, present active indicative of EISEIMI (Han 401);
continually (Vincent 4.477); supposing this to be the case, [the priests] going into, entering (Thayer
187, 398); into [the first tabernacle] the priests go constantly (Lenski 279); the priests go into the outer
[ 47 ]TEEN PROOTEEN SKEENEEN, the first tabernacle (Marshall 873; Lenski 279); [the] tent,
booth, tabernacle, the outer part (Vine 1115); the outer part of the tent of worship (Williams).
[ 48 ]EISIASIN HOI HIEREIS TAS LATREIAS EPITELOUNTES, go in the priests the services
accomplishing (Marshall 874); EISIASIN is third person plural, present active indicative of EISEIMI;
EPITELOUNTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of EPITELEOO (Han
401); attending to the services (Lenski 279); in conduction their official services conducting their
religious services regularly ((Williams).
[ 49 ]EIS DE TEEN DEUTERAN, into on the other the second (Marshall 874); while into the second
(Lenski 279); but into the second or inner part [meaning the second tent] (Williams).
[ 50 ]MONOS HO ARCHIEREUS, [goes] alone the high priest (Marshall 874); the high priest goes
alone (Lenski 279); nobody but the high priest may go (Williams).
[ 51 ]HAPAX TOU ENIAUTOU, once of [in] the year (Marshall 874); only once during the year
(Lenski 279); and he only once a year (Williams).
[ 52 ]OU CHOORIS HAIMATOS, not without blood (Marshall 874; Lenski 279); never without blood
[ 53 ]KAI TOON TOU LAOU AGNOEEMATOON, and the of the people ignorances (Marshall 874);
literally, ignorances (Vincent 4.477); from AGNOEEMA, error, sin of ignorance; sin committed
through ignorance (Littrell); and the ignorances of the people (Lenski 279); and for the sins committed
in ignorance by the people (Williams).
[ 54 ]TOUTO DEELOUNTOS TOU PNEUMATOS TOU HAGIOU, this showing the Spirit Holy
(Marshall 874); DEELOUNTOS is the present active participle, genitive singular neuter of DEELOOO
(Han 401); [DEELOS evident], making plain (Vine 1043); the Holy Spirit indicating this fact (Lenski
281); by this the Holy Spirit was showing (Williams).
[ 55 ]TEEN TOON HAGIOON HODON, the of the holies way (Marshall 874); literally, the way of
the holies (Vincent 4.478); the way to the Holy Place (Lenski 281); access to the real sanctuary
[ 56 ]MEETOO PEPHANEROOSTHAI, not yet to have been manifested (Marshall 874);
PEPHANEROOSTHAI is the perfect passive infinitive of PHANEROOO (Han 401); of something
hitherto non-existent but now made actual and visible, realized, not yet: in construction with the
accusative and infinitive (Thayer 413, 648); that not yet has there been made manifest (Lenski 281);
that there was as yet no access (Williams).
[ 57 ]ETI TEES PROOTEES SKEENEES ECHOUSEES STASIN, still the first tabernacle having
standing (Marshall 874); ECHOUSEES is the present active participle, genitive singular feminine of
ECHOO (Han 401; ECHOUSEES [is] literally, had standing. STASIS, everywhere in the NT except
here, is used in its secondary sense of faction, sedition, insurrection. Here in its original sense. Note
that the sense is not physical and local as the KJV implies, but remained a recognized institution. By
the first tabernacle is meant the first division. The point is that the division of the tabernacle showed
the limitations of the Levitical system, and kept the people from coming directly to God (Vincent
4.478); [ECHOO to have, STASIS a standing], literally, "has a standing" (Vine 1085); is in existence,
is standing (Arndt 764); while the outer tent was still in existence (Williams); the first Tabernacle still
having its position (Lenski 281). According to Josephus (Antiquities 3.6.4), the whole temple was
called The Holy Place."
[ 58 ]Except the high priest.
[ 59 ]Josephus, Antiquities 3.7.7.
[ 60 ]HEETIS PARABOLEE, which [was] a parable (Marshall 874); here of a visible symbol or type;
the first tabernacle was a parable (Vincent 4.478); the double relative [HEETIS] directs attention to the
emphasis which belongs to the first tabernacle, seeing that (Vincent 4.478); which is a figure (Lenski
281); for it is merely a symbol (Williams).
[ 61 ]EIS TON KAIRON TON ENESTEEKOTA, for the time present (Marshall 874); now present,
as contrasted with the "time of reformation," verse 10 (Vincent 4.479); regarding the present period
(Lenski 281); of the present time (Williams).
[ 62 ]KATH HEEN, according which (Marshall 874); the KJV wrongly assumes a reference to the
tabernacle; whereas the reference is to the parable. Render according to which (Vincent 4.479); in
accord with which [figure] (Lenski 281); in connection with which (Williams).
[ 63 ]DOORA TE KAI THUSIAI, gifts both and sacrifices (Marshall 874); both gifts and sacrifices
(Lenski 281); gifts and sacrifices (Williams).
