The Letter to the Romans
Chapter 1
Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Lakeside, California


    1. Paul greets the saints, introduces himself, exalts the resurrected Christ (Ro 1:1-7).
    2. Expresses his strong desire to visit and preach in Rome (Ro 1:8-15).
    3. The gospel is the power of God (Ro 1:16, 17). 4. God's wrath against Gentiles who failed to live righteously (Ro 1:18-32)

In the first chapter of Romans[ 1 ] Paul greets the saints. He introduces himself as he exalts the resurrected Christ. He expresses a strong desire to visit and preach in Rome. He extols the gospel as the power of God to save. He points out the reality of God's dreadful wrath against Gentiles who failed to live righteously (see chart ROMANS 1 OUTLINE).


1:1-4 Paul, a bondservant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated to the gospel of God 2 which He promised before through His prophets in the Holy Scriptures, 3 concerning His Son Jesus Christ our Lord, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh, 4 and declared to be the Son of God with power according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead.

Paul, a bond-servant of Jesus Christ [Paul, bondman, a servant, of Jesus Christ].[ 2 ] As Christ's servant, Paul gave himself wholly to the will of Christ. As the Lord's slave he did God's will, not his own. To obey as a bond-servant of Jesus Christ was not demeaning to him. He regarded it as an honorable position. He realized that Moses, like himself, was called the DOULOU THEOU slave or servant of God (Jos 1:1 Septuagint; compare Heb 3:5).

Some think the twelve disciples who were personally aware of what Christ was doing on earth obeyed as friends, not with blind obedience as slaves. Subsequent NT writers, however, referred to themselves and other Christians as DOULOI bond-servants (see Ac 2:18; 4:29; Ro 1:1; 6:16, 17; 1Co 7:22; 2Co 4:5; Ga 1:10; Eph 6:6; Php 1:1; Col 4:12; 2Ti 2:24; Tit 1:1; Jas 1:1; 1Pe 2:16; 2Pe 1:1; Jude 1; Re 1:1; 2:20; 7:3; 10:7; 11:18; 19:2; 19:5; 22:3, 6).

Called to be an apostle [a called apostle].[ 3 ] In the NT, the Greek adjective KLEETOS called is used to indicate a calling that God does (see note on verse 6).[ 4 ]

Separated to the gospel of God [set apart for, unto, God's glad tidings, the gospel of God].[ 5 ] Paul was separated from men. He was a chosen vessel for Christ (Ac 9:15; compare 13:2). Although he had been definitely set apart, he does not stress any personal greatness. Instead he emphasizes the gospel of Christ. The purpose of his being set apart was for the gospel. He was separated unto, or for the service of, the gospel. Some elements of the gospel such as Christ's descendance from David, His death and resurrection are given in Romans 1:3, 4. Note it is the gospel of God. It is His good news for man.

[1:2] Which.[ 6 ] "Which" refers back to the gospel mentioned in verse 1.

He promised before [he had, which he, before promised, promised afore, beforehand].
[ 7 ] God had announced something about the gospel in Genesis 3:15. That early promise stated that the seed of the woman would bruise the serpent's head. It dimly pictures the crucifixion and resurrection of Christ. Later on, a blessing was promised to the seed of Abraham (Ge 12:3). This, too, alludes to the gospel (see Ga 3:8).

Christ brought "light to the Jewish people and to the Gentiles" through the preaching of the gospel (see Ac 26:22, 23). The promised gospel had to do with the remission of sins (Lu 24:46, 47; Ac 2:38, 39) and eternal life (Tit 1:2). The gospel promise was likewise a promise of a new covenant (Jer 31:31-34). In foretelling the gospel, various prophets "prophesied of the grace that would come to you" (1Pe 1:10).

Through His prophets [by his prophets].[ 8 ] In the present context, God's prophets are all who, in the OT, prophesied the Gospel--men such as Moses, David and Samuel (see Ps 19:4; 68:11; Isa 40:2, 9; 42:4; 52:1; 7; Mic 4:2; Na 1:15; Ac 3:24; Heb 1:1). Other predictions about Christ state that the Messiah would come out of Jacob (Nu 24:17), of the tribe of Judah (Ge 49:10) and of the seed of David (compare 1Ki 2:45; 2Ch 21:7; Ps 132:17; Mt 1:1; Mk 12:35; Lu 3:31; Lu 20:41, 42; Joh 7:42; 2Ti 2:8; Re 22:16).

The gospel was promised by many OT prophets.

To them it was revealed that, not to themselves, but to us they were ministering the things which now have been reported to you through those who have preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven-- things which angels desire to look into (1Pe 1:12).

In the Holy Scriptures [in holy writings, in the sacred Scriptures].
[ 9 ] The absence of the Greek article emphasizes the nature of the Scriptures as being holy. God's holiness passes on to whatever He has a direct connection. The Scriptures are holy because they are the product of God by the Holy Spirit. They are holy because they are able to make holy those who believe and obey them.

The NT Scriptures as well as those of the OT are holy (see Joh 14:26; 16:13; 1Pe 1:16; 2Pe 1:20, 21; 3:16). Although not law for the church, Paul and other NT writers regarded OT Scriptures not only as holy but authoritative for the pre-church era (Ac 17:2; Ro 4:3; 9:17, 28; 11:2; 1Co 2:13; 2Co 2:9 Ga 3:8, 22; 4:30; 2Th 2:13; 2Ti 3:16, 17; see also Mt 21:42; 26:54; Mk 14:49; Joh 5:39; 7:38; 10:35; Ac 7:32; 17:2, 11; Jas 2:8).


[1:3] Concerning His Son Jesus Christ our Lord [concerning his Son, his Son Jesus Christ].[ 10 ] The gospel that was promised before (verse 2) is good news concerning Jesus Christ the Son of God. The central theme of the gospel is not political. It is not merely a better plan of law-keeping. It is a wonderful scheme of redemption.[ 11 ] Jesus Christ, the divine Son of God who brings salvation, is the very heart of it.

Who was born [come, who was descended, which was made].[ 12 ] The root word in the Greek (GINOMAI) basically means to become and signifies a change of condition, state or place.[ 13 ] Jesus was born in weakness as a child.[ 14 ] He became man.

Of the seed of David [of David's seed, from David].[ 15 ] Translators with "of a descendant of David" and "of David's stock" have paraphrased the text[ 16 ] Arndt and Ginrich as well as others correctly translate with "seed," "male seed" or "semen."


    (Ro 1:3)

    1. Samuel spoke to Saul that David was after God's heart and appointed ruler over God's people (1Sa 13:14).
    2. David's seed and His kingdom to be set up after him (2Sa 7:12).
    3. His throne established forever a witness in heaven (2Sa 7:13 KJV; Heb 8:1).
    4. David's throne to all generations (Ps 89:3, 4).
    5. David's descendants to sit on his throne
    (Ps 132:11, 12).

Instead of saying Christ's throne is in heaven, some versions have "in the sky" or as "the sky is faithful" (see chart CHRIST AS DAVID'S SEED A; Ps 89:35-37).


    (Ro 1:3)

    1. God's servant David anointed with holy oil (Ps 89:20).
    2. Messiah to reign on David's throne (Isa 9:7).
    3. A shoot from stem of Jesse (Isa 11:1, 2).
    4. Root of Jesse (Isa 11:10).
    5. A righteous Branch (Jer 23:5).


    (Ro 1:3)

    1. Gabriel to Mary: The Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David (Lu 1:32).
    2. Zacharias, father of John: Has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of David His servant (Lu 1:69).
    3. Paul preaching Jesus from Psalm 89:20: I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after My own heart, who will do all My will (Ac 13:22, 23).
    4. Jesus: I am the root and the offspring of
    David (Re 22:16).

Is it possible that the change in translations was made to avoid a strong argument against premillennialism?


God chose a certain lineage through which Jesus would come. His reasons for this are not totally clear to me. Was it of value for the Messiah to be born in Bethlehem, and then to move to Galilee? Did God foreknow the character of various individuals through whom Christ would come? For example, did He choose David because he was a man after His own heart? Was it because David's kingdom was united? Because when he sinned he repented quickly and genuinely? Because he never turned to idolatry? Because he was always the Jews' hero, the sweet singer of Israel, and an honored prophet? Perhaps because of all of this, God choose him as an ancestor of Christ. He gave the Jews a prophetic witness so they might understand and believe that the Messiah was coming.

According to the flesh [according to flesh].[ 17 ] "The flesh" refers to the physical ancestry of Jesus from David on (see Mt 1:1-16; Lu 3:23-38).


[1:4] And declared [ marked out, and designated, who was declared].[ 18 ] Thayer suggested that Christ was the Son of God prior to the resurrection (compare Mt 16:16-18). He wrote:

Although Christ was the Son of God before his resurrection, yet he was openly appointed such [AV declared) among men by this transcendent and crowning event.[ 19 ]

Jesus was mightily declared, shown and proven to be the powerful Son of God by the resurrection. Paul preached about the promise to the patriarchs, saying:

That God hath fulfilled this promise to our children in that He raised up Jesus, as it is also written in the second Psalm, "Thou art My Son, Today I have begotten thee" (Ac 13:33; compare Ac 26:23; 28:20).

To be the Son of God with power [ Son of God in power].[ 20 ] Does "power" refer to the mighty act of raising Christ (see Eph 1:19, 20)? Does it refer to Jesus' own power that raised Lazarus (Joh 11:43, 44)? Jairus' daughter (Mt 9:25)? The widow's son (Lu 7:15)? The saints who came forth from the tombs after His resurrection (Mt 27:52, 53)? Or does it refer in general to the powerful evidence of the resurrection that caused the disciples to believe (Joh 2:19-21; 20:30, 31)? Does it mean that He was powerfully made both Lord and Christ (Ac 2:36)? Positive answers may be given to all the questions.

The power of Christ is shown by prophecies.

For unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given; and the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. 7 Of the increase of His government and peace there will be no end, upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, to order it and establish it with judgment and justice from that time forward, even forever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this (Isa 9:6, 7).

Behold, the Lord GOD shall come with a strong hand, and His arm shall rule for Him; behold, His reward is with Him, and His work before Him. 11 He will feed His flock like a shepherd; he will gather the lambs with His arm, and carry them in His bosom, and gently lead those who are with young (Isa 40:10, 11).


    (Ro 1:4)

    1. Prophesied (Ps 16:10, 11; 49:15; 71:20; Ho 13:14).
    2. Predicted by Christ (Mt 16:21; Mk 8:31).
    3. The power that raised Christ was within Him
    (Joh 2:19; 10:17, 18; see Ac 2:24).
    4. Christ's resurrection representative of general resurrection (1Co 15:22, 23).
    5. Christ's resurrection not temporary
    (Ro 6:9; Re 1:18).
    (Adapted from McGarvey)

According to the Spirit of holiness [according to the spirit of holiness].[ 21 ] Jesus loved righteousness and hated iniquity (Heb 1:9).

As God is spirit, the divine nature of Christ is spirit, and its characteristic quality is holiness[ 22 ]

As to his spiritual or divine nature, which though a Sonship, was birthless, and hence did not come into being, but existed from the beginning for he was pointed out, declared or demonstrated to be the Son of God with power . . . .[ 23 ]

Although I tend to agree with Vincent and McGarvey, I refuse to split hairs with those who say the spirit of holiness is the Holy Spirit.

By the resurrection from the dead [by resurrection, the resurrection, his resurrection, of the dead].[ 24 ] The word NEKROON from the dead is plural as in Acts 26:23 and elsewhere. The power of Christ is shown in raising the dead generally of which Christ was the firstfruits (see Ro 6:5; 1Co 15:20, 23). He was also raised from among other dead ones. Paul was alluding to the resurrection of Christ when he spoke of "the sure mercies of David" (Ac 13:34; compare Isa 55:3).

Jesus Christ our Lord, [even Jesus Christ our Lord].


1:5-7 Through Him we have received grace and apostleship for obedience to the faith among all nations for His name, 6 among whom you also are the called of Jesus Christ; 7 To all who are in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Through Him we have received grace [by, through, whom, we received grace].[ 25 ] Grace, in this particular verse, means apostolic power. When Paul says "we" he probably alludes to Jewish men who received the apostleship, which he was one. Some think that since he alone was the writer (verses 1, 8, 9), he was merely using "we" in an editorial or categorical sense.

And apostleship [a commission].[ 26 ] Paul became an apostle of God by the agency of Christ (Ac 9:15, 16; Ga 1:1, 15, 16). He was the apostle to the Gentiles (Ro 15:15, 16; compare 12:3; notes on 1Co 3:10; 15:10; Ga 2:9; Eph 3:6, 7).

For obedience to the faith [unto, to bring about, the obedience, of faith].[ 27 ] Although there is no article in the Greek, in this verse, "faith" is the same as "the faith." It is a positive body of truth received and believed. After Paul was called by God's grace (Ga 1:15), he preached the faith (Ga 1:23). That is, he preached "the truth of the gospel" (Ga 2:5, 14; Eph 1:13). His preaching was for the purpose of leading people to obey the truth (Ga 5:7; compare Ro 2:8; 6:17; 16:26; 2Th 1:8; Heb 5:9).

Among all nations [among all the nations, the Gentiles].[ 28 ] Paul was the apostle to the nations, that is, to the Gentiles (Ac 9:15; 22:21; 26:17; Ro 11:13; 15:16; Ga 1:16; 2:9; Eph 3:2, 8; 1Ti 2:7; 2Ti 4:17). As James Coffman pointed out, he was the special name-bearer before Gentiles and kings and the children of Israel (Ac 9:15).

For His name [in behalf of, for the sake of, for his name's sake].[ 29 ] In view of the authority of Christ's name, all are obliged to obey Him.

[1:6] Among whom you also are [among whom are ye also, you are also, including yourselves].[ 30 ]

The called of Jesus Christ [the called of, who are called to belong to, Jesus Christ, called to be Jesus Christ's].[ 31 ] To modern readers, "called" seems like a verb but in the Greek in verses 1, 6 and 7 it is an adjective modifying saints. The Roman Christians were called saints. In the present verse, they are called Jesus Christ's, as are all Christians then and now. They were called[ 32 ] by the gospel (2Th 2:14). Most likely some of the Jews and proselytes present in Jerusalem on Pentecost returned home to Rome (see Ac 2:10). But here, Paul especially addresses Gentile Christians. They were called disciples, called "obeyers," called in order to submit to "the obedience to the faith" (verse 5).


[1:7] To all who are in Rome [to all, to all that are, that be, in Rome].[ 33 ] The Roman letter was addressed to all Christians in Rome, whether residents or transients, slaves or freemen, Gentiles, Jews or proselytes. PROSEELUTON proselytes, in the NT, include converts to Judaism or, in particular, foreign converts to the Jewish religion (Vine 897, 907; see Ac 2:10). Some of these had become Christians. They were no longer literal Jewish proselytes but, in a figure of speech, could be called proselytes just as an ex-president is sometimes called president. For estimates of the size of the church of Christ in Rome see SIZE OF CHURCH in the Introduction to the Roman letter.

Beloved of God [God's beloved].[ 34 ] Let us capture the freshness, wonder and grandeur of the words "beloved of God." The words apply to all Christians. AGAPEETOS beloved is the word John used to tell us that "God so loved[ 35 ] the world" (Joh 3:16). In the present verse, Paul refers to baptized believers as especially beloved (see Ro 6:3, 4; compare 2Co 9:7).

Called to be saints [called saints, who are called to be saints].[ 36 ] KLEETOIS called is an adjective describing the saints. The Christians in Rome were called saints in contrast to angels who were not called by the gospel although they are HAGIAIS holy ones, saints (Eph 1:18; Col 1:12). "Called" saints are "all those who believe" (2Th 1:10), all those called by the gospel (2Th 2:14). Those who do not obey the gospel are lost and, of course, not saints (see 2Th 1:8; notes on Ro 1, 6).

Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ [grace to you all, and peace from God our Father and Lord, and our, Lord Jesus Christ]. Paul earnestly wishes for his readers grace (favor, salvation and all spiritual blessings in Christ) with which comes peace from God. Grace always precedes true peace (see all verses where the two are mentioned together).


1:8 First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, that your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world.

First.[ 37 ] Paul was not beginning a list of numbered points. He simply used "first" as a beginning. He makes many other points but does not number them.

I thank my God through Jesus Christ. Christ is our mediator in thanksgiving as well as forgiveness (see Ro 7:25; Eph 5:20; Col 3:17; Heb 13:15). The words "thank" and "think" are from the same Anglo-Saxon root and their spelling differs only in a single letter. Thinkers are thankful. Those who are thankful are thoughtful.[ 38 ]

For you all [concerning all of you]. In prayer and thanksgiving, it is good to mention all Christians .

That your faith is spoken of [because your faith is, is being, proclaimed].[ 39 ] The wickedness of the city of Rome was known far and wide. So was the faith of the Lord's people.

The church at Rome was large in numbers and strong in faith. Paul did not recognize their faithfulness in order to ingratiate himself to them. He meant it as he sincerely prayed and earnestly gave thanks to God.

Throughout the whole world [in the whole world, in all the world].


1:9, 10 For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of His Son, that without ceasing I make mention of you always in my prayers, 10 making request if, by some means, now at last I may find a way in the will of God to come to you.

For God is my witness.[ 40 ] Since God inspired Paul to write, He was bearing witness that Paul's prayers had ascended to heaven (see 1Co 2:13; 14:37).

Whom I serve with my spirit [whom I serve in my spirit].[ 41 ] Paul served sincerely, devotedly and voluntarily. "With my spirit" means the greatest degree of mental quality. "Jesus rejoiced in the Spirit," rejoiced greatly (Lu 10:21). "Being fervent in spirit," being exceedingly zealous (Ac 18:25). "Paul purposed in the Spirit," firmly purposed (Ac 19:21). "Behold I go bound in the spirit unto Jerusalem," I go with a firm resolution (Ac 20:22). "Whom I serve with my spirit," serve with the greatest zeal (Ro 1:9).[ 42 ] "In my spirit," therefore, describes Paul's fervent, effectual prayers and service (compare Jas 5:16).

In the gospel of His Son [in the glad tidings of his Son].
[ 43 ] Paul served by living according to the gospel of the Son of God who gave it. He served in worship, in benevolence, in suffering, in preaching and in defense of the truth.

That without ceasing [how, of how, unceasingly].[ 44 ] Paul faithfully, consistently, and repeatedly prayed for the Christians in Rome.

I make mention of you [I mention you]. Paul's prayers were specific.

Always in my prayers [always at my prayers].[ 45 ] An important part of Paul's service in the gospel was to continuously pray for others.


[1:10] Making request [ beseeching, asking].[ 46 ]

If, by some means now at last [if that somehow, if by any means, now at length, that now at last].[ 47 ] Paul prayed that "by some means now at last" he could travel to Rome. This was his way of saying "if God wills" (see Ac 18:21). He had confidence that he would do so. He would go, if it was God's will, after he carried the contribution to Jerusalem.

I may find a way in the will of God [ I may be prospered by, it may be in, God's will]. The "will of God" here is not the written inspired word but more like God providentially moving as He often answers prayer.

I may succeed to come to you [I may succeed, have a prosperous journey, in coming, for me to come, unto you].[ 48 ] Paul's prayer was answered. However, his trip was not what some would call a prosperous journey. In spite of the hardships of the trip, God provided compensations (see charts PAUL'S PROSPEROUS JOURNEY A and B). Yes, his journey was successful. It was prosperous in the sense that, with the gospel of Christ, he had a powerful effect on the people on the ship, on the island, in Italy and, especially, in Rome.



    (Ro 1:10)

    1. A prisoner (Ac 27:1).
    2. Long without food (Ac 27:21, 33-35).
    3. Threatened with death (Ac 27:42).
    4. Shipwrecked (Ac 27:41).
    5. Bitten by serpent (Ac 28:3-5).



    (Ro 1:10)

    1. Treated kindly, allowed to visit friends and refresh himself (Ac 27:3).
    2. Crew listened to him (Ac 27:36).
    3. Barbarians on Malta showed "unusual kindness"
    (Ac 28:1, 2).
    4. Entertained courteously (Ac 28:7).
    5. Honored with many honors (Ac 28:10).
    6. Allowed to stay a week at Puteoli (Ac 28:14).
    7. Christians from Rome welcomed him at Appii Forum and Three Inns (Ac 28:15).
    8. Had own hired dwelling in Rome (Ac 28:30).


1:11, 12 For I long to see you, that I may impart to you some spiritual gift, so that you may be established-- 12 that is, that I may be encouraged together with you by the mutual faith both of you and me.

For I long to see you [for I greatly desire to see you]. Paul did not hope to go to Rome as a tourist. He travelled there as a prisoner but he was received as an honored apostle (see Ac 19:21).

That I may impart to you some spiritual gift [to impart, in order that I may impart, bring you, unto you, some spiritual gift to you].[ 49 ] Marvin Vincent explained the imparting of a spiritual gift as follows:

The word shows that he had in view the Christian character no less than their instruction in doctrine.[ 50 ]

Nevertheless, it appears to me that Paul had in mind imparting extraordinary powers by the laying on of his hands (compare Ac 6:6; 8:17; 2Ti 1:6). Before the written word was available, miraculous gifts served a much needed purpose. Their purpose was to establish and strengthen the church in the word (its proclamation and confirmation) and, indirectly, in practice. The church in Rome was not entirely lacking in spiritual gifts. That may be accounted for by gifted individuals travelling to Rome from Jerusalem, Samaria, Antioch or other places. Gifts listed in 1 Corinthians 12:8-11 include healing, miracles, tongues, prophecy, interpretation of tongues and others. The church in Rome needed more. If Peter and/or other apostles had been in Rome, they would have been imparted gifts themselves. This suggests that no apostle had as yet spent much time there.

So that you may be established [that you, ye, to the end ye, may be established, to establish, strengthen, you].[ 51 ] Paul here uses the word "gift" in its technical sense of imparting miraculous gifts (although he uses the singular). If he meant a gift in the general sense of his encouragement or his teaching, he might have done that by letter. He had to be present to pass on a miraculous gift by the laying on of his hands (2Ti 1:6; see Ac 8:18). Did the gift of prophecy already exist in the church at Rome (Ro 12:6)? Was it the only miraculous gift they had? Even if it was, prophecy was still a needed gift that Paul sought to impart (see 1Co 14:1).

[1:12] That is, that I may be encouraged together with you [ that is, to have mutual comfort among you, that we, that you and I, that I with you, may be mutually comforted, may be comforted in you, while among you].[ 52 ] Mutual comfort today may be accomplished by one another's faith. The Christians in Rome could comfort Paul and he them but only Paul (or another apostle) could impart a spiritual gift.

By the mutual faith both of you and me [each, each of us, by the faith which is in the other, by the other's, by each other's, one another's, faith, both yours and mine].[ 53 ] Christians benefit by association with others of strong faith and wisdom (Heb 10:24, 25). "He who walks with wise men will be wise" (Pr 13:20; compare 15:31). The church in Rome was fairly strong already. What a privilege to have Paul come teaching and preaching! His faith and dedication to God would set hearts on fire with faith and zeal. In a sense, Paul is with us today when we read his letters. What effect does he have on us?

Paul expected to be encouraged by the faith of Christians in Rome. If that church had been as weak and corrupt as churches in Corinth and Galatia, I doubt they would have encouraged his faith very much. As it was, he hoped to be satisfied with their company (Ro 15:24). Would he be satisfied with ours?


1:13 Now I do not want you to be unaware, brethren, that I often planned to come to you (but was hindered until now), that I might have some fruit among you also, just as among the other Gentiles.

Now I do not want you to be unaware, brethren [but I, and I, do not wish you to be, would not have you, ignorant, I want you to know, brothers].

That I often [that I have often, often I, oftentimes].[ 54 ] Often in the past, Paul had considered preaching in the chief city of the Empire with more than a million souls. Estimates of the size of the church of Christ vary from 175,000 to 400,000 members per generation.[ 55 ] Other main centers of the church in the first century were in the principal cities of the Roman empire--Antioch, Ephesus and Corinth. Ferguson recognized Rome to have the largest number of Christians.

By the end of the second century Rome had replaced Ephesus as the strongest and most influential church, although Asia and adjoining provinces continued to be the area where the largest concentration of Christians was.[ 56 ]

Planned to come to you [proposed, intended, to come unto, you].[ 57 ] Paul had a longing to go to Rome "these many years" (Ro 15:23). We have a record of an instance when he declared his purpose to go to Rome (Ac 19:21).

But was hindered until now [and was, and have been, but thus far, though, prevented, was let, hitherto, until the present time].[ 58 ] Was Paul hindered by Satan (compare 1Th 2:18)? Was he hindered by the Holy Spirit (Ac 16:6)? Some think the latter because the word EKOOLUTHEEN includes the idea of being forbidden. Could not the Holy Spirit negate a powerful Satanic hindrance? One reason that Paul was hindered many times in coming to Rome because there were many other places where Christ was not already named (Ro 15:20-22). It was the will of the Spirit that he fulfill his preaching assignments in the territory not yet evangelized. Since he had fully preached the gospel of Christ in all these places, even in the wild mountain areas "round about even unto Illyricum" he was ready to visit Rome (see Ro 15:19).

That I might have some fruit among you also [in order that I may reap, obtain, some harvest in you too, as well].
[ 59 ] By "fruit" Paul no doubt meant "the obedience of the Gentiles" (Ro 15:18; compare 15:15, 16). However, he now addresses the church of Christ in Rome. He did not limit his preaching to saints. He also taught sinners the way of salvation. To convert the lost was to bear fruit and glorify God (Joh 15:8, 16). This is not intended to deny that good works of Christians are counted as fruit-bearing.

Just as among the other Gentiles [even as among other Gentiles, the other nations also, as, as I have, in, among, the rest of the Gentiles]. Paul had converted many Gentiles in Corinth, Ephesus and other cities. He was known as the apostle to the Gentiles (Ro 11:13; compare Ga 2:9; 1Ti 2:7; 2Ti 1:11).


1:14 I am a debtor both to Greeks and to barbarians, both to wise and to unwise.

I am a debtor both to Greeks [I am debtor, under obligation, both to the Greeks].[ 60 ] Paul was not indebted to the Greeks and others for what they had done for him personally. He was indebted to Him whose bondslave he was. No man had done anything to deserve Christ's sacrifice. No one had merited the gospel being preached to him. Somehow, it was because of what Christ had done for Paul that made him debtor to all men of all races and nations.[ 61 ] His debt was one of obedience to the wise God (Ac 9:15; Ro 11:13). He owed a debt of love (Ro 13:8). He wanted to pay his debt. He said, "Woe is me if I do not preach" (1Co 9:16).

And to barbarians [and, Barbarians, and the, and to the, Barbarians].[ 62 ] To the Greeks, barbarians were foreigners. To those not familiar with their rude speech, they sounded like they were saying "Bar, bar, bar."

Both to the wise [both to wise, to the learned].[ 63 ] At Corinth, not many SOPHOI wise were called (see note on 1Co 1:26). From the inscriptions in the catacombs in and near Rome, one may infer that a few rulers and their families became Christians. There were saints in Caesar's household (Php 4:22).

And to unwise [and, unintelligent, the unwise, the foolish].[ 64 ] The "unwise" may have included those with less than average education such as a few sailors and slaves. Paul did not limit his teaching to educated men, rulers or philosophers. Someone in Rome used visual aids such as a fish, a shepherd and sheep. Some of these may still be seen on the catacomb walls.


1:15 So, as much as is in me, I am ready to preach the gospel to you who are in Rome also.

So, as much as is in me [so, as far as depends on me, as in me is, thus, for my part].[ 65 ] The great apostle was maligned almost everywhere. Had his opponents considered the sophisticated city of Rome off limits to him whose "bodily presence" was weak (2Co 10:10)?

I am ready to preach the gospel [am I eager to announce the glad tidings].[ 66 ] Preaching the gospel was Paul's purpose, mission and object in life. No considerable part of his trip to Rome would be vacation. His desire was to go there to preach the word. What would he preach? If he used points stressed in other places he would preach facts about the death, burial, resurrection and ascension of Christ (1Co 15:1-8). He would preach obedience to Christ in faith, repentance, confession, baptism and faithful living (Ro 2:4; 5:8, 9; 6:3, 4; 10:9, 10; Ga 5:19-22). He would also preach the church of Christ including its worship, mission and organization (see Ac 20:28; Eph 1:23; 4:4; Col 1:18). He would preach the future resurrection of Christians (1Th 4:13-18; 5:1-6). He would preach heaven as the home of the soul (2Co 5:8; Php 1:23; 1Th 4:17).

To you who are in Rome also [to you also that are, who are, in Rome, at Rome too].[ 67 ] "You" refers to the "beloved of God," those "called to be Jesus Christ's" (verses 6, 7), and "brethren" (verse 13). It is interesting that Paul would preach the gospel to the church. In fact, "In every verse, from 6 to 13, HUMEI you refers to the church."[ 68 ]


    (Ro 1:16)

    1. Not ashamed to call the sanctified ones brethren (Heb 2:11, 12).
    2. Not ashamed to be called the God of heaven-
    seekers (Heb 11:16).


    (Ro 1:16)

    1. Not be ashamed when I look upon all Your commandments (Ps 119:6).
    2. Not ashamed his hope (Ps 119:116).
    3. Will also speak of Your testimonies also before kings, and will not be ashamed (Ps 119:46).
    4. Let my heart be blameless regarding Your statutes, that I may not be ashamed (Ps 119:80).


    (Ro 1:16)

    1. For whoever is ashamed of Me and My words in this adulterous and sinful generation, of him the Son of Man also will be ashamed when He comes in the glory of His Father with the holy angels
    (Mk 8:38; Lu 9:26).
    2. Whoever believes on Him will not be put to
    shame (Ro 9:33; 1Pe 2:6; compare Ro 10:10, 11).


1:16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God to salvation for everyone who believes, for the Jew first and also for the Greek.