[ 64 ]PROSPHERONTAI, are being offered (Marshall 874); PROSPHERONTAI is third person
plural, present passive indicative of PROSPHEROO (Han 401); are offered or are being offered
(Vincent 4.479); are offered (Lenski 281); are repeatedly offered (Williams).
[ 65 ]MEE DUNAMENAI, not being able (Marshall 874); DUNAMENAI is the present passive
participle, nominative plural feminine of DUNAMAI (Han 401); cannot (Vincent 4.479); unable (Lenski
281); though they cannot (Williams).
[ 66 ]TELEIOOSAI TON LATREUONTA, to perfect the [one] serving (Marshall 874); TELEIOOSAI
is the first aorist active infinitive of TELEIOOO; LATREUONTA is the present active participle,
accusative singular masculine of LATREUOO (Han 401); make the worshipper perfect (Vincent 4.479);
to bring to the goal (Lenski 281); make the worshiper perfect (Williams).
[ 67 ]KATA SUNEIDEESIN, in respect of conscience (Marshall 874); sacrifices under the Law could
not so perfect a person that he could regard himself as free from guilt (Vine 220); as far as conscience
is concerned (Lenski 281); the conscience (Williams).
[ 68 ]MONON EPI, only on (Marshall 874); the passage should be read thus: "according to which are
offered gifts and sacrifices which cannot perfect the worshipper as touching the conscience, being mere
ordinances of the flesh on the ground of [EPI resting upon] meats," etc. (Vincent 4.480); [these gifts
and sacrifices being] only in addition to (Lenski 281); since they deal only (Williams).
[ 69 ]BROOMASIN KAI POMASIN, foods and drinks (Marshall 874; Lenski 281); BROOMASIN,
clean and unclean meats. POMASIN drinks . . . Nazirite vow, and of the priests when they were about
to officiate (Vincent 4.480); with food and drink (Williams).
[ 70 ]KAI DIAPHOROIS BAPTISMOIS, and various washings (Marshall 874); [and] different
washings (Arndt 191); and various baptisms (Lenski 281); and various washings (Williams).
[ 71 ]There are many references to washings (see Ex 29:4, 17; 30:18-21; 40:30-32; Le 1:9, 13; 8:6,
21; 14:8, 9; 15:16; 16:24; 22:6; De 21:6; 23:11). There was also, as an expression of hospitality, the
practice of foot washing. When Jean and I walked down the southern stairs from the temple mount,
we observed the excavated dwellings, most of which had large stone water pots holding ten gallons of
more. In addition, there were stone containers that would rival small bath tubs in size.
[ 72 ]DIKAIOOMATA SARKOS, ordinances of flesh (Marshall 874); omit and. The phrase is a
general description of meats, etc. Literally, ordinances of the flesh (Vincent 4.480); ordinances about
flesh (Lenski 281); that is, with mere material regulations (Williams).
[ 73 ]EPIKEIMENA, being imposed (Marshall 874); is the present middle participle, nominative plural
neuter of EPIKEIMAI (Han 401); enacted (Clarke 6.746); placed on, laid on . . . of carnal ordinances
"imposed" under the Law until a time of reformation, brought in through the High-Priesthood of Christ
(Vine 581); obligatory (Lenski 281); which are in force (Williams).
[ 74 ]MECHRI KAIROU DIORTHOOSEOOS, until a time of amendment (Marshall 874);
DIORTHOORMA correction, amendment; literally, making straight: used by medical writers of
straightening a distorted limb . . . of mending one's ways [Jer 7:3, 5]. Of setting up or establishing
[Isa 16:5; 62:7] (Vincent 4.480); from DIORTHOOSIS, a complete rectification, reformation (Littrell);
up to [the] period of [the] right order (Lenski 281); only until the time of setting things straight [the age
of Messiah--Christian age] (Williams).
[ 75 ]CHRISTOS DE PARAGENOMENOS, But Christ having appeared (Marshall 874);
PARAGENOMENOS is the second aorist middle participle, nominative singular masculine of
PARAGINOMAI (Han 401); the particle DE but is used in an adversative sense to show a contrast
between the Levitical priests and Christ (Macknight 548); having appeared in the world (Vincent 4.480);
got near (Rotherham 137); Christ, however, arrived (Lenski 288); but when Christ came (Williams).
[ 76 ]ARCHIEREUS, a high priest (Marshall 874); as High Priest (Lenski 288); as the High Priest
[ 77 ]TOON GENOMENOON AGATHOON, of the having come about good things (Marshall 874);
GENOMENOON is the second aorist middle participle, genitive plural masculine or neuter of
GINOMAI (Han 402); of the good things realized, or that have come to pass (Vincent 4.481); [the
correct reading is TOON MELLONTOON] of the good things about to come (Lenski 288); of good
things that have already taken place [following Vatican Manuscript] (Williams).