For I am not ashamed.[ 69 ] Paul showed fearlessly that the hopes and promises of the gospel were his most precious treasure.[ 70 ] He was not ashamed of his profession. He was a workman who did not need to be ashamed (2Ti 2:15). In spite of slander he was not ashamed as Christ's ambassador to preach the gospel in what was then the most splendid city of the world.

Of the gospel of Christ [of the glad tidings, of the gospel].[ 71 ] The gospel is historical (facts), doctrinal (commands) and dependable (divine promises).


    (Ro 1:16)

    1. When others mocked (Ac 17:32).
    2. Of the stumbling-block cross (1Co 1:23).
    3. Of the suffering the cross brought to Christ.
    4. To suffer as a Christian (2Ti 1:12; 1Pe 4:16; compare 2Ti 1:16).

For it is the power of God [it is the power of God, for it is God's power].[ 72 ] Emphasis should not be placed on the because it does not appear in the Greek sentence. Someone might suggest that God's love, kindness and mercy are "powers" for salvation. Emphasis may be placed on the divine origin of the gospel. It is "of God." It has been granted by His divine power (compare 2Pe 1:3). Through the foolishness of preaching God saves believers (1Co 1:21). One must hear, believe and obey the gospel to be saved. Sinners are called (2Th 2:14), begotten (1Co 4:15; Jas 1:18; and saved by the gospel of God (Ro 1:1, 16; 15:16; 1Co 1:21).


    (Ro 1:16, 17)

    1. It is the power of God.
    2. It is to salvation.
    3. To everyone who believes.
    4. In it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith.
    5. Preaching it engenders faith (Ro 10:17).

To salvation [for, unto, salvation].[ 73 ] Emphasis may be given to the gospel "to salvation" because it is the word of truth and the gospel of salvation (Eph 1:13).

For everyone who believes [to every one that believes, who has faith, that believeth, believes].[ 74 ] There are no exceptions to the offer of salvation. It is to everyone who believes.

But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, to those who believe in His name (Joh 1:12; compare Joh 3:18; 8:24).

Believing is not to be taken in isolation as some evangelicals are prone to do. No Scripture should ever be used for the purpose of excluding other divine requirements such as baptism for the remission of sins (see Mk 16:16; Ac 2:38; 22:16; Ro 6:3, 4; 1Pe 3:21; note above on To salvation).

For the Jew first and also for the Greek [to, both to, Jew first and to, also to, and also to, Greek, the Greek].[ 75 ] Although Paul was the apostle to the Gentiles (see note on verse 5), when he first entered a city to evangelize it he went first to the Jews, usually to their synagogues (see Ac 9:20; 13:5; 14, 15, 46; 14:1; 16:13; 17:2, 10, 17; 18:4, 19; 19:8; 28:17).


1:17 For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith; as it is written, "The just shall live by faith."

For in it the righteousness of God is revealed [for therein God's righteousness, for, for a righteousness of God is revealed therein].[ 76 ] God's righteousness has been shown in that through the blood of Christ He forgave sins committed before the cross (see Ro 3:25, 26). Someone said His righteousness is His way of righting a wrong. The absence of the article with DIKAIOSUNEE righteousness implies a peculiar source of righteousness--a righteousness of God, a God-appointed righteousness. It did not originate with man. The gospel does not reveal the righteous nature of God. That was already taught in OT Scriptures (see Ex 9:27; Ezr 9:15; Ne 9:8; Ps 7:9; 11:7; 48:10; 65:5; 97:2; 119:137; 129:4; 145:17; Jer 23:6).

Does the righteousness of God have anything to do with justice? Yes. With truth? Yes. With love? Yes. The righteousness of God is His love shown in the saving of sinners (Joh 3:16; Eph 2:4; 2Th 2:16; 1Jo 4:8). God demonstrates His own love toward us (Ro 5:8). One thing for sure, without God's part, man could not become righteousness. The righteousness of God is not a perfect keeping of the OT law. The whole gospel purpose is to make men and women righteous so they may have eternal fellowship with God. God's righteousness is that by which He can count sinners as righteous. That is, He forgives them. Because of faith God forgives. Righteousness, in the sense of forgiveness, is taught in many Scriptures (Ro 3:24, 26, 28, 30; 4:5; 5:1; 8:30; Ga 2:16, 21; 3:8, 24; Ro 3;21; 4:3, 6, 13; 9:30). Righteousness in other passages means salvation (Isa 56:5, 6; 62:1; Da 9:24). Salvation is somehow accomplished by faith and it is impossible to separate saving faith from obedience.

Many times in Roman letter "righteousness" has to do with the salvation of sinners as in Romans 1:17. Righteousness is also living by faith.

The righteousness is of God because it is a righteousness appointed by Him. He ordained that righteousness be obtained by faith. That kind of righteousness is revealed in the gospel. In other words the word of God specifies that men can be made righteous from faith. The preaching of the word of God produces faith in the hearers. God's plan of justification, of making man righteous, of salvation,
is revealed in the gospel. When man hears the gospel he believes it.

The gospel makes those who accept it righteous, and that great benefit to be found in the gospel induces men to believe it.[ 77 ]

From faith to faith [through, for, unto, out of, on the principle of, faith].[ 78 ] God has made it possible for man to be counted righteous, not by perfect law-keeping but by the gospel plan of salvation, that is, EK PISTEOOS from faith.[ 79 ] "From faith" is identical in meaning to "from the faith," "from the gospel." "To faith" implies that the gospel (the faith) produces faith. Belief comes by hearing the word of God (Ro 10:17).


    (Ro 1:17)

    1. Salvation (Da 9:24).
    2. His justice (Ro 3:25).
    3. Sacrifice of Christ (Ro 8:3, 4).
    4. Obedience of Christ (Ro 5;18, 19; Heb 5:8, 9).
    5. Salvation, the "gift of righteousness"
    (Ro 5:17; Eph 2:8).

James Macknight translated the phrase: "For the righteousness of God by faith, is revealed in it, in order to faith." He discerningly commented:

This translation, which results from construing the words properly, affords a clear sense of a passage, which in the common translation, is absolutely unintelligible. Besides, it is shown to be the right translation by other passages of Scripture in which the expression DIKAIOSUNEE PISTEOOS righteousness by faith is found, Romans 3:22; 9:30; 10:6; Philippians 3:9. Righteousness by faith is called the righteousness of God, 1. Because God hath enjoined faith as the righteousness which he will count to sinners, and hath declared that he will accept and reward it as righteousness: 2. Because it stands in opposition to "the righteousness of men" which consists in a sinless obedience to the law of God. For if men gave that obedience, it would be their own righteousness, and they might claim reward as a debt.[ 80 ]



    (Ro 1:17)

    1. Justified by faith (Ro 5:1).
    2. Repentance (Ro 2:4).
    3. Confession of Christ as Lord (Ro 10:9, 10).
    4. Baptism into Christ (Ro 6:3, 4).
    5. Faithful life (Ro 6:22; 8:12-17).
    6. Righteousness which is from God by faith (Php 3:9).

As it is written [according as it is written]. Paul quotes part of Habakkuk 2:4:

Behold the proud, his soul is not upright in him; but the just shall live by his faith (compare Ga 3:11).

The just shall live by faith [but the righteous, the righteous man, shall live by faith].[ 81 ] The person who through faith, through the gospel of Christ, becomes righteous shall live, or gain life.

The words are part of the consolatory answer which the prophet Habakkuk receives in the stress of the Chaldean invasion. Though his irresistible hosts sweep over the land, the righteous man who puts his trust in God shall live.[ 82 ]

At that time, some of the Jews trusted in themselves, in their own power. Their souls were "puffed up" (Hab 2:4). God told them to submit to the invading army because He had "ordained him for judgment . . . for correction" (Hab 1:12). If they trusted in God and submitted to the Chaldeans they would live. If sinners in the church ge submit to the gospel of God, they will live.

There is no reason to disagree with the logical import of the words in Habakkuk's time, nor Paul's. Faith, in the context of Habakkuk 2, implies submission to God's will. The words should be taken as, "The just who are upright or righteous by faith shall live." Those who trust in God for salvation through the merit of Christ's blood, who submit to His will in obedience become righteous by forgiveness (Heb 5:8, 9). They shall live. A faithful life is also implied by the quotation. This is essential in order to avoid eternal loss by "shrinking back" (see notes on Heb 10:38; Re 2:10).

At this point, Paul begins a different train of thought that has to do with God's wrath on unrighteous and unforgiven Gentiles.


    "The just shall live by faith" (Ro 1:17).


    (F R C B)



    1. Righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ to all and on all who believe (Ro 3:22).
    2. Will justify the circumcision by faith and the uncircumcision through faith (Ro 3:30).
    3. Even the righteousness of faith (Ro 9:30; 10:6).


    (A NT THEME)

    1. Not justified by the works of the law but by faith in Jesus Christ (Ga 2:16).
    2. Justified by faith (Ga 3:24).
    3. Righteousness which is from God by faith (Php 3:9).
    4. Noah became heir of the righteousness which is according to faith (Heb 11:7).


1:18, 19 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness, 19 because what may be known of God is manifest in them, for God has shown it to them.

For.[ 83 ] The word "for" denotes that the apostle is about to give a reason for what he had just said.[ 84 ] What Paul had just written is that the gospel is the power of God to salvation. He continued that the righteousness of God was revealed. In spite or that, unconverted Gentiles were without hope.

That at that time you were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world (Eph 2:12).

Paul's next line of thought is to argue the truth of what he has just said. To do so, he will show that all human plans to attain righteousness have failed.

The wrath of God [wrath, the wrath, of God].[ 85 ] All sin is ultimately against God (Ge 39:9; 2Sa 12:13; Ps 51:4). Believers see the righteousness of God revealed in salvation. Others will see His righteousness in His coming wrath.

Is revealed from heaven [ there is revealed from heaven].[ 86 ] God's wrath against sin was revealed in the Law but Paul is speaking of the Gentiles who did not have the OT Law. Sinners have experienced God's wrath in suffering, famine, disease, death and the destruction by terrorism or war. They also fearfully anticipate the judgment.

But a certain fearful expectation of judgment, and fiery indignation which will devour the adversaries (Heb 10:27; compare Heb 10:38, 39).

Against all ungodliness [upon all impiety].[ 87 ] God revealed his wrath against ungodliness when he drove out the nations before Israel. He did not drive them out because of Israel's righteousness but because of the wickedness of the other nations (De 9:5).

And unrighteousness of men [and wickedness of people].[ 88 ]

Who suppress the truth in unrighteousness [holding, who hold, who hinder, the truth in unrighteousness, who by their wickedness suppress the truth].[ 89 ] Paul waits until Romans 2:12 to begin his discussion of the Jews. By "the truth" in the present verse we infer he means whatever truth the Gentiles had. Although they walked in darkness (Isa 9:2), they had available to them patriarchal traditions, reports of God's dealings with the Jews, inferences from the creation and knowledge of His specific relationships and procedures with various men, including holy men such as Melchizedek, and prophets such as Balaam and others.

Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, Seneca, Pythagoras, Cicero and Solon knew of the one God.[ 90 ]

The philosophers regarded all the popular superstitions as equally false: the common people as equally true; and the politicians as equally useful."[ 91 ]

However, many who had the wonderful truth of God were not evangelistic with it. Instead, they tried to avoid its influence in their own lives. Vacillate people exchanged the truth of God for a lie when they went along with the idolatry of their contemporaries (verse 25). Were they holding the truth? Possibly. Were they suppressing the it? Absolutely. They held it in, winked at sin and tolerated the most illogical idolatry and immorality.

Sinful men and women in the church age do the same thing when they ignore, ridicule or fight the truth. Gibbon remarked that:

[1:19] Because what may be known of God [because that which, for what, is, can be, known about God].[ 92 ] What the Gentiles knew about God included such truths as His everlasting power and divine nature (verse 20). Beasts, birds, fishes and the earth itself taught them about His hand in creation (Job 12:7-9; Jer 5:22). His handiwork revealed His care for insignificant man (Ps 8:3, 4) and His glory (Ps 19:1). Rain and fruitful seasons are His witnesses (Ac 14:17; compare 17:24-28).

If "what may be known" means that which is knowable (see footnote), is there not a suggestion that there are unknowable things about God (see De 29:29)?

An astronomy teacher in an eastern university, when discussing beginnings, ruled out the possibility of creation of the universe. He would not consider it as a viable option. His reason was that creation involved the supernatural and "therefore" we just had to rule it out! Is that logical? Would it not be equally logical to rule out all natural options with a wave of the hand, as if to say, "We have to rule out everything natural"?

Is manifest in them [is plain, evident, to, among, them].[ 93 ] The knowable things of God were openly evident among the Gentiles as well as in them (see Ps 139:13-16). The flood bore witness to God's hatred of sin. Many who knew of God's judgment upon an evil society went ahead to worshipped idols anyway. They rejected what their own knowledge implied.

For God has shown it to them [because God has made it known, manifested. hath shewed, it, unto them].[ 94 ] When the Israelites came out of Egypt, God's judgment upon Pharaoh and his army was clearly shown (Ex 9:16). People in other nations soon heard the news (Nu 23:18-22; 24:3-8; Jos 2:10-14). Gentile peoples surely heard of God's destruction of Sodom and His dealings with Nineveh. God made it plain but many Gentiles were just like the ruling Jews of whom Jesus said:

For the hearts of this people have grown dull. Their ears are hard of hearing, and their eyes they have closed, lest they should see with their eyes and hear with their ears, lest they should understand with their hearts and turn, so that I should heal them (Mt 13:15; see Isa 6:9, 10; Jer 5:21).


1:20, 21 For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse, 21 because, although they knew God, they did not glorify Him as God, nor were thankful, but became futile in their thoughts, and their foolish hearts were darkened.

For since the creation of the world [since, for from, ever since, the world's creation].[ 95 ] After God revealed His power by creation, some aspects of His invisible nature have been plainly seen. Infallible proofs of His existence were made available long before Satan and atheists had deceitful materials printed that state otherwise.

His invisible attributes [the, for the, invisible things of him, his invisible nature, his unseen things].[ 96 ] The nature of God, His love, justice, power and deity are invisible but are known by His creation. At least Will W. Slater thought about this when he wrote, "Walking Alone at Eve."

Are clearly seen [has been, have been, perceived, clearly perceived].[ 97 ] Paul uses a figure of speech called an oxymoron.[ 98 ] The divine attributes Paul speaks of are clearly seen. Yet, they are invisible. Man may not know God's attributes by the physical senses but he can know them with the mind.

Since the universe is still being seen it continues to speak the truth of God to open and honest hearts. The existence of the universe as an energy-imparting system tells us something about its beginning. According to the second law of thermodynamics, all things[ 99 ] tend toward randomness and disorder. How can this be happening unless something provided the order in the first place? Suppose a beginning is granted. If it occurred in the infinite past, everything should now be in a state of ultimate disorder. Reasoning about this tells us the universe had a beginning more recently than the infinite past. Think about it. The all-powerful God created an orderly universe. If there is no God, then the universe was made without a maker and now runs by perpetual motion. Nothing made it! Nothing started it in motion! Nothing keeps it going![ 100 ]

Being understood by the things that are made [being apprehended, being perceived, by the mind through, in, the things that have been made]. [ 101 ] By thinking about atoms and stars, life and all creation, one may quickly perceive something of the power, glory and wisdom of the Creator. God's creative act was secret but the creation is informative everywhere. Everyone has an opportunity to read the pages of the created universe. For those who cannot see, it "utters speech" (Ps 19:2). As a watchmaker is known by his watch, by the eye of reason, God may be comprehended by means of His creation.