[ 78 ]DIA TEES MEIZONOS KAI TELEIOTERAS SKEENEES, through the greater and more perfect
tabernacle (Marshall 874); DIA with; the preposition is instrumental. The Levitical priests were
attached to [were priests with] an inferior tabernacle, so Christ appears with a greater and more perfect
tabernacle (Vincent 4.481). TELEIOTERAS is the comparative degree of TELEIOS having reached its
end [TELOS], finished, complete perfect . . . of the very presence of God (Vine 846); the greater
tabernacle is the visible heavens, which are here regarded as the outer sanctuary (Howson 870); by
means of the greater and more complete Tabernacle (Lenski 288); He went by way of that greater and
more perfect tent of worship (Williams).
[ 79 ]Some understand the "greater and more perfect tabernacle" to be the Lord's human nature
(Clarke 6.746); others of the visible heavens "which are regarded as the outer sanctuary" (Howson
[ 80 ]OU CHEIROPOIEETOU, not made by hand (Marshall 874); [CHEIR the hand, POIEOO to
make], [not] made by hand, of human handiwork, of the heavenly and spiritual tabernacle (Vine 522);
not handmade (Lenski 288); not made by human hands (Williams).
[ 81 ]TOUT' ESTIN OU TAUTEES TEES KTISEOOS, this is not of this creation (Marshall 874);
ESTIN is third person singular, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 402); literally, not of this
building (Howson 870); for building render creation. . . . not belonging to this natural creation either
in its materials or its maker (Vincent 4.482); like the English word "creation," it also signifies the
product of the creative act (Vine 247); that is, not of this creation (Lenski 288); that is, not belonging
to this material creation (Williams).
[ 82 ]OUDE DI' HAIMATOS TRAGOON KAI MOSCHOON, nor through blood of goats and calves
(Marshall 874); TRAGOON is he-goat (Vine 489); DIA with as in verse 11. MOSCHOS originally
a tender shoot or sprout: then offspring generally. Everywhere in the Bible calf or bullock, and always
masculine (Vincent 4.482); and not with blood of goats and calves (Williams).
[ 83 ]DIA DE TOU IDIOU HAIMATOS, but through the [his] own blood (Marshall 874); His own
blood [from TOU IDIOU HAIMATOS his own blood (Littrell); but by means of his own blood (Lenski
288); but with His own blood (Williams).
[ 84 ]EISEELTHEN EPHAPAX EIS TA HAGIA, entered once for all into the holies (Marshall 874);
EISEELTHEN is third person singular, second aorist active indicative of EISERCHOMAI (Han 402);
once for all (Vincent 4.482); went in once for all into the Holy Place (Lenski 288); He once for all
went into the real sanctuary (Williams).
[ 85 ]AIOONIAN LUTROOSIN HEURAMENOS, eternal redemption having found (Marshall 874);
HEURAMENOS is the first aorist middle participle, nominative singular masculine of HEURISKOO
(Han 402); having found and won by his act of entrance into the heavenly sanctuary. The work of
redemption is crowned and completed by Christ's ascension to glory and his ministry in heaven.
Eternal . . . not mere duration, but quality (Vincent 4.482); without an end (Arndt 28); of the
redemption effected by Christ and of the consequent salvation of men [Heb 5:9] (Vine 373); obtaining
an eternal ransoming (Lenski 288); and secured our eternal redemption (Williams).
[ 86 ]EI GAR TO HAIMA TRAGOON KAI TAUROON, for if the blood of goats and of bulls
(Marshall 875; Lenski 294); for the blood of he-goats and oxen or bulls (Vine 826); for if the blood
of bulls and goats (Williams).
[ 87 ]KAI SPODOS DAMALEOOS, and ashes of a heifer (Marshall 875); SPODOS ashes,
Purification from uncleanness contracted by contact with the dead (Vincent 4.483); and a heifer's ashes
(Lenski 294; Williams).
[ 88 ]The chemicals that result from mixing ashes and water are caustic. In rural America, ash water
or lye was sometimes applied to the skin of a slain animal to facilitate the removal of the hair. Others
simply scalded the animal in order to remove the hair (or feathers) by plucking or scraping.
[ 89 ]It is my understanding that in Israel, a concerted effort is being made to breed once again "red
[ 90 ]RHANTIZOUSA TOUS KEKOINOOMENOUS, sprinkling the [ones] having been polluted
(Marshall 875); RHANTIZOUSA is the present active participle, nominative singular feminine of
RHANTIZOO; KEKOINOOMENOUS is the perfect passive participle, accusative plural masculine of
KOINOOO (Han 402); perfect participle, passive, used with the article, [those that have been] defiled
(Vine 1179); them that have been defiled (Vincent 4.483); sprinkling those who are ceremonially
[ 91 ]HAGIAZEI PROS TEEN TEES SARKOS KATHAROTEETA, sanctifies to the of the flesh
cleanness (Marshall 875); HAGIAZEI is third person singular, present active indicative of HAGIAZOO
(Han 402); of the ceremonial cleansing of the Israelites (Vine 990); sanctify by the blood of a sacrifice,
that is, atone for sins (Arndt 8); purifies them with physical cleansing (Williams).
[ 92 ]POSOO MALLON TO HAIMA TOU CHRISTOU, by how much more the blood of Christ
(Marshall 875); how much more [will the blood of Christ] (Arndt 694); by how much more shall the
blood of Christ (Lenski 296); how much more surely will the blood of Christ (Williams).
[ 93 ]HOS DIA PNEUMATOS AIOONIOU, who through Spirit [the] eternal (Marshall 875); for the
render an. DIA through=by virtue of. Not the Holy Spirit, who is never so designated, but Christ's
own human spirit: the higher element of Christ's being in his human life, which was charged with the
eternal principle of the divine life. . . . The offering was the offering of Christ deepest self--his inmost
personality (Vincent 4.483); the age-abiding spirit (R. Milligan 137); who by the eternal spirit (Lenski
[ 94 ]HEAUTON PROSEENENKEN AMOOMON TOO THEOO, himself offered unblemished to
God (Marshall 875); PROSEENENKEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of
PROSPHEROO (Han 402); it was voluntary, a self-offering, unlike that of brute beasts who had no
volition and no sense of the reason why they were offered. It was spotless. . . . The legal victims were
only physically unblemished according to ceremonial standards (Vincent 4.484); offered himself
blemishless to God (Lenski 295); gave Himself a spotless offering to God (Williams).
[ 95 ]KATHARIEI TEEN SUNEIDEESIN HEEMOON, will cleanse the conscience of us (Marshall
875); KATHARIEI is third person singular, future active indicative of KATHARIZOO (Han 402); our
(Vincent 4.484); cleanse your conscience (Lenski 295); purify your consciences (Williams).
[ 96 ]APO NEKROON ERGOON, from dead works (Marshall 875; Lenski 295); [the element of
death] belongs not only to works which are acknowledged as sinful and are committed by sinful men,
but to works which go under the name of religious, yet are performed in a merely legal spirit (Vincent
4.485); works done in death (Rotherham 138); the works of the Law . . . however good in themselves,
Ro 7:13, cannot produce life (Vine 265); from works that mean mere death (Williams).
[ 97 ]EIS TO LATREUEIN THEOO ZOONTI, for the to serve God [the] living (Marshall 875);
LATREUEIN is the present active infinitive of LATREUOO (Han 402); to serve, to render religious
service or homage, is translated to worship in Philippians 3:3 (Vine 1248); for serving the living God
(Lenski 295); to serve the ever living God (Williams).
[ 98 ]The Vaticanus (B) manuscript of the letter to the Hebrews ends here. It is of interest to note that
liberal scholars do not question the validity and authenticity of the rest of Hebrews (and following
letters) because B does not have it, neither the last twelve verses of Mark. The last twelve verses of
Mark, and the rest of Hebrews is inspired of God even though they were lost from the Vaticanus. Both
passages are well supported by equally weighty manuscript evidence (Littrell).
[ 99 ]KAI DIA TOUTO, and therefore (Marshall 875); indicating the close relation between the
cleansing power of Christ's blood and the new covenant (Vincent 4.485); and because of this (Lenski
301); and this is why (Williams).
[ 100 ]DIATHEEKEES KAINEES MESITEES ESTIN, covenant of a new mediator he is (Marshall
875); new covenant (Vincent 4.485); literally, a go-between [from MESOS, middle, EIMI to go], one
who acts as a guarantee as to secure something which otherwise would not be obtained. Christ is the
Surety of "the better covenant," guaranteeing its terms for the people (Vine 727); is he Mediator of a
new testament (Lenski 301); He is the Mediator of a new covenant (Williams).
[ 101 ]HOTOOS THANATOU GENOMENOU, so as death having occurred (Marshall 875);
GENOMENOU is the second aorist middle participle, genitive singular masculine of GINOMAI (Han
402); a death having taken place (Vincent 4.485); since a death has occurred (Lenski 301); in order
that, after He had suffered death (Williams).
[ 102 ]EIS APOLUTROOSIN TOON . . . PARABASEOON, for redemption . . . transgressions
(Marshall 875); the phrase redemption of transgressions (that is, from transgressions) only here (Vincent
4.485); for ransoming from the transgressions (Lenski 301); for securing redemption from the offenses
[ 103 ]EPI TEE PROOTEE DIATHEEKEE, under the first covenant (Marshall 875); on the basis of:
estimated according to the standard of the provisions of the first covenant, and to be atoned for in the
way which it prescribed (Vincent 4.486); at the time of the first testament (Lenski 301); committed
under the first covenant (Williams).
[ 104 ]NASB, NAU, NIV.
[ 105 ]TEV.
[ 106 ]HOI KEKLEEMENOI, the having been called (Marshall 875); KEKLEEMENOI is the perfect
passive participle, nominative plural masculine of KALEOO (Han 402); without regard to nationality
(Vincent 4.486); they who have been called (Lenski 301); those who had been invited to share it
[ 107 ]TEEN EPANGELIAN LABOOSIN . . . TEES AIOONIOU KLEERONOMIAS, the promise
may receive . . . the eternal inheritance (Marshall 875); LABOOSIN is third person plural, second
aorist active subjunctive of LAMBANOO (Han 402); [may] receive, get obtain (Thayer 371); "the
promise of the eternal inheritance" is the promised eternal inheritance, the prospective condition and
possessions of the believer in the new order of things to be ushered in at the return of Christ (Vine 589,
891); the eternal inheritance (Vincent 4.486); may receive the promise of the eternal inheritance (Lenski
301); might obtain the eternal inheritance promised them (Williams).