Even His eternal power [namely, both, his everlasting power].[ 102 ] The sustained creation indicates not only power but "eternal power." The beginning of the universe was accomplished either by everlasting power or by a created power. If the latter, what or who created the power? Regardless of the position one accepts, he must come back to an uncaused power (God).

And Godhead [and divinity, and deity].[ 103 ] Because of the eternal power seen in the unified and sustained creation, one may infer the supreme deity of God. Clear traces of His power and divinity may still be read in the dynamic pages of the heavens.

So that they are without excuse [so as to render them inexcusable, so they, may be without excuse].[ 104 ] The steps of reasoning on the basis of a sustained and unified creation to belief in an eternal and powerful Creator are not difficult. Men and women who reject this may presume a defense for sinful conduct.


[1:21] Because, although they knew God [for, because that, knowing God, although, even though, when they, knew God]. [ 105 ] Monotheism came before polytheism. The ancients knew of only one God. The worship of one true God antedates idolatry.

They did not glorify Him as God [they glorified him not, they did not honor him, as God].[ 106 ] "To glorify Him as God" implies that people should have no other gods before, along side of or under Him (Ex 15:11; 20:3-6, 23; De 5:7-10; Ps 71:19). Jesus understood that glorifying God involved the doing of His will.

I have glorified You on the earth. I have finished the work which You have given Me to do (Joh 17:4).

Nor were thankful [neither were thankful, gave thanks, or give thanks, give thanks to him].[ 107 ] The people of whom Paul wrote arose without a prayer. They ate without giving thanks. They went to sleep without expressing gratitude to God. Failure to give thanks due to neglect or shame has led to many departures from the truth. For example, the idolatrous love of money is associated with unthankfulness (Col 3:5). The end result is spiritual disaster (1Ti 6:10). Man's first duty is toward God. Without proper thankfulness, reverence and worship of Him, what real basis is there for decent living?

But became futile in their thoughts [but fell into folly, but they became, have become, vain in their thinking, imaginations, reasonings].
[ 108 ] The starting point for all reasoning should be God. The best scientists are believers. The best thinkers think His thoughts after Him. Speculative atheists who skip the divine starting point only imagine that they reason correctly about the origin and evolution of the universe. Since they fail to give God honor, the reasoning is faulty.

The wicked in his proud countenance does not seek God; God is in none of his thoughts (Ps 10:4).

"Useless things" or "vain things" is another name for idols (Ac 14:15). Did those who worshipped idols have knowledge? Yes. They could feel, see, hear, smell and taste God's creation. They had a thousand solid proofs of Him. Yet they quickly devised excuses for not accepting Him. They questioned and doubted every evidence. They repressed their own tendency to believe the truth and they ridiculed others who did.

And their foolish hearts were darkened [and their senseless, heathenish, heart, minds, their heart without understanding, was darkened].[ 109 ] Why do many today have such a vicious and unreasoning disbelief in the word of God? This verse gives an answer. Their foolish heart has been plunged into darkness. They did not combine the facts which were patent[ 110 ] to their observation.[ 111 ]

Why are morals so low? By rejecting God, man has become foolish and atheistic. Their hearts have been darkened in more than mere unbelief. At least some of them committed abominable iniquity and were "workers of iniquity" (see Ps 14:1-4; 53:1-4). They became corrupt and filthy.


1:22, 23 Professing to be wise, they became fools, 23 and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like corruptible man-- and birds and four-footed animals and creeping things.


    (Ro 1:22)

    1. Illuminati, unusually enlightened.
    2. Nestor, older counsellor.
    3. Philosopher, lover of wisdom.
    4. Professor, teaches special knowledge.
    5. Sage, distinguished for wisdom.


    (Ro 1:22)

    1. Savant, man of learning.
    2. Scholar, learned person.
    3. Scientist, possessor of knowledge.
    4. Solon, wise and skilful lawgiver.
    5. Sophist, teacher known for subtle (and false) reasoning.

Professing to be wise [professing themselves, claiming, while saying, that they are wise][ 112 ] (see charts PROFESSING TO BE WISE A and B).

They became fools [they became foolish].[ 113 ] An idolater is a fool. "The fool has said in his heart, `There is no God'" (Ps 14:1; 53:1).

[1:23] And changed the glory [and exchanged the glory, the splendor].[ 114 ] The Gentiles traded the inexpressible glory of the immortal God for lifeless, man-made, corruptible images. If they had traded for a rabbit, a raccoon or a rat they would have been ahead. At least they would have had something alive. Instead, they settled for lifeless images.

Of the incorruptible God [of the immortal God].[ 115 ] God is eternal and immortal. Corruptible idols were poor substitutes. They were dumb, lifeless and in the process of decay.

Into an image made [for images, the likeness of an image, in the form].[ 116 ] Idols were not even perfect images. For the most part, they were look-alike copies of other images (see footnote).

Everyone is dull-hearted, without knowledge; every metalsmith is put to shame by the carved image; for his molded image is falsehood, and there is no breath in them. 18 They are futile, a work of errors; in the time of their punishment they shall perish (Jer 51:17, 18).

Like corruptible man [of, like to, resembling, mortal people].[ 117 ] Deities in human-like form prevailed in Greece. Those like animals were popular in Egypt. Both animal and humanoid images were worshipped in Rome (see note on Ac 7:41). Serpent worship was common in both Chaldea and Egypt.[ 118 ] The Babylonians were "insane with their idols" (Jer 50:38).

And birds and four-footed animals [or, and of, and to, birds or animals, and quadrupeds, and fourfooted beasts][ 119 ] (see notes above).

And creeping things [or reptiles, and crawling things, creatures][ 120 ] (see notes above).


1:24, 25 Therefore God also gave them up to uncleanness, in the lusts of their hearts, to dishonor their bodies among themselves, 25 who exchanged the truth of God for the lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.

Therefore [wherefore, for this reason].[ 121 ] It was because the heathen and others exchanged the glory of God for images that God gave them over to impurity.

God also gave them up [God gave them over, gave them up also].[ 122 ] It is a terrible thing when God gives up on people. He gave up the pre-flood world (Ge 6:3, 13). He gave up Israel to Assyrian captivity (2Ki 17:18). He gave up Judah to Babylonian captivity (Jer 18:17; see chart ABANDONED BY GOD).


    (Ro 1:24-28)

    1. My Spirit shall not strive with man forever (Ge 6:3).
    2. God gave them up to uncleanness (Ro 1:24).
    3. God gave them up to vile passions (Ro 1:26).
    4. God gave them over to a debased mind (Ro 1:28).

To uncleanness [unto, to the, impurity].[ 123 ] Certain forms of idol worship involved fornication including degrading homosexual activities.

In the lusts of their hearts [ through the lusts of their own hearts].[ 124 ] Those who rejected God changed lawful desires into vile imaginations.

To dishonor their bodies among themselves [of, to the, dishonoring of their own bodies, that their bodies should be dishonored, between them].[ 125 ] Unlawful desires led to the consequent degradation of their own bodies.


[1:25] Who exchanged [because they, for that they, changed, who changed].
[ 126 ] The lustful sinners bartered away the evidence for believing in the true God for a lie.

The truth of God [the truth about God].[ 127 ] Since "a lie"[ 128 ] may be idolatry (see note below), the "truth of God" in this phrase means the recognition of the one true God and rendering the service due Him.[ 129 ]

For the lie [into falsehood, a lie].[ 130 ] Idolatry, by metonymy, is sometimes termed "a lie" (see Isa 44:20; Jer 10:14; 13:25; 16:19, 20).

And worshipped [and honored].[ 131 ]

And served.[ 132 ] The flip-side is worshipping and serving the true God.

The creature, created things].[ 133 ] In general, idols were similar to created things or beings, or combinations of them.

Rather than the Creator [more than him who had created it].[ 134 ] Compare the usage of PARA rather than in Luke 18:14. The Pharisee in Luke 18 was not justified at all. Those described in the present verse did not really worship God at all (but see Ac 17:23, 30). Neither were they justified.

Who is blessed forever [who is blessed for ever].
[ 135 ] In sharp contrast to the degradation of lifeless and decaying idols, the holy, pure and loving God of heaven is forever blessed and eternally praised.

Amen. The Holy Spirit expresses His approval of the condemnation of unbelieving and sensual Gentiles with "Amen," (It is so!).


1:26 For this reason God gave them up to vile passions. For even their women exchanged the natural use for what is against nature.

For this reason [for this cause, because of this].[ 136 ] The Holy Spirit has given the reason for God's punitive action.

God gave them up [God has given them over].[ 137 ] The Gentile idolaters were given up by God (Ro 1:24). One is reminded of the times when God gave up on the Jews (see chart ABANDONED BY GOD at verse 24). Stephen said:

Then God turned and gave them up to worship the host of heaven, as it is written in the book of the Prophets: "Did you offer Me slaughtered animals and sacrifices during forty years in the wilderness, O house of Israel?" (Ac 7:42).

The Psalmist recounted,

But My people would not heed My voice, and Israel would have none of Me. 12 So I gave them over to their own stubborn heart, to walk in their own counsels (Ps 81:11, 12; compare Mt 23:37, 38).

To vile passions [unto dishonorable, dishonoring, affections].
[ 138 ] Fornication is a sin against one's own body (1Co 6:18). How much more is the practice of homosexuality! Homosexuals are said to be given over to a debased condition, not just to an evil desire. The Scriptures suggest that their degenerate condition is a punishment for sin. Does God permit them to enjoy benefits of an alternate lifestyle? No. He gives them up to vile and degrading passions as a punishment! Homosexual sins are repugnant to God. Sodom and Gomorrah and the cities around them remind people of God's judgment against all who practice such shameful things (Jude 7).


For even their women exchanged the natural use [for their women, for both their females, changed, did change, natural relations].[ 139 ] Females changed the natural function, that is, natural intercourse, for an unnatural practice.

For what is against nature [for, to, into, that, which is unnatural, contrary to nature].[ 140 ]


1:27 Likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust for one another, men with men committing what is shameful, and receiving in themselves the penalty of their error which was due.

Likewise also the men [and the men likewise, likewise, the men].[ 141 ] The Greek correlative for "likewise" relates the sin to its effects and to God's response to it. The results of sin are proportional to it. They may be arithmetically or geometrically proportional (Ho 8:7).

Leaving the natural use of the woman [left, gave up, natural function, relations, with women, of women].[ 142 ] The men became homosexual in their practices. They left women alone. They no longer had intimate relations with them.

Burned [and burned, were, and were, consumed, inflamed]. [ 143 ] Normal heterosexual adults have difficulty in comprehending the unholy attraction between people of the same sex.

In their lust for one another [with lust, their desire, passion, towards one another, one toward another, one for another].[ 144 ] The Spirit acknowledges the strong lust with which some homosexuals are afflicted. They have taken on an unholy, burning attraction along with an intention to satiate that desire.

Men with men committing what is shameful [men with men working, practicing, unseemliness, that which is unseemly, shameful acts].[ 145 ] Normal sex between husband and wife is pure, beautiful and uplifting. However, the Holy Spirit speaks of "kinky" sex. Sodomy by males shamelessly behaving indecently with males is immoral and shameful.

And receiving in themselves [and receiving in their own persons].[ 146 ] Homosexuals cannot practice their sin without being paid back for it.

The penalty of their error [that recompense, for their error].[ 147 ] The reward of error is never good and wholesome. Some have suggested that the AIDS plague[ 148 ] may be a punishment from God. If so, the same would be true of other sexually transmitted diseases.

Which was due [due, which was meet, fit, the due].[ 149 ] There are no victimless sins. When God gives a person up, he or she receives what is due. The mind and spirit are defiled and degraded. The body itself may also be harmed (1Co 6:18). Divine condemnation is not necessarily the final sentence from a forgiving God. He can save anyone. Cases are numerous of homosexuals being converted, giving up the sinful lifestyle and eventually marrying and having children. Few, if any, testify that this change occurred overnight.


1:28-32 And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a debased mind, to do those things which are not fitting; 29 being filled with all unrighteousness, sexual immorality, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, evil-mindedness; they are whisperers, 30 backbiters, haters of God, violent, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, 31 undiscerning, untrustworthy, unloving, unforgiving, unmerciful; 32 who, knowing the righteous judgment of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of death, not only do the same but also approve of those who practice them.

And even as they did not like [and since, and just as, furthermore since, they did not see fit, did not wish, refused].[ 150 ] Why did people refuse God? Because they did not like to serve Him. They did not see fit to ascribe to Him much worth. He did not conform to their lifestyle.

To retain God in their knowledge [to acknowledge God, to acknowledge God any longer, to have the knowledge of God].[ 151 ] The sinful Gentiles had a rudimentary knowledge of God (verse 21), but they did not place a high value on that knowledge. They did not develop or improve it. They were not interested in knowing more of God and doing His will. Their failure in this led to all kinds of sins of the mind and flesh (see Eph 2:3). Were they aware that they were guilty of downright refusal of God? Perhaps not. Were they just indifferent? Maybe God was not important enough to them to occupy first place in their lives. At least they neglected Him. What about people today who are aware of the great plan of salvation but treat it with less interest than they show in a political speech or a boring lecture? I would that people showed at least as much interest in God as they do in television reruns! What about Christians who never miss reading the newspaper but who neglect regular Bible study, prayer and worship?

For this reason God gave them over [God gave them up][ 152 ] (see chart ABANDONED BY GOD at verse 24).


To a debased mind [unto a reprobate mind, a base mind].[ 153 ] Paul uses a play on words. They did not approve God. God gave them up to a mind disapproved.[ 154 ] Refusing to have God in ones knowledge makes the mind such that God cannot approve it. Poor soil that will not grow anything is reprobate or disapproved. It is impossible for seed planted in barren soil to produce a good crop. Salt that has lost its savor is cast out. Food left too long is disposed of because it is no longer wholesome and nourishing even for animals.

Without God as its center, it is impossible for a mind to have true concord, unity and purpose. Conclusions of a godless mind are out of harmony with great, fundamental and universal truths. Thinking without considering the divine will is like eating a total junk food diet. A reprobate mind is channeled into rubbish thinking. A reprobate mind is against God. It is against others, against nature and, sadly, against itself.

To do those things which are not fitting [to improper conduct, not convenient, that which is detestable].[ 155 ] Note the connection between the heart and "the results of his deeds" or "the fruit of his doings" in Jeremiah 17:10. A reprobate mind leads to a reprobate life. An example of reprobate thinking is the idea that one church is as good as another. This denies the possibility of the existence, value and identity of God's true church. Another example of the reprobate thinking of depraved minds is the atheistic dogma about "safe sex." Its fruit is seen in ten million cases of sexually transmitted diseases. At this writing, approximately one in fourteen people in our nation is infected.