[ 108 ]HOPOU GAR DIATHEEKEE, for where [there is] a covenant (Marshall 875); for where [there
is] a testament (Lenski 305); for when a will is made (Williams).
[ 109 ]THANATON ANANKEE PHERESTHAI TOU DIATHEMENOU, [the] death [there is]
necessity to be offered of the [one] making covenant (Marshall 875); PHERESTHAI is the present
passive infinitive of PHEROO (Han 402); it is necessary that the death of the institutor [of the covenant]
should be borne . . . that the institutor die representatively; that death should be borne for him by an
animal victim. DIATITHEESTHAI to dispose or arrange represents the Hebrew to cut off, hew,
divide. . . . The verb marks a disposing by the divine will, to which man becomes a party by assent;
while SUNTITHEESTHAI indicates an arrangement between two equal parties. There is not a trace
of the meaning testament in the Greek OT (Vincent 4.487, 494); the KJV is correct in translating
testament in this passage. The attempts which have been made to avoid this meaning are irreconcilable
with any natural explanation of testator. The simple and obvious translation should not be departed
from in order to avoid a difficulty; and the difficulty vanishes when we consider the rhetorical character
of the Epistle. The statement in this verse is not meant as a logical argument, but as a rhetorical
illustration, which is suggested to the writer by the ambiguity of the word for "testament" or "covenant"
(Howson 870); [there is the] necessity that the testator's death be brought in [muss notwendigerweise
beigebracht werden] (Lenski 305); it is necessary that the death of him who makes it be proved
[literally, brought in] (Williams).
[ 110 ]DIATHEEKEE GAR EPI NEKROIS BEBAIA, for a covenant over dead [?bodies] [is] firm
(Marshall 875); for a covenant is of force [or sure] over [or upon] dead [victims] (Vincent 4.487); for
a testament is in force [only] in case of dead persons (Lenski 305); for a will is valid only after a man
is dead [Greek plural, men, so a universal law] (Williams).
[ 111 ]EPEI . . . MEETOTE ISCHUEI HOTE ZEE HO DIATHEMENOS, since never has it strength
when lives the making covenant (Marshall 875); ISCHUEI is third person singular, present active
indicative of ISCHUOO; DIATHEMENOS is the second aorist middle participle, nominative singular
masculine of DIATITHEEMI (Han 402); since it hath not then force when the institutor is alive, until
he has been representatively slain (Vincent 4.487); since it is not ever in effect when the testator is
[still] living (Lenski 305); since it has no force whatever while the one who made it is alive (Williams).
[ 112 ]HOTHEN, whence (Marshall 875); wherefore, or for which reason, on the general principle
that a covenant must be ratified by death (Vincent 4.487); hence (Lenski 307); so (Williams).
[ 113 ]OUDE HEE PROOTEE CHOORIS HAIMATOS ENEKEKAINISTAI, neither the first
[covenant] without blood has been dedicated (Marshall 875); ENEKEKAINISTAI is third person
singular, perfect passive indicative of ENKAINIZOO (Han 402); neither hath the first [covenant] been
inaugurated without blood (Vincent 4.487); the verb means to dedicate in the sense of to inaugurate
(Howson 870); neither has the first [testament] been inaugurated without blood (Lenski 307); not even
the first covenant was ratified without the use of blood (Williams); see Hebrews 10:20.
[ 114 ]GAR PASEES ENTOLEES, for every commandment (Marshall 875); for when every
commandment; of the commandments of the OT law (Arndt 269); for when every commandment
(Lenski 307); for after every regulation (Williams).
[ 115 ]LALEETHEISEES . . . HUPO MOOUSEOOS, having been spoken . . . by Moses (Marshall
875); LALEETHEISEES is the first aorist passive participle, genitive singular feminine of LALEOO
(Han 402); passive, of one promulgating a thing to one (Thayer 369); something is said, proclaimed,
reported (Arndt 463); was uttered by Moses (Lenski 307); had been spoken by Moses (Williams).
[ 116 ]PANTI TOO LAOO, to all the people (Marshall 875; Lenski 307; Williams).
[ 117 ]KATA TON NOMON, according to the law (Marshall 875; Lenski 307); ;in the law
[ 118 ]TOON MOSCHOON KAI TOON TRAGOON, of the calves and of the goats (Marshall 875,
876; Lenski 307); not mentioned in the OT account. The goat was always for a sin-offering, and the
sacrifices on this occasion were oxen, and are described as burnt offerings and sacrifices of peace [Ex
24:5]. In the original covenant with Abraham a she-goat and a heifer are specially mentioned [Ge 15:]
(Vincent 4.488); of calves and goats (Williams).
[ 119 ]META HUDATOS, with water (Marshall 876; Lenski 307; Williams).
[ 120 ]KAI ERIOU KOKKINOU, and wool scarlet (Marshall 876); derived from KOKKOS, used of
the "berries" [clusters of the eggs of an insect] collected from the ILEX COCCIFERA; the color,
however, is obtained from the coccifera oak; another species is raised on the leaves of the CACTUS
FICUS. The Arabic name for this insect is QIRMIZ, whence the word crimson. It is used of scarlet
wool [Heb 9:19] and in connection with the offering of the red heifer [Nu 19:6] (Vine 997); and scarlet
wool (Lenski 307); crimson wool (Williams).
[ 121 ]KAI HUSSOOPOU, and hyssop (Marshall 876; Lenski 307); [used] mostly in connection with
lustral ceremonies (Vincent 4.489); and a bunch of hyssop (Williams).
[ 122 ]Zondervan 664.
[ 123 ]AUTO TE TO BIBLION . . . ERRANTISEN, it[self] both the scroll . . . he sprinkled
(Marshall 876); ERRANTISEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of RHANTIZOO
(Han 402); none of these mentioned in the OT account, which the writer appears to have filled up from
the details of subsequent usage (Vincent 4.488); he sprinkled both the book itself (Lenski 307); and
sprinkled the book containing the law (Williams).
[ 124 ]KAI PANTI TON LAON, and all the people (Marshall 876; Lenski 307; Williams).
[ 125 ]LEGOON: TOUTO TO HAIMA TEES DIATHEEKEES, saying: This [is] the blood of the
covenant (Marshall 876); LEGOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of
LEGOO (Han 402); saying: This [is] the blood of the testament (Lenski 307); saying: This is the blood
that ratifies the covenant (Williams).
[ 126 ]HEES ENETEILATO PROS HUMAS HO THEOS, which enjoined to you God (Marshall 876);
ENETEILATO is third person singular, first aorist middle indicative of ENTELLOMAI (Han 402);
[which God has] enjoined upon, charged with, used in the middle voice in the sense of commanding
(Vine 201); which God designed for you (Lenski 307); which God commanded me to make with you
[ 127 ]KAI . . . DE . . . HOMOIOS, both . . . And . . . likewise (Marshall 876); moreover also
(Lenski 307); in the same way (Williams).
[ 128 ]TEEN SKEENEEN . . . TOO HAIMATI . . . ERRANTISEN, the tabernacle with the blood
. . . he sprinkled (Marshall 876); ERRANTISEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative
of RHANTIZOO (Han 402); [the sacrifices] were offered, not by the priests, but by the young men [Ex
24:5] (Vincent 4.489); the Tabernacle he likewise sprinkled with blood (Lenski 307); he sprinkled with
blood the tent (Williams).
[ 129 ]KAI PANTA TA SKEUEE TEES LEITOURGIAS, nd all the vessels of the service (Marshall
876); vessels or implements of various kinds (Vine 1197); and all the utensils for the official service
(Lenski 307); and all the utensils of the priestly service (Williams).
[ 130 ]TOO HAIMATI, with the blood (Marshall 876); [he likewise sprinkled] with blood (Lenski
307); with blood (Williams).
[ 131 ]KAI . . . KATA TON NOMON, and . . . according to the Law (Marshall 876; Lenski 310);
in fact, under the law (Williams).
[ 132 ]SCHEDON, almost (Marshall 876; Williams); of degree, almost (Vine 40); and almost (Lenski
[ 133 ]EN HAIMATI PANTA KATHARIZETAI, by blood all things is [are] cleansed (Marshall 876);
KATHARIZETAI is third person singular, present passive indicative of KATHARIZOO (Han 402);
consecrated by cleansings (Vine 187); SCHEDON almost or nearly is prefixed to the entire clause, and
applies to both its members. . . . "and I may almost say, it is in blood," etc. (Vincent 4.489);
everything is purified with blood (Williams).
[ 134 ]KAI CHOORIS HAIMATEKCHUSIAS, and without bloodshedding (Marshall 876); [without]
shedding of blood [HAIMA blood, EKCHUNOO to pour out, shed] (Vine 125); and apart from blood-shedding (Lenski 310); and without the shedding of blood (Williams).
[ 135 ]KAI CHOORIS HAIMATEKCHUSIAS OU GINETAI APHESIS, there becomes no remission
(Marshall 876); GINETAI is third person singular, present middle indicative of GINOMAI (Han 402);
literally, remission does not take place or ensue (Vincent 4.489); [no] dismissal, release [from
APHIEMI to send away], used of the forgiveness of sins (Vine 947); there occurs no remission (Lenski
310); no remission is granted (Williams).
[ 136 ]ANANKEE OUN, [There was] necessity therefore (Marshall 876); necessity (Vine 776); there
is then necessity (Lenski 313); so, had to be (Williams).
[ 137 ]MEN HUPODEIGMATA, on one hand examples (Marshall 876); the earthly tabernacle and
its furniture (Vincent 4.490); on the one hand that the copies (Lenski 313); on the one hand, the copies
[ 138 ]TOON EN TOIS OURANOIS TOUTOIS, of the things in the heavens (Marshall 876); of the
things in the heavens (Lenski 313); of the original things in heaven (Williams).