I, the LORD, search the heart, I test the mind, even to give every man according to his ways, according to the fruit of his doings (Jer 17:10).



    (Ro 1:29-32)

    1. Sexual immorality
    2. Wickedness
    3. Covetousness
    4. Maliciousness
    5. Full of envy
    6. Murder
    7. Strife
    8. Deceit
    9. Evil-mindedness
    10. Whispers
    11. Backbiters
    12. Haters of God
    13. Violent

    14. Proud
    15. Boasters
    16. Inventors of evil things
    17. Disobedient to parents
    18. Undiscerning
    19. Untrustworthy
    20. Unloving
    21. Unforgiving
    22. Unmerciful
    23. Approve of those who practice them


[1:29] Being filled [they were filled].[ 156 ] Solomon described those who despise God's counsel of wisdom:

Therefore they shall eat the fruit of their own way, and be filled to the full with their own fancies (Pr 1:31).

Those who refuse to have God in their knowledge may become so occupied with all kinds of sins that they become second nature. A comment by Paul follows:

Among whom also we all once conducted ourselves in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, just as the others (Eph 2:3).

With all unrighteousness [with all manner of wickedness, injustice].[ 157 ]

Sexual immorality [fornication].[ 158 ] The similarity of the Greek PORNEEIA fornication and the following term PONEERIA wickedness may account for an omission in some Greek texts. Fornication or sexual immorality includes several forms of uncleanness such as bestiality, fellatio and homosexual activities.

Wickedness [evil, mischief].[ 159 ] Wickedness is evil deeds prompted by a malicious heart (see note below).

Covetousness [greed, rapacity].[ 160 ] The purpose of life is not to selfishly seek gratification and possessions (Lu 12:15). The body is "for the Lord" (see note and chart on 1Co 6:13). One who neglects his duty to God in order to amass wealth is not submissive to the will of Christ (Mt 6:33). This very error is the cause of much suffering, sorrow and the loss of many souls (1Ti 6:10).

Maliciousness [malice, wickedness].[ 161 ] A malicious person desires to hurt others. Maliciousness is the evil, hateful and explosive disposition back of PONEERIA wickedness (see note above).

Full of envy.[ 162 ] If the heart is full of a sin, then everything coming out of it is tainted (Mt 12:34, 35). A sponge full of filthy water, it stains everything it touches. The selfish and unloving actions of a person full of envy always hurt self and others.

Murder.[ 163 ] One who hates his brother is a murderer (1Jo 3:15). A person full of murder thinks thoughts such as, "I hate him/her," "I wish he/she would drop dead" or "I would like to kill him/her."

Strife [debate, rivalry].[ 164 ] "Debate" (KJV) is used in an obsolete sense of fighting, contention and strife.[ 165 ] Wrangling and quarreling is condemned. The word debate now means a controlled, ordered discussion. This is not condemned in Scripture. In fact, it is encouraged (1Pe 3:15; Jude 3). Unlike the clamorous ruling Jews and doctors of the Law, Jesus was calm and ordered in His discussions. Their loud yelling and wrangling was deafening. On the other hand, Jesus' voice could not be heard "in the streets" (Mt 12:19). He seldom raised His voice in teaching (see notes on Mt 23, Joh 7:28 37; 12:44).

Deceit.[ 166 ] Out and out lying is condemned (Eph 4:25; Col 3:9; Jas 3:14; Re 21:8, 27; 22:15). Deceit borders on lying. It is an effort to mislead another to injury.[ 167 ] It includes false actions intended to delude family or associates. It is involved in political maneuvers, business swindles and religious hocus-pocus. Debaters and other speakers have been known to set up straw men and then utterly defeat them with sound arguments. They deceitfully imply that their opponents hold the false positions. Another example of deceit is the playing of "Let's Pretend" by modern tongue speakers and so-called miracle workers. A twin sister of deceit, evil-mindedness, malice or malignity (see note below).

Evil-mindedness [evil dispositions, malignity, craftiness].[ 168 ] Products of malice or malignancy are libel and slander. A person with a malignant sneer and a few choice words can turn a good deed of a fine Christian into something sinister and evil.

They are whisperers [whisperers, they are gossips, tale-bearers].
[ 169 ] Whisperers are "secret" gossipers. With hints, sighs, intimations and rumors they destroy good reputations and hurt the cause of Christ.

[1:30] Backbiters [slanderers].
[ 170 ] In contrast to whisperers who do it secretly, slanderers, scandal-mongers and backbiters openly defame the character of others (see verse 29). Judaizers defamed Paul (1Co 4:13). James said, the rich blaspheme "that noble name by which you are called" (Jas 2:7).

Haters of God [hateful to God].[ 171 ] "Haters of God" do not put Him first (Mt 6:33). They may hate Him in the sense that they love Him less than their activities, possessions and projects. They may hate Him by utter rejection. They not only feel hatred for Him but show it by such things as selfishness, rebellious actions or idolatry (see 1Sa 15:23). Clement of Rome, in his letter to the Corinthians, speaks of enmity towards God along with glorification of self and other sins. He adds that not only those who do them but those who consent to them "are held in detestation by God."[ 172 ] They also may hate God by strongly opposing His Son Jesus Christ (see Joh 12:25).

Violent [insolent, despiteful].[ 173 ] Insolent people with snippy words or violent actions are always injurious. The haughty snobs make impertinent remarks. Their abusive put-downs cause hurtful separations. Insulting or harmful language about another person because he is from another state, country or ethnic background, or just because his personality is different is insolence.

Proud [haughty, arrogant].[ 174 ] Proud, arrogant and haughty people are the opposites of the humble and lowly (see Lu 1:51, 52; Jas 4:6; 1Pe 5:5). The noun HUPEREEPHANIA pride is one of the sins that come from the heart (Mk 7:22; compare ALAZONEIA the vainglory of life (1Jo 2:16) and TUPHOOSEIS lifted up with pride (1Ti 3:6).

Boasters [boastful].[ 175 ]

But now you boast in your ALAZONEIAIS arrogance. All such KAUCHEESIS boasting is evil (Jas 4:16).

Inventors of evil things [inventors of evil, mischief].[ 176 ] Inventors of evil promote violence, drunkenness and just about every form of immorality. Sinful actions are paraded before gullible hearts by inventors of evil via the media. "New" methods of committing crimes are made possible by the use of computers. "New" teachings are being peddled to the youth. They include the "new" morality, the "New" Age and the "new" hermeneutic. New ways make it easier and faster to commit the old sins.

Disobedient to parents.[ 177 ] Loyalty and respect to parents was commanded in the Law. The same was expected to be practiced by Gentiles if they understood anything at all about God's love for them and their consequent love for each other.

[1:31] Without undiscerning [void of understanding, foolish].[ 178 ] Idolatry is equated with ignorance and senselessness. A lack of discernment makes for a weak or bad conscience. Evil deeds and darkened understanding go together. Jesus said, "Men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil" (Joh 3:19). The Ephesians, for the most part, were formerly Gentile idolaters.

Paul wrote exhorting them:

This I say, therefore, and testify in the Lord, that you should no longer walk as the rest of the Gentiles walk, in the futility of their mind, 18 having their understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God, because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardening of their heart (Eph 4:17, 18).

Nobody ever thought his way into unbelief but millions have sinned their way into infidelity.[ 179 ] How can mental and spiritual darkness be overcome? By believing and obeying the gospel thereby being made alive in Christ (Eph 2:5; 5:8).

Untrustworthy [faithless, covenant-breakers].[ 180 ] Violating a contract is covenant-breaking. A Christian's word is his bond. If one breaks his word he is guilty. The NT is the new covenant. It demands respect, honor and study.

Unloving [without natural affection, heartless].[ 181 ] "Unloving" or "without natural affection" is characteristic of substance-abusing parents who push their affection-hungry children away. It is entirely missing when babies are aborted. When little children are sent away to boarding schools.

Unforgiving [implacable].[ 182 ] In 2 Timothy 3:3 the word ASPONDOI is translated implacable, irreconcilable or truce-breakers in some versions. Family feuds are condemned here.

Unmerciful [unmerciful, ruthless, without pity].[ 183 ]


1:32 Who knowing the righteous judgment of God, that those who practice such things are deserving of death, not only do the same, but also approve of those who practice them.

Who, knowing [though they know, knowing].[ 184 ] Did the sinful Gentiles know God (see verse 21)? Did they know the revelation of His wrath against ungodliness and unrighteousness (see verse 18)? Through Jeremiah, God spoke to some Gentiles:

You are My battle-ax and weapons of war: for with you I will break the nation in pieces; with you I will destroy kingdoms (Jer 51:20).

When they punished the Jews, the Babylonians said,

We have not offended, because they have sinned against the LORD, the habitation of justice, the LORD, the hope of their fathers (Jer 50:7).

Yet they were wrong. They were not guiltless. God said to Israel:

And I will repay Babylon and all the inhabitants of Chaldea for all the evil they have done in Zion in your sight (Jer 51:24).

The righteous judgment of God [God's decree, the judgment, God, the commandments, of the God].[ 185 ]

That those who practice such things [that they who do, which commit, such things].[ 186 ] These are those who practice any of the twenty-two sins mentioned above, or such like (Ga 5:21).


Are worthy of death [deserve to die].[ 187 ]

Not only do the same [not only practice, continue to do, they not only do, them, not only these very things].[ 188 ] Committing sins is wrong, but Paul is preparing to lay responsibility upon those who know better and who do not oppose or refuse fellowship with the evil of others (see Eph 5:3-12).


But also approve [but approve, have fellow delight in, have pleasure in, give hearty approval, consent, actually applaud].[ 189 ] Philosophers and rulers who tolerate, approve or use to advantage the sinful actions of others are condemned along with them. What about the average citizens who endorse the evils of abortion on demand and wink at homosexual practices? What about Christians who think nothing of their obsession with gambling, illicit sex and violence?


    (Ro 1:32)

    1. You bear witness that you approve the deeds of your fathers; for they indeed killed them, and you build their tombs (Lu 11:48).
    2. Now Saul was consenting to his [Stephen's] death (Ac 8:1).
    3. I also was standing by consenting to his death, and guarding the clothes of those who were killing him (Ac 22:20).

Of those who practice them [them that, those who, do them, that do them, of those who practice them, such practices, that practice them]. Do those who choose to watch evil on the screen consent and approve?


[ 1 ]The basic text in this chapter is the NKJV. Scripture taken from the New King James Versio n. Copyright 1979, 1980, 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. Alternate phrases in brackets are from ASV, Darby, ESB, KJV and RSV and occasionally another version. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.
[ 2 ]PAULOS DOULOS, Paul a slave (Marshall 602); bondservant, a slave (Lenski 23; Williams). In Romans 15:16, Paul uses LEITOURGON minister, servant and HIEROURGOUNTA ministering, sacrificing. In Romans 12:7 he says, "EITE DIAKONIAN EN TEE DIAKONIA, "let us give ourselves to our ministry" or or "ministry in the ministry" (compare Ac 12:25; 20:24; 21:19; 2Co 4:1; 1Ti 1:12). Paul will again use the words DOULOUS and DOULOI, bondservants or slaves (see notes on 6:16, 17, 20).
[ 3 ]KLEETOS APOSTOLOS, called an apostle (Marshall 602); KLEETOS is an adjective, called, invited, of an appointment to apostleship (Vine 167; see note on 1Co 1:1); called as an apostle (Williams); a called apostle (Lenski 23).
[ 4 ]Teachers 86; see note on verse 6; compare Romans 8:28; 1 Corinthians 1:24; Jude 1; Revelation 17:14.
[ 5 ]APHOORISMENOS EIS EUANGELION THEOU, having been separated to [the] gospel of God (Marshall 6102); APHOORISMENOS is the perfect passive participle, nominative singular masculine of APHORIZOO (Han 298); [APO from, HORIZOO to determine; HOROS a limit], separated, of the Divine action in setting men apart for the work of the gospel (Vine 1017); appointed, set apart, for some purpose (Thayer 90); set apart, appointed to preach the gospel (Arndt 127); set apart to preach [implied] God's good news (Williams); having been set apart for God's gospel (Lenski 23); see Galatians 1:15.
[ 6 ]HO, which (Marshall 602; Williams; Lenski 23) an article, that, this, the one (Thayer 4).
[ 7 ]PROEPEENGEILATO, he promised beforehand (Marshall 602); PROEPEENGEILATO is third person singular, first aorist middle indicative of PROEPANGELLOMAI (Han 298); [PRO before, EPANGELLOO, to announce, proclaim], middle voice, promised before (Vine 892); promised before[hand], previously, Arndt 705; promised before (Thayer 539); more than proclaimed, professed or promised (Vincent 3.3); long ago He promised (Williams); he promised in advance (Lenski 23); see 2 Corinthians 9:5.
[ 8 ]DIA TOON PROPHEETOON AUTOU, through the prophets of him (Marshall 602); [through the] OT prophets as having foretold the kingdom, deeds, death of Jesus the Messiah (Thayer 533; Arndt 723); [through] those who speak forth or openly (Vine 894); through His prophets (Williams; Lenski 23).
[ 9 ]EN GRAPHAIS HAGIAIS, in writings holy (Marshall 602); in [the] holy scriptures; scripture as a whole (Arndt 166); sacred writings, holy scriptures, the sacred books [of the OT] (Thayer 121); in holy writings (Vincent 3.3); in the holy Scriptures (Williams); in sacred writings (Lenski 23); "Scriptures" [from GRAPHAIS writings] is regularly used to designate the Scriptures. "All Scripture is ..."; literally, "All writings are ...:(see 2Ti 3:16). Scripture is modified by "holy" to show that it is indeed the inspired writings to which Paul refers (Littrell).
[ 10 ]PERI TOU HUIOU AUTOU, concerning the Son of him (Marshall 602); about His Son (Williams); concerning his son (Lenski 23).
[ 11 ]See The Scheme of Redemption by T. W. Brents.
[ 12 ]TOU GENOMENOU, come (Marshall 602; Lenski 23); GENOMENOU is the second aorist middle participle, genitive singular masculine of GINOMAI (Han 298); to be born (Thayer 115); born or begotten (Arndt 158; see Ga 4:4); became (Williams). The NIV only masquerades as a translation with "who as to his human nature." What it says is true but is by no means a translation of the Greek.
[ 13 ]Vine 206.
[ 14 ]McGarvey 296.
[ 15 ] EK SPERMATOS DAUID, of [the] seed of David (Marshall 603); of the male seed or semen (Arndt 761); by metonymy the product of this semen, seed, children, offspring, progeny; family, race, posterity (Thayer 583); [akin to SPEIROO to sow; English sperm, spermatic, etc.], metaphorically and by metonymy for offspring, posterity, of natural offspring (Vine 1010); a descendant of David (Williams); from David's seed (Lenski 23).
[ 16 ]Reference is made to the NIV, NEB and others.
[ 17 ]KATA SARKA, as respects the flesh, that is human origin, (Thayer 570); according to the human side of his nature, as far as his physical descent is concerned (Arndt 744); on the physical side (Williams); according to [his] flesh (Lenski 23); in the flesh through Mary, His earthly parent (see Lu 3:23-31) [God was His Father] (Littrell).
[ 18 ]TOU HORISTHENTOS, designated (Marshall 602); HORISTHENTOS is the first aorist passive participle, genitive singular masculine of HORIZOO (Han 298); passive with a predicate nominative, designated for something, nominated, initiated (Vincent 3.4); marked out as the Son of God by the fact of his resurrection (Vine 274); appointed, designated, declared . . . who has been declared to be the powerful Son of God (Arndt 581); proved to be (Williams); ordained as (Lenski 23).
[ 19 ]Thayer 453.
[ 20 ]EN DUNAMEI, in power (Marshall 602; Williams; Lenski 23); literally in power . . . he was declared or instated mightily, in a striking, triumphant manner, through his resurrection (Vincent 3.4); contextually, evidently (Thayer 159); with power, powerfully (Arndt 207);
[ 21 ]KATA PNEUMA HAGIOOSUNEES, according to [the] Spirit of holiness (Marshall 602); the spiritual nature of Christ, higher that the highest angels, close to God and most intimately united to him [in doctrinal phraseology, the divine nature of Christ] (Thayer 521); holiness [opposite of KATA SARKA, according to the flesh], compare Isa 63:10, 11, (Arndt 10); PNEUMA [spirit] is that part of Christ which, in contrast to SARX [flesh], did not pass away in death, but served as an individual entity after death (Arndt 675); in each place character is in view, perfect in the case of the Lord Jesus, growing toward perfection in the case of the Christian (Vine 556); and on the spiritual side (Williams); according to [his] spirit of holiness (Lenski 23).
[ 22 ]Vincent 3.4.
[ 23 ]McGarvey 296.
[ 24 ]EX ANASTASEOOS NEKROON, by a resurrection of dead persons (Marshall 602); [resurrection] of the dead, (Vincent 3.4); resurrection from the dead (Arndt 60; a generic phrase, the resurrection-of-the-dead, although it has come to pass as yet only in the case of Christ alone (Thayer 42; see Ac 1:22; 2:3; 4:33; Ro 6:5; Php 3:10, 11; 1Pe 1:3; 3:21); by the resurrection from the dead (Williams); by [his] resurrection from the dead (Lenski 23).
[ 25 ]ELABOMEN CHARIN, we received grace (Marshall 602; Lenski 23); ELABOMEN is first person plural, second aorist active indicative of LAMBANOO (Han 298); aorist tense, we received grace, the general gift bestowed on all believers (Vincent 3.4, 5); of the power to undertake and administer the apostolic office (Thayer 666; see Ga 2:15, 16; Eph 3:7); we have received God's favor (Williams).
[ 26 ]KAI APOSTOLEEN, and apostleship (Marshall 602; Lenski 23); and in particular, apostleship, the special manifestation of grace to Paul (Vincent 3.5); the office and dignity of the apostles of Christ, apostolate, apostleship (Thayer 68); apostleship, office of an apostle (Arndt 99; see 1Co 9:2; Ga 2:8); and a commission (Williams).
[ 27 ]EIS HUPAKOEEN PISTEOOS, for obedience of faith (Marshall 602); in order to the obedience of the faith a (Macknight 56); for, to produce faith (Sanday 4.203); unto marks the object of the grace and apostleship: in order to bring about; obedience of faith is the obedience which characterizes and proceeds from faith (Vincent 3.5); with a genitive of the object,--of the thing to which one submits himself, [the faith], (Thayer 630); to bring about obedience to the faith or obedience consisting in faith (Arndt 99); that which is believed, body of faith or belief, doctrine (Arndt 664); for the obedience of faith (Lenski 23); to urge upon the heathen obedience inspired by faith (Williams). Note that Arndt and Ginrich suggest a basis for Gospel obedience by saying obedience is faith or "obedience consisting in faith." Obedience to "the faith" (Acts 6:7). One obeys from the heart (Ro 6:17, 18).
[ 28 ]EN PASIN TOIS ETHNESIN, among all the nations (Marshall 602); Gentiles distinctively, for whom Paul's apostleship was especially instituted (Vincent 3.5); see the word ETHNOON [Gentiles] contrasted with IOUDAIOON [Jews] in Ro 3:29); upon all the heathen (Williams); among all nations (Lenski 23).
[ 29 ]HUPER TOU ONOMATTOS AUTOU, on behalf of the name of him (Marshall 602); on account of his name (Macknight 56); to the honor of his [Jesus'] name (Arndt 573); for all that a name implies of authority, character, rank, majesty, power, excellence, etc., of everything that the name covers (Vine 772); embracing and avowing his name . . . for defending, spreading, strengthening, the authority of Christ (Thayer 448); in His name (Williams); for his name's sake (Lenski 23).
[ 30 ]EN HOIS ESTE KAI HUMEIS KLEETOI, among whom are also ye called (Marshall 602); ESTE is second person plural, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 298); among whom are also you called out ones; [KLEETOI is an adjective, akin to KALEOO to call], used particularly of the Divine call to partake of the blessings of redemption; of that calling the origin, nature and destiny of which are heavenly; called, invited; in Ro 1:1, 6, 7 the meaning is "saints by calling" (Vine 155, 157); invited [by God in the proclamation of the gospel] to obtain eternal salvation in the kingdom of God through Christ (Thayer 350); saints who are called by God, called by Jesus Christ (Arndt 436); among whom you too as called ones (Williams); among whom are you also as called (Lenski 23). "Among" here and in verses 5 and 13 [from EN in] When its object is plural (as in these verses) with, among; in the midst (Littrell).
[ 31 ]IESOU CHRISTOU, the called disciples of Jesus Christ (Macknight 56); as called of Jesus Christ (Lenski 23); as called ones belong to Jesus Christ (Williams); called by the gospel [good message, 2Th 2:14; 1Co 4:15] (Littrell).
[ 32 ]In 2 Thessalonians 2:14, "called" is a verb.
[ 33 ]PASI TOIS OUSIN EN ROME, to all the [ones] being in Rome (Marshall 602); OUSIN is the present active participle, dative plural masculine or neuter of EIMI (Han 298); to all those in Rome (Williams); to all those who are in Rome (Lenski 23, 24).
[ 34 ]AGAPEETOIS THEOU, beloved of God (Marshall 602; Lenski 24); dear, beloved [of God] (Arndt 6); beloved esteemed, dear, favorite, applied to Christians as being reconciled to God and judged by him to be worthy of eternal life (Thayer 4, 5); who are God's loved ones (Williams).
[ 35 ]EEGAPEESEN loved (Joh 3:16).
[ 36 ]KLEETOIS HAGOIS, called holy (Marshall 602); saints by way of call (Vincent 3.5); called to be His people (Williams); called saints (Lenski 24).
[ 37 ]PROOTON MEN, firstly (Marshall 602); in the first place (Vincent 3.6); first, that is, before anything else is done; first of all (Thayer 555); first of sequence in enumerations [not always clearly distinguished from first, to begin with, etc.] (Arndt 726); firstly [in time, place, order, or importance] (Strong); first (Williams); in the first place (Lenski 55).
[ 38 ]Compare Teachers 87.
[ 39 ]HOTI HEE PISTIS HUMOON KATANGELLETAI, is being announced (Marshall 602); KATANGELLETAI is third person singular, present passive indicative of KATANGELLOO (Han 298); proclaimed with authority, as commissioned to spread the tidings throughout, down, among those that hear them, with the included idea of celebrating or commending; the relation of the bearer and hearer of the message [is contemplated] (Vincent 3.6, 7); your faith is well-known throughout the world (Arndt 409; with the included idea of celebrating, commending, openly praising (Thayer 330); is spreading (Williams); is proclaimed (Lenski 55).
[ 40 ]MARTUS GAR MOU ESTIN HO THEOS, for witness of me is God (Marshall 602); ESTIN is third person singular, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 298); for God is my witness; denotes one who can or does aver what he has seen or heard or knows, (Vine 1237); he is said to be a witness, to whom attestation or appeal is made (Thayer 392); God is my witness [that I am telling the truth] (Arndt 494); for my witness is God (Lenski 55); indeed my witness is God (Williams) see 2 Corinthians 1:23; 11:31; Galatians 1:20.
[ 41 ]HOO LATREUOO EN TOO PNEUMATI MOU, whom I serve in the spirit (Marshall 602); LATREUOO is first person singular, present active indicative of LATREUOO (Han 298); serve with my spirit (Vine 1021); in my spirit delivering the glad tidings (Thayer 373); I serve with my spirit in the gospel (Arndt 467); LATREUOO was used in a special sense to denote the service rendered to Jehovah by the Israelites as his peculiar people (see Ac 26:7; Ro 9:4; Heb 9:1, 6; note on Php 3:3); whom I serve in my spirit (Lenski 55; Williams).
[ 42 ]See Macknight 35.
[ 43 ]EN TOO EUANGELIOO TOU HUIOU AUTOU, in the gospel of the Son of him (Marshall 603); of his Son describes the subject or nature or purport of the message (Vine 497); with genitive of the object, the gospel concerning [his Son] (Thayer 257); usually interpreted as the gospel [good news] about [his Son], (Arndt 318); by telling [implied] the good news about His Son (Williams); in connection with the gospel of his Son (Lenski 55).
[ 44 ]HOOS ADIALEIPTOOS, how unceasingly (Marshall 603; Lenski 55); [how] unceasingly, without ceasing, is used with the same significance as the adjective, not of what is not interrupted, but of that which is constantly recurring (Vine 169; without intermission, incessantly, assiduously (Thayer 11); constantly, unceasingly (Arndt 17); that I never fail (Williams).
[ 45 ]PANTOTE EPI TOON PROSEUCHOON MOU, always on (in) the prayers of me (Marshall 603); always in the prayers; at all times, always, ever (Thayer 476); always at all times (Arndt 609); every time I pray (Williams); always in my prayers (Lenski 55).
[ 46 ]DEOMENOS, requesting (Marshall 603); beseeching, praying, requesting (Vine 956); asking, begging, praying, making supplication (Thayer 129); asking in prayer (Arndt 175); asking (Lenski 55); entreating (Williams).
[ 47 ]EI POOS EEDEE POTE, if somehow now at last (Arndt 695; Lenski 55); the entire phrase "now at length" suggests not only ardent desire but the existence of difficulties for a considerable time (Vine 660); now at length (Thayer 533); now at last (Arndt 695); that somehow some day at last (Williams).
[ 48 ]EUODOOTHEESOMAI, I shall have a happy journey (Marshall 603); first person singular, future passive indicative of EUODOOO (Han 298); passive voice, signifying to have a prosperous journey (Vine 897); if haply I shall be so fortunate as to come (Thayer 261); whether I will finally succeed in coming to you (Arndt 323); succeed in getting to see you [literally prospered to come to you] (Williams); I shall be prospered to come to you (Lenski 55).
[ 49 ]HINA TI METADOO CHARISMA HUMIN PNEUMATIKON, that some I may impart gift to you spiritual (Marshall 603); METADOO is first parson singular, second aorist active subjunctive of METADIDOOMI (Han 298); a gift [freely and graciously given], a favor bestowed, the spiritual possession of the believer, (Arndt 878, 879); some spiritual gift (Williams; Lenski 55); CHARISMA is a gift of grace [CHARIS], a favor received without merit on the recipient's part. Paul uses it in this ordinary sense [Ro 5:15, 16; 6:23], and in a special technical sense, denoting extraordinary powers bestowed upon individuals by the Holy Spirit, such as gifts of healing, speaking in tongues, prophecy, etc. (see Ro 12;6; 1Co 1:7; 12:4, 31; 1Pe 4:10).
[ 50 ]Vincent 3.7.
[ 51 ]EIS TO STEERICHTHEENAI HUMAS, for the to be established you = that ye may be established (Marshall 603); STEERICHTHEENAI id the first aorist passive infinitive of SUMPARAKALEOO (Han 298); for the to be established you=that ye may be established (Marshall 603; established, stablished, that is, confirmed (Vine 371); passive, [be] confirmed, established, strengthened (Arndt 768); [may be] strengthened, made firm, tropically rendered constant, confirmed (Thayer 588); that you may be strengthened (Williams); for you to be confirmed (Lenski 55).
[ 52 ]SUMPARAKLEETHEENAI EN HUMIN, to be encouraged with among you (Marshall 603); SUMPARAKLEETHEENAI is the first aorist passive infinitive of SUMPARAKALEOO (Han 298); exhorted, consoled, comforted (Vine 199); receive encouragement, comfort together with you (Arndt 779); that I with you may be comforted among you, that is, in your assembly, with you (Thayer 597); to be jointly comforted with you (Lenski 55); that we may be mutually encouraged (Williams).
[ 53 ]ALLEELOIS PISTEOOS HUMOON TE KAI EMOU, one another faith of you both and of me (Marshall 603); one another's reciprocally, mutually, (Thayer 28); through each other's faith, both yours and mine (Lenski 55); by one another's faith, yours and mine (Williams).
[ 54 ]POLLAKIS, often (Marshall 603; Lenski 64; Williams); [akin to POLUS much, many] (Vine 805; often, frequently (Thayer 529).
[ 55 ]See SIZE OF CHURCH in Introduction to Romans; Zondervan 732.
[ 56 ]Ferguson 13.
[ 57 ]PROETHEMEEN ELTHEIN, I purposed to come unto you (Marshall 603); PROETHEMEEN is first person singular, second aorist middle indicative of PROTITHEEMI; ELTHEIN is the second aorist active infinitive of ERCHOMAI (Han 298); I purposed [to come] (Vine 906); middle voice, set before one's self, purposed to one's self, purposed, determined (Thayer 552); planned to come to see you (Williams); formed the purpose to come to you (Lenski 64).
[ 58 ]EKOOLUTHEEN, was hindered (Marshall 603; Lenski 64); first person singular, first aorist passive indicative of KOOLUOO (Han 298); [from KOLOS lopped, clipped, properly to cut off, cut short] hindered, forbidden, restrained (Vine 551); cut short, hence hindered, prevented, forbidden (Thayer 336, 367); I have been prevented (Williams).
[ 59 ]TINA KARPON SCHOO, that some fruit (Marshall 603); SCHOO is first person singular, second aorist active subjunctive of ECHOO (Han 298); gather as a harvest (Vincent 3.8); fruit of converts as the result of evangelistic ministry (Vine 464); advantage, profit, utility, to get fruit (Thayer 326); get to have some fruit (Lenski 64); gather some fruit [meaning spiritual results of his labors] (Williams).
[ 60 ]HELLEESIN, OPHEILETEES EIMI, to Greeks a debtor I am (Marshall 603); to Greeks a debtor I am (Marshall 603); primarily one who owes anything to another, primarily in regard to money, metaphorically of Paul [who was] under an obligation in the matter of preaching the gospel (Vine 269); literally, debtor, figuratively with dative of the person, one who is obligated to do something (Arndt 598); [dative commodi], under obligation to do something for some one (Thayer 469). Greeks, men of Greek language and culture (Arndt 251); Greek by nationality whether a native of the main land or of the Greek islands or colonies (Thayer 205); to Greeks I owe a duty (Williams); I am debtor to . . . Greeks (Lenski 64).
[ 61 ]Coffman 22.
[ 62 ]BARBAROIS, to foreigners (Marshall 603); properly [those] whose speech is rude or harsh, used metaphorically in distinction from Greeks and in implied contrast to both Greeks and Jews, (Vine 90); persons not Greek, foreigners, barbarians, contrasted with Greeks (Arndt 133); the Greeks used the BARBAROIS of any foreigner ignorant of the Greek language and Greek culture, whether mental or moral . . . all peoples, indicates their diversity without reproach to foreigners (Thayer 95); among the rest of the heathen (Williams).
[ 63 ]SOPHOIS, to wise men (Marshall 603); the naturally learned (Vine 1233); wise, learned of human intelligence and education above the average, perhaps related to philosophy, opposite to ANOETOS [foolish] (Arndt 760); wise, skilled in letters, cultivated, learned (Thayer 582); and barbarians (Lenski 64); and to all the other nations [literally, the barbarians] (Williams); see 1 Corinthians 1:19, 22; 3:18, 19; 4:10; 2 Corinthians 11:19.
[ 64 ]ANOEETOIS, to foolish (Marshall 603); not understanding [A negative, NOEOO to perceive, understand], not applying NOUS, the mind, senseless, an unworthy lack of understanding (Vine 444); unintelligent, foolish, opposite of SOPHOS [wise] (Arndt 70; not understanding, unwise, foolish (Thayer 48); uncultured (Williams); uneducated (Lenski 64).
[ 65 ]TO KAT' EME, as far as in me lies (Marshall 603); literally, the [thing] according to me, signifies as much as in me is (Vine 763); as far as I can (Williams); the willingness on my own part (Lenski 64).
[ 66 ]EUANGELISASTHAI, to preach (Marshall 603); the first aorist middle infinitive of EUANGELIZOO (Han 298); to preach the gospel, the good news, the glad tidings; with a preposition of the persons evangelized, declare glad tidings, almost always used of the good news concerning the Son of God as proclaimed in the gospel (Vine 497, 498); to proclaim the gospel (Lenski 64); to preach the good news (Williams); good tidings of the kingdom of God and salvation through Christ, to be received on the basis of his expiatory death, His burial, resurrection and ascension (Vine 873; see Isa 60:6; 61:1 Septuagint).
[ 67 ]HUMIN TOIS EN ROOMEE, to you the [ones] in Rome (Marshall 603); to you at Rome (Williams); to you who are in Rome (Lenski 64).
[ 68 ]Vincent 3.8.
[ 69 ]OU GAR EPAISCHUNOMAI, for I am not ashamed (Marshall 603; Williams); Lenski 71); EPAISCHUNOMAI is first person singular, present middle indicative of EPAISCHUNOMAI (Han 298); [EPI upon, intensive; a strengthened form of AISCHUNO], feeling of shame (Vine 69); [not] ashamed (Thayer 228; Arndt 282);.
[ 70 ]Compare Ellicott 220 on 2 Timothy 1:8.
[ 71 ]TO EUANGELION; of the gospel (Marshall 603; Lenski 71); the Received Text adds TOU CHRISTOU [of Christ], the good tidings of salvation through Christ; the proclamation of the grace of God manifested and pledged in Christ; the gospel (Thayer 257); God's good news to men, the gospel (Arndt 317); of the good news (Williams).
[ 72 ]DUNAMIS GAR THEOU ESTIN, power for of God it is (Marshall 603); is third person singular, present active indicative of