[ 139 ]TOUTOIS KATHARIZESTHAI, by these to be cleansed (Marshall 876); KATHARIZESTHAI
is the present passive infinitive of KATHARIZOO (Han 402); be cleansed by these means (Lenski 313);
had to be purified with such sacrifices (Williams).
[ 140 ]AUTA DE TA EPOURANIA, [them]selves on the other [for] the heavenly things (Marshall
876); consisting of the spiritual and heavenly Sanctuary and "true tabernacle" and all that appertains
thereto in relation to Christ and His sacrifice as antitypical of the earthly tabernacle and sacrifices under
the law (Vine 539); on the other hand the heavenly things (Lenski 313); but on the other hand, the
original things themselves in heaven (Williams).
[ 141 ]KREITTOSI THUSIAIS, by better sacrifices (Marshall 876); excellent [sacrifices], of Christ,
in His sacrifice on the Cross (Vine 114, 985); with sacrifices better than these (Lenski 313; Williams).
[ 142 ]OU GAR EISEELTHEN CHRISTOS, not For entered Christ (Marshall ); EISEELTHEN is
third person singular, second aorist active indicative of EISERCHOMAI (Han 402); [did not] come into,
go in, enter (Arndt 232); for Christ did not enter (Lenski 315); for it was not . . . that Christ entered
[ 143 ]CHEIROPOIEETA HAGIA, made by hand holies (Marshall 876); sanctuary made with hands,
by human hands (Arndt 10, 76, 880); for holy places render a holy place, the plural being used of the
sanctuary (Vincent 4.491); into a handmade sanctuary (Lenski 315); a sanctuary made by human hands
[ 144 ]ANTITUPA TOON ALEETHINOON, figures of the true things (Marshall 876); or figure . .
. answering to the patterns in the heavens (Vincent 4.491); copy, antitype, representation, a [mere] copy
of the true [sanctuary] (Arndt 76); a [mere] type of the true one (Lenski 315); a mere copy of the true
[ 145 ]ALL' EIS AUTON TON OURANON, but into [it]self the heaven (Marshall 876); the abode
to which Christ ascended after his resurrection (Thayer 465); but into heaven itself (Lenski 315); but
it was into heaven itself (Williams).
[ 146 ]NUN EMPHANISTHEENAI, now to appear in (Marshall 876); EMPHANISTHEENAI is the
first passive infinitive of EMPHANIZOO (Han 402); now, not only in contrast with the time of the old,
typical economy, but also implying a continually-present manifestation, for us, now, as at his first
entrance into the heavenly sanctuary. EMPHANISTHEENAI, render to be manifested (Vincent 4.491);
of His presence before the face of God for us (Vine 57); now to appear before (Lenski 315); now to
[ 147 ]TOO PROSOOPOO TOU THEOU HUPER HEEMOON, the presence of God on behalf of us
(Marshall 876); the face of God in our behalf (Lenski 315); for us in the very presence of God
[ 148 ]OUD' HINA, nor in order that (Marshall 876); supply did he enter. "Nor yet did he enter that
he might offer" (Vincent 4.491); nor [did he enter heaven] in order to be (Lenski 316); and He does
[ 149 ]POLLAKIS PROSPHEREE HEAUTON, often he should offer himself (Marshall 876);
PROSPHEREE is third person singular, present active subjunctive of PROSPHEROO (Han 402); offer
himself refers rather to Christ's entrance into the heavenly sanctuary and presentation of himself before
God, than to his offering on the cross (Vincent 4.491); offering himself often (Lenski 316); to offer
Himself over and over again (Williams).
[ 150 ]HOOSPER HO ARCHIEREUS EISERCHETAI EIS HAGIA KAT' ENIAUTON, even as the
high priest enters into the holies year by year (Marshall 876); EISERCHETAI is third person singular,
present middle indicative of EISERCHOMAI (Han 402); as the high priest enters into the sanctuary
year by year (Lenski 316); as the high priest enters the sanctuary year after year (Williams).
[ 151 ]EN HAIMATI ALLOTRIOO, with blood belonging to others (Marshall 876); [with blood]
belonging to another, not one's own (Arndt 40); in connection with blood not his own (Lenski 316);
with blood that is not his own (Williams).
[ 152 ]EPEI EDEI AUTON POLLAKIS PATHEIN, since it behoved him often to suffer (Marshall
876); EDEI is third person singular, imperfect active impersonal of (DEI); PATHEIN is the second
aorist active infinitive of PASCHOO (Han 402); for otherwise he would have had to suffer many times
(Arndt 284); since [then] it would have been necessary that he suffer often (Lenski 316); for if that had
been the case [implied with participle], He would have had to suffer over and over (Williams).
[ 153 ]APO KATABOLES KOSMOU, from [the] foundation of [the world] (Marshall 876); from the
foundation of the world on (Lenski 316); ever since the creation of the world (Williams).
[ 154 ]NUNI DE HAPAX EPI SUNTELEIA TOON AIOONOON, but now once at [the] completion
of the ages (Marshall 877); the true sense is the consummation of the ages: that is to say, Christ
appeared when the former ages had reached their moral consummation under the old Levitical economy
(Vincent 4.492); but now once, at the consummation of the eons (Lenski 316); but as it is, once at the
close of the ages (Williams).