EIMI (Han 298); power of God; that which manifests God's power (Vine 868); not merely a powerful means in God's hands, but in itself a divine energy (Vincent 3.9); power, might, strength, force, (Arndt 207); by metonymy, things or persons in which God's saving power shows its efficacy EIS SOTERIAN [unto salvation] (Thayer 159); for it is God's power (Williams; Lenski 71).

[ 73 ]EIS SOOTEERIAN, to salvation (Marshall 603); the end which [the gospel, the power of God] is adapted to attain; unto [the attainment of] salvation, deliverance, safety, in an ethical sense, that which conduces to the soul's safety or salvation (Thayer 185, 612); for salvation [that is, to appropriate it for oneself or grant it to another], (Arndt 801); deliverance, preservation, salvation; of the spiritual and eternal deliverance granted immediately by God to those who accept his conditions of repentance and faith in the Lord Jesus, in whom alone it is to be obtained, Acts 4:12, and upon confession of Him as Lord, Romans 10:10; for this purpose the gospel is the saving instrument, Romans 1:16; Ephesians 1:13, (Vine 988); for the salvation (Williams); for salvation (Lenski 71).
[ 74 ]PANTI TOO PISTEUONTI, to everyone believing (Marshall 603); masculine and feminine, every one, any one [who believes], (Thayer 492); used emphatically of those who acknowledge Jesus as the Savior and devote themselves to him (Thayer 512); any and every (Vine 377); of everyone who trusts (Williams); for everyone believing (Lenski 71).
[ 75 ]IOUDAIOI TE PROOTON KAI HELLEENI, to Jew both firstly and to Greek (Marshall 603); not principally, nor in preference to the Greek; but first in point of time (Vincent 3.9); first of all both to Jew and Greek (Lenski 71); of the Jew first and then of the Greek (Williams); see Matthew 15:24; John 4:22; Romans 3:1; 9:1, 2).
[ 76 ]DIKAIOSUNEE GAR THEOU EN AUTOO APOKALUPTETAI, for of God in it is revealed (Marshall 603; APOKALUPTETAI is third person singular, present passive indicative of APOKALUPTOO (Han 298); for a righteousness of God in it is revealed, the righteousness which God ascribes, what God declares to be righteousness (Thayer 149, 513); for God's righteousness is revealed (Lenski 71); for in the good news [pronoun in Greek] God's Way of man's right standing with Him is uncovered (Williams).
[ 77 ]Whiteside 21.
[ 78 ]EK PISTEOOS EIS PISTIN, from faith to faith (Marshall 603; Lenski 71); springing from faith [and availing] to [arouse] faith [in those who as yet have it not], to produce faith [in those who have it not] (Thayer 185, 513); according to the KJV the idea is that of progress in faith itself; either from Old to NT faith, or, in the individual, from a lower to a higher degree of faith, (Vincent 3.14); faith as true piety, genuine religion [Sextus 7a and 7] which for our literature means being a Christian (Arndt 633); the Way of faith that leads to greater faith [literally, from faith to faith] (Williams).
[ 79 ]I am tired of reading modern versions that use the "dynamic equivalency" method of translation that paraphrase the Bible with meanings foreign to Scripture. Some of these are: "by faith from first to last" (NIV, 3 words added not in the Greek) and "through faith for faith" (RSV, 1 word added). Or "This is accomplished from start to finish by faith" (Taylor's LBP, 6 words added). The NEB (7 words added) implieS they were at a loss as to the meaning with "a way that starts from faith and ends in faith" when they added the footnote, "Or . . . wrong. It is based on faith and addressed to faith" (8 words added). A process begun and continued by their faith" (Phillips adds 6 words, omits 3). Williams renders it, "the Way of faith that leads to greater faith" but admits in his footnote that it is literally, "from faith to faith." Why does a translation have to become a commentary? Would it not be better to translate what the Holy Spirit inspired to be written?
[ 80 ]Macknight 58.
[ 81 ]HO DE DIKAIOS EK PISTEEOS ZEESETAI, now the just man by faith will live (Marshall 604); ZEESETAI is third person singular, future middle indicative of ZAOO (Han 298); now the just man by faith will live (Marshall 604); contextually, approved of God, acceptable to God . . . by faith (Thayer 149); emphatically, and in the Messianic sense, to enjoy real life, that is, to have true life and worthy of the name,--active, endless in the kingdom of God (Thayer 270); with regard to the last Judgment, the one who stands the test is DIAKAIOS, righteous (Arndt 195); he that is just through faith shall have life (Arndt 336); the upright man must live by faith (Williams); but the righteous shall live by faith (Lenski 71).
[ 82 ]Ellicott 206.
[ 83 ]GAR, for (Marshall 604; Williams); but (Lenski 71); for, expressing continuation or connection (Arndt 152). The slipshod translators of the NIV omitted "for" entirely.
[ 84 ]Barnes 4.32.
[ 85 ]ORGEE THEOU, [the] wrath of God (Marshall 604); anger, as the strongest of all passions, God's purposes in judgment (Vine 47); not punishment, but the personal emotion (Vincent 3.15); of God's wrath against sin in the present (Arndt 579); that in God which stands opposed to man's disobedience, obduracy [especially in resisting the gospel] and sin, and manifests itself in punishing the same (Thayer 452); God's anger (Williams); God's wrath (Lenski 89); see Romans 5:9.
[ 86 ]APOKALUPTETAI AP' OURANOU, is revealed from heaven (Marshall 604; Lenski 89); APOKALUPTETAI is third person singular, present passive indicative of APOKALUPTOO (Han 298); [APO from, KALUPTOO to cover], uncovered, unveiled (Vine 964); [opposite of KALUPTOO, cover up, hide, conceal], from heaven is being uncovered (Williams); reveal, disclose, bring to light, be revealed (Arndt 92); passive, of the thing which came to light from things done (Thayer 62); from heaven is being uncovered (Williams).
[ 87 ]EPI PASAN ASEBEIAN, against all impiety (Marshall 604); [against all] impiety, ungodliness, Vine 1182; irreligiousness (Vincent 3.15); godlessness, impiety in thought and act, of the religious condition of the heathen (Arndt 114); [against all] want of reverence toward God, impiety, ungodliness (Thayer 79); against all the impiety (Williams); upon all ungodliness (Lenski 89).
[ 88 ]KAI ADIKIAN ANTHROOPOON, and unrighteousness of men (Marshall 604; Lenski 89); ); unrighteousness, iniquity (Vine 1185); immorality, (Vincent 3.15); unrighteousness of heart and life (Thayer 12); unrighteousness, wickedness, injustice (Arndt 18); and wickedness of men (Williams).
[ 89 ]TOON TEEN ALEETHEIAN EN ADIKIA KATECHONTOON, the truth in unrighteousness holding fast (Marshall 604); KATECHONTOON is the present active participle, genitive plural masculine of KATECHOO (Han 298); present participle, of unrighteous men who restrain the spread of the truth by their unrighteousness, or, as ASV margin, "who hold the truth in [or with] unrighteousness," contradicting their profession by their conduct (Vine 554); not possess . . . hold down; that is, hinder or repress [the] divine truth generally, as apparent in all God's self-revelations (Vincent 3.15); hold down, suppress (Arndt 422); restrain, hinder [the course or progress of] (Thayer 339); who suppress the truth in unrighteousness (Lenski 89); who in their wickedness are suppressing the truth (Williams).
[ 90 ]Barnes 4.38; Macknight 58; Clarke 6.43; Whiteside 28.
[ 91 ]From Barnes 4.38.
[ 92 ]DIOTI TO GNOOSTON TOU THEOU, because the thing known of God (Marshall 604); GNOOSTON is an adjective, literally the knowable of God, referring to the physical universe, in the creation of which God has made himself knowable, that is, by the exercise of man's natural faculties, without such revelations as those given to Israel (Vine 630); that which is known, the universal sense in the NT signifying the universal objective knowledge of God as the Creator, which is, more or less, in all men, (Vincent 3.15); what can be known about God or God, to the extent that he can be known (Arndt 164); either that which may be known of God, or the same as GNOOSIS TOU THEOU, [knowledge of God] for both come to the same thing (Thayer 120); because what is known regarding God (Lenski 89); because what can be known of God (Williams).
[ 93 ]PHANERON ESTIN EN AUTOIS, manifest is among them (Marshall 604); ESTIN is third person singular, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 298); [PHAN shining, PHAINOO to cause to shine], open to sight, visible, manifest (Vine 708); in their heart and conscience (Vincent 3.15); visible, clear, plainly to be seen, open, plain, evident, known (Arndt 852); apparent, manifest, evident, known . . . in their minds (Thayer 648); is manifest in them (Lenski 89); is clear to their inner moral sense [literally, within them] (Williams).
[ 94 ]HO THEOS GAR AUTOIS EPHANEROOSEN, for God to them manifested [it] (Marshall 604); EPHANEROOSEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of PHANEROOO (Han 298); God has shown them what can be known about him (Arndt 852); of God teaching the Gentiles concerning himself by the works of nature (Thayer 648); for God manifested it to them (Lenski 89); for in this way [implied] God Himself has shown it to them (Williams).
[ 95 ]APO KTISEOOS KOSMOU, from [the] creation of [the] world (Marshall 604); primarily the acts of creating, or the creative act in process (Vine 247); the act of creating, creation (Thayer 363); from the world's creation (Lenski 89); for ever sense the creation of the world (Williams).
[ 96 ]AORATA, invisible things (Marshall 604) [A negative, HORAOO to see], invisible (Vine 599); either not seen, that is, unseen, or that which cannot be seen, that is, invisible, in the latter sense in Romans 1:20, his [God's] invisible nature [perfections] (Thayer 53); things unseen (Lenski 89); His invisible characteristics (Williams).
[ 97 ]KATHORATAI, is [are] clearly seen (Marshall 604); KATHORATAI is third person singular, present passive indicative of KATHORAOO (Han 298); present passive third person singular, perceive clearly, understand (Thayer 314); literally, look down [KATA down, HORAOO to see], seen clearly (Vine 1009); are fully seen (Lenski 89); and clearly visible (Williams).
[ 98 ]An oxymoron is the saying of opposites. An example is bittersweet.
[ 99 ]Arguments have been made about whether entropy operates in an open or closed system.
[ 100 ]Whiteside 32.
[ 101 ]NOOUMENA TOIS POIEEMASIN, being understood by the things made (Marshall 604); NOOUMENA is the present passive participle, nominative plural neuter of NOEOO (Han 298); perceived with the mind, understood; plural, made . . . of the creative acts of God (Vine 701, 845); with the accusative of the thing, perceived with the mind, understood; that which has been made, works, of the works of God as Creator (Thayer 426, 527); have been made intelligible by His works (Williams); by being perceived by means of the things made (Lenski 89). in the things that have been made, by the things he has created (Arndt 393, 689).
[ 102 ]AIDIOS AUTOU DUNAMIS, everlasting of him power (Marshall 604); [his] everlasting power, ability, might (Vine 377, 868); eternal, everlasting power, inherent power, the power of God (Thayer 14, 159); His eternal power (Williams); his everlasting power (Lenski 89).
[ 103 ]KAI THEIOTEES, and divinity (Marshall 604; Lenski 89); godhood, not godhead, signifies the sum-total of the divine attributes (Vincent 3.16); divinity, distinguished from THEOTES [Godhead] in Colossians 2:9 (Vine 320); divinity, divine nature (Thayer 285); and divine nature (Williams).
[ 104 ]EIS TO EINAI AUTOUS ANAPOLOGEENOUS, for the to be them without excuse (Marshall 604); EINAI is the present active infinitive of EIMI (Han 298); [A negative, N euphonic, APOLOGEOMAI to speak oneself off;hence, to plead for oneself, to defend], without excuse, inexcusable (Vine 388); without defense or excuse (Thayer 41); so that they are without excuse (Lenski 89); so they are without excuse (Williams).
[ 105 ]DIOTI GNONTES TON THEON, because knowing God (Marshall 604); GNONTES is the second aorist active participle, nominative plural masculine of GINOOSKOO (Han 298); took in knowledge, came to know, recognize, understand or understand completely (Vine 627); become acquainted with, know, employed in the NT of the knowledge of God and Christ, and of the things relating to them or proceeding from them, the one true God, in contrast with the polytheism of the Gentiles (Thayer 117); because, although they knew God (Lenski 101); because, although they once knew God (Williams).
[ 106 ]OUCH HOOS THEON EDOXASAN, not as God they glorified [him] (Marshall 604); EDOXASAN is third person plural, first aorist active indicative of DOXAZOO (Han 298); [did not] honor, do honor to, hold in honor, worship [Him as God] (Thayer 157); they did not honor Him as God (Williams); they did not glorify him as God (Lenski 101).
[ 107 ]EE EEUCHARISTEESAN, or thanked [him] (Marshall 604); EEUCHARISTEESAN is third person plural, first aorist active indicative of EUCHARISTEOO (Han 298); negatively, of the ungodly, [did not] give thanks (Vine 1134); first aorist, [neither] gave thanks; TO THEOO [to God] must be added mentally (Thayer 263); or give thanks (Lenski 101); or give Him thanks (Williams).