[ 155 ]PEPHANEROOTAI, he has been manifested (Marshall 877); third person singular, present
middle indicative of APOKEIMAI (Han 402); manifested, in the Scriptural sense of the word, is more
than appeared. A person may appear in a false guise or without a disclosure of what he truly is; to be
manifested is to be revealed in one's true character; this is especially the meaning of PHANEROO;
of His past manifestation for "the sacrifice of Himself" (Vine 57); he has appeared (Lenski 316); He
has appeared (Williams).
[ 156 ]EIS ATHETEESIN TEES HAMARTIAS, for annulment of sin (Marshall 877); literally, for
the putting away of sin [singular] (Vincent 4.492); for putting away sin (Lenski 316); to put away sin
[ 157 ]DIA TEES THUSIAS AUTOU, through the sacrifice of him (Marshall 877); of Christ, in His
sacrifice on the Cross, where the plural antitypically comprehends the various forms of Levitical
sacrifices in their typical character (Vine 985); by means of his sacrifice (Lenski 316); by His sacrifice
[ 158 ]KAI KATH' HOSON, and as (Marshall 877); just as (Arndt 586); ;and in accord with the way
(Lenski 319); indeed, just as (Williams).
[ 159 ]APOKEITAI, it is reserved (Marshall 877; Lenski 319); APOKEITAI is third person singular,
present middle indicative of APOKEIMAI (Han 402); literally, is laid by in store (Vincent 4.493);
[APO from, KEIMAI to lie], appointed, said of death and the judgment following (Vine 61); must
[ 160 ]TOIS ANTHROOPOIS HAPAX APOPTHANEIN, to men once to die (Marshall 877);
APOPTHANEIN is the second aorist active infinitive of APOTHNEESKOO (Han 402); once, one time
[to die] (Vine 809); for men to die [but] once (Lenski 319); men must die but once (Williams).
[ 161 ]META DE TOUTO KRISIS, and after this judgment (Marshall 877); after this, judgment
judging, judgment (Arndt 452); and after that judgment (Lenski 319); and after that be judged
[ 162 ]HOUTOS KAI HO CHRISTOS, so also Christ (Marshall 877; Lenski 319); so Christ
[ 163 ]HAPAX PROSEUECHTHEIS, once having been offered (Marshall 877); PROSEUECHTHEIS
is the first aorist passive participle, nominative singular masculine of PROSPHEROO (Han 402); [PROS
to, PHEROO to bring], offered, of Christ in virtue of his High Priesthood (Vine 802); literally, having
been offered once for all. Note the passive in contrast with offer himself, verse 25. He was appointed
to die as truly as we (Vincent 4.493); offered once (Lenski 319); was offered once for all (Williams).
[ 164 ]ANENENKEIN, to bear (Marshall 877; to bear); is the second aorist active infinitive of
ANAPHEROO (Han 402); not in the sense of bearing a sin-offering up to the cross; for HAMARTIA
never means a sin-offering; nor in the sense of putting away; but signifying to take upon himself and
bear as a burden (Vincent 4.493); of the Lord's propitiatory sacrifice, in His bearing sins on the Cross
(Vine 93); to take away (Williams).
[ 165 ]TO POLLOON HAMARTIAS, the of many sins (Marshall 877); the sins of many (Lenski 319);
the sins of many (Williams).
[ 166 ]TOIS AUTON APEKDECHOMENOIS, to the [ones] him expecting (Marshall 877);
APEKDECHOMENOIS is the present middle participle, dative plural masculine of APEKDECHOMAI
(Han 402); await him (Vincent 4.493); by those expecting him (Lenski 319); those who are eagerly
waiting for Him (Williams).
[ 167 ]OPHTHEESETAI, will appear (Marshall 877); the usual verb for the appearance of Christ after
his resurrection (Vincent 4.493); of His future appearance for His saints (Vine 57); shall be seen
(Lenski 318); He will appear (Williams).
[ 168 ]EK DEUTEROU, a second [time] (Marshall 877); the idea is, beginning from the second: the
second in a series taken as the point of departure. As among men judgment follows as the second thing
after death, so when Christ shall appear for the second time, he will appear as the sinless Savior
(Vincent 4.493); a second time (Lenski 319); but again (Williams).
[ 169 ]CHOORIS HAMARTIAS, without sin (Marshall 877); without relation to or connection with
[sin], independent of [it], without any relation to sin, that is, not with the purpose of atoning for it
(Arndt 891); apart from sin (Lenski 319); without having anything to do with sin (Williams).
[ 170 ]EIS SOOTEERIAN, for salvation (Marshall 877; Lenski 319); not as a sinner to be judged, but
as the Savior of mankind, but to bring salvation. (Vincent 4.493); to save (Williams).
Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Ridgefield, Washington,
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The basic text, and all quotations not designated otherwise,
are from the New King James Version, copyrighted ©1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc.
All rights reserved. Used by permission. Bracketed alternatives are drawn from various
sources such as the ASV, Darby, KJV and RSV.
Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.
Published in The Old Paths Archive
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