[ 108 ]ALLA EMATAIOOTHEESAN EN TOIS DIALOGISMOIS AUTOON, but became vain in the reasonings of them (Marshall 604); EMATAIOOTHEESAN is third person plural, first aorist passive indicative of MATAIOOO (Han 298); [made] vain or foolish [in their] thoughts, reasonings, inward questionings (Vine 925, 1193); were brought to folly in their thoughts, that is, fell into error [in] the reasoning of those who think themselves to be wise (Thayer 139, 392); but became silly in their senseless speculations (Williams); but became empty in their reasonings (Lenski 101).
[ 109 ]KAI ESKOTISTHEE HEE ASUNETOS AUTOON KARDIA, and was darkened the undiscerning of them heart (Marshall 604); ESKOTISTHEE is third person singular, first aorist passive indicative of SKOTIZOO (Han 298); [A negative, SUNIEEMI to understand], without understanding, [the] heart, the faculty and seat of intelligence [was] covered with darkness (Thayer 82, 325, 580).; they became foolish (Lenski 101); and so their insensible hearts have been shrouded in darkness (Williams); and their senseless heart became darkened (Lenski 101).
[ 110 ]"Patent" was used by Vincent in the sense of something open to public inspection.
[ 111 ]Vincent 3.16.
[ 112 ]PHASKONTES EINAI SOPHOI, asserting to be wise (Marshall 604); PHASKONTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of PHASKOO; EINAI is the present active infinitive of EIMI (Han 298); followed by an infinitive with a predicate nominative, affirming alleging, pretending or professing [to be] skilled in letters, cultivated, learned (Thayer 582, 650); alleging, affirming by way of alleging or professing [themselves to be] naturally learned (Vine 29, 1234); unfounded assertion (Vincent 3.18); they claimed to be wise (Arndt 531); though claiming to be wise (Williams); professing to be wise (Lenski 101).
[ 113 ]EMOORANTHEESAN, they became foolish (Marshall 604; Lenski 101); third person plural, first aorist passive indicative of MOORAINOO (Han 298); in the passive sense, became foolish (Vine 444); [they were] made foolish (Thayer 420); they became fools (Arndt 531); they made fools of themselves (Williams).
[ 114 ]KAI EELLAXAN TEEN DOXAN, and exchanged the glory (Marshall 604; Lenski 101); EELLAXAN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of ALLASSOO (Han 298); exchanged [the] glory; his "everlasting power and divinity" are spoken of as His glory, that is, His attributes and power as revealed through creation (Vine 172, 483); and have transformed the splendor (Williams).
[ 115 ]TOU APHTHARTOU THEOU, of the incorruptible God (Marshall 604; Lenski 101); [of the God] not liable to corruption or decay, incorruptible (Vine 236); [of the] imperishable, incorruptible, immortal [God] (Arndt 125); of the immortal God (Williams).
[ 116 ]EN HOMOIOOMATI EIKONOS, in[to] a likeness of an image (Marshall 604); in the abstract sense [for] the likeness [of an image] (Vine 674); for an image-likeness (Lenski 101); into images (Williams).
[ 117 ]PHTHARTOU ANTHROOPOU, of corruptible man (Marshall 604; Lenski 101); corruptible, of man as being mortal, liable to decay [in contrast to God] (Vine 236); in the form of mortal man (Williams).
[ 118 ]Vincent 3.18.
[ 119 ]KAI PETEINOON KAI TETRAPODOON, and birds and quadropeds (Marshall 604); and that which is able to fly, winged; [and] quadrupeds, four-footed beasts [from TETRA four, POUS a foot] (Vine 119, 459); birds, beasts (Williams); and of flying things and of four-footed things (Lenski 101).
[ 120 ]KAI HERPETOON, and reptiles (Marshall 604; Williams); [and] creeping things [HERPOO to creep; English serpent is from the same root] (Vine 248); and creeping things (Lenski 101).
[ 121 ]DIO, wherefore (Marshall 604); wherefore, on which account (Thayer 152); therefore, for this reason (Arndt 198); so (Williams); therefore (Lenski 108).
[ 122 ]PAREDOOKEN AUTOUS, gave up them (Marshall 604); PAREDOOKEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of PARADIDOOMI (Han 298); handed them over to the power of sin, Vincent 3.18; given over into [one's] power, caused [them] to become unclean (Thayer 481); he abandoned them to impurity (Arndt 615); has given them up (Williams); give them up did [God] (Lenski 108).
[ 123 ]EIS AKATHARSIAN, to uncleanness (Marshall 604; Lenski 108); [unto] uncleanness, in a moral sense, the impurity of lustful, luxurious profligate living (Thayer 21); to sexual impurity (Williams).
[ 124 ]EN TAIS EPITHUMIAIS TOON KARDIOON AUTOON, in the desires of the hearts of them (Marshall 604); with a genitive of the subject, desire, craving, longing, specially desire for what is forbidden (Thayer 238); in the lusts of their hearts (Lenski 108); in the evil trend of their heart's desires (Williams).
[ 125 ]TOU ATIMAZESTHAI TA SOOMATA AUTOON EN AUTOIS, to be dishonored the bodies of them among them[selves] (Marshall 604); ATIMAZESTHAI is the present passive infinitive of ATIMAZOO (Han 298); make to dishonor, insult, treat with contumely, whether in word, in deed, or in thought (Thayer 83); so that they degrade their own bodies with one another (Williams). "Contumely" is insolent rudeness.
[ 126 ]HOITINES METEELLAZAN, who changed (Marshall 604); METEELLAZAN is third person plural, first aorist active indicative of METALLASSOO (Han 298); for that they exchanged. The double relative specifies the class to which they belonged, and thereby includes the reason for their punishment. He gave them up as being those who, etc., METELLAZAN [exchanged] is stronger than the simple verb in verse 23; compare the same word in verse 26 (Vincent 3.19); exchanged one thing into another (Thayer 405); for they had utterly transformed (Williams); they such as exchanged (Lenski 108).
[ 127 ]TEEN ALEETHEIAN TOU THEOU, the truth of God (Marshall 604); equivalent to the true God (Vincent 3.19); the truth of which God is the author (Thayer 26); the reality of God (Williams); the truth regarding God (Lenski 108).
[ 128 ]Literally, "the lie."
[ 129 ]Vincent 3.19.
[ 130 ]EN TOO PSEUDEI, in[to] the lie (Marshall 604); exchanged for a lie, literally the lie, a general abstract expression for the whole body of false gods (Vincent 3.19); in a broad sense, whatever is not what it professes to be: so of perverse, impious, deceitful precepts . . . of idolatry (Thayer 676); literally, with a lie (Ellicott 208); for the lie (Lenski 108); into what was unreal [literally, the truth of God into what was false [images] (Williams).
[ 131 ]KAI ESEBASTHEESAN, and worshipped (Marshall 604, 605; Lenski 108; Williams); ESEBASTHEESAN is third person plural, first aorist passive indicative of SEBAZOMAI (Han 298); of worship generally (Vincent 3.19); in an active sense, honored religiously, worshipped (Thayer 572).
[ 132 ]KAI ELATREUSAN, and served (Marshall 605; Williams; Lenski 108); ELATREUSAN is third person plural, first aorist active indicative of LATREUOO (Han 298); of worship through special rites or sacrifices (Vincent 3.19; in the NT, rendered religious service or homage, worship (Thayer 372).
[ 133 ]TEE KTISEI, the creature (Marshall 605; Williams; Lenski 108); of individual things and beings, creatures, creation (Thayer 363); in Scripture always of the act of God . . . the natural creation, (Vine 247); .
[ 134 ]PARA TON KTISANTA, rather than the [one] having created (Marshall 605); "the Creator" translates the article with the aorist participle of the verb (Vine 247); the preposition indicates passing by the Creator altogether, not merely giving preference to the creature (Vincent 3.19); omitting or passing by the Creator (Thayer 478); rather than the Creator (Williams; Lenski 108).
[ 135 ]HOS ESTIN EULOGEETOS EIS TOUS AIOONAS, who is blessed unto the ages (Marshall 605); ESTIN is third person singular, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 298); EULOGEETOS is a biblical and ecclesiastical word, blessed, praised, applied to God (Thayer 260); applied only to God (Vine 125); who is blessed unto the eons (Lenski 108); who is blessed forever! (Williams); see notes on 2 Corinthians 1:3; 11:31.
[ 136 ]DIA TOUTO, therefore (Marshall 605); literally, on account of this, for this cause, signifying the ground or reason (Vine 167; for this (Lenski 112); this is why (Williams); see note on the same Greek words at Romans 4:16.
[ 137 ]PAREDOOKEN AUTOUS HO THEOS, gave up them God (Marshall 605); PAREDOOKEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of PARADIDOOMI (Han 298); [God] gave or handed over (Vine 479; give them up did God (Lenski 112); God has given them up (Williams); see note on verse 24.
[ 138 ]EIS PATHEE ATIMIAS, to passions of dishonor (Marshall 605); literally, passions of dishonor . . . PATHEE is the diseased condition out of which the lusts spring; EPITHUMIAI are evil longings; PATHEE, ungovernable affections (Vincent 3.19); bad desires [of] dishonor (Vine 281, 1199); to degrading passions (Williams); to passions of dishonor (Lenski 112).
[ 139 ]METEELLAZAN TEEN PHUSIKEEN CHREESIN, changed the natural use (Marshall 605); METEELLAZAN is third person plural, first aorist active indicative of METALLASSOO (Han 298); changed one thing according to nature for another, or into another (Vine 172, 774, 1190); [exchanged] the sexual use of a woman (Thayer 671); exchanged the natural use (Lenski 112); have exchanged their natural function (Williams).
[ 140 ]EIS TEEN PARA PHUSIN, to the [use] against nature (Marshall 605); that which is contrary to nature's laws, against nature (Thayer 660); for one that is unnatural (Williams); for that contrary to nature (Lenski 112).
[ 141 ]HOMOIOOS TE KAI HOI ARSENES, likewise and also the males (Marshall 605); and males too (Williams).
[ 142 ]APHENTES TEEN PHUSIKEEN CHREESIN TEES THEELEIAS, leaving the natural use of the female (Marshall 605); APHENTES is the second aorist active participle, nominative plural masculine of APHIEEMI (Han 298); having forsaken the natural function of females (Williams); having left the natural use of the female (Lenski 112); leaving, leaving alone, forsaking, neglecting the natural sexual use of the woman.
[ 143 ]EXEKAUTHEESAN, burned (Marshall (605); third person plural, first aorist passive indicative of EKKAIOO (Han 298); literally burned out, the preposition indicates the rage of the lust (Vincent 3.20); literally burned out, in the passive voice, kindled, burned up, used of the lustful passions of men (Vine 151); metaphorically of the fire and glow of the passions . . . of lust (Thayer 195); and been consumed (Williams); became inflamed (Lenski 112).
[ 144 ]EN TEE OREXEI AUTOON EIS ALLEELOUS, in the desire of them toward one another (Marshall 605); a reaching out for something with the purpose of appropriating it (Vincent 3.20); desire, longing, craving for; eager desire, lust, appetite; of lust, Romans 1:27 (Thayer 452); in their sensualness toward each other (Lenski 112); by flaming [implied in strong term for passion] passion for one another (Williams).
[ 145 ]ARSENES EN ARSENIN TEEN ASCHEEMOSUNEEN KATERGAZOMENOI, males among males the unseemliness working (Marshall 605); KATERGAZOMENOI is the present middle participle, nominative plural masculine of KATERGAZOMAI (Han 299); primarily want of form, disfigurement (Vine 704, 1029, 1186); unseemliness, unseemly deeds (Thayer 82); Plato contrasts it [ASCHEEMOSUNEEN unseemliness] with EUSCHEEMOSUNEE gracefulness (Vincent 3.20). males with males performing the unseemliness (Lenski 112); practicing shameful vice with other males (Williams).
[ 146 ]EN HEAUTOIS APOLAMBANONTES, in themselves receiving back (Marshall 605); APOLAMBANONTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of APOLAMBANOO (Han 299); receiving as one's due (Vine 927); receiving by way of retribution (Thayer 64); and duly receiving in themselves (Lenski 112); and continuing to suffer in their persons (Williams).
[ 147 ]KAI TEEN ANTIMISTHIAN TEES PLANEES, and the requital of the error (Marshall 605); [ANTI in return, MITHOS wages, hire] reward, requital (Vine 931); reward given in compensation, requital, recompense (Thayer 50); the recompense of their aberration (Lenski 112); the penalty for doing what is improper (Williams).
[ 148 ]I understand that through contaminated blood transfusions and the like innocent people may contract AIDS or some other loathsome disease.
[ 149 ]HEEN EDEI, which behoved (Marshall 605); EDEI is third person singular, imperfect active indicative of DEI (Han 299); the word [EDEI] expresses a necessity in the nature of the case in that which must needs be the consequence of violating the divine law, (Vincent 3.20); an impersonal verb signifying "what is necessary" (Vine 334); the recompense due by the law of God (Thayer 126); and duly (Lenski (Lenski 112); inevitable [literally, [penalty] that was necessary] (Williams).
[ 150 ]KAI KATHOOS OUK EDOKIMASAN, and as they thought not fit (Marshall 605); EDOKIMASAN is third person plural, first aorist active indicative of DOKIMAZOO (Han 299); they refused, they did not like, did not approve (Vine 938); in a causal sense . . . since, in so far as, they did not see fit (Arndt 202, 391); since, seeing that, agreeably, with the fact that, they did not think God worthy (Thayer 154a, 315); and even as they did not approve (Lenski 117); and so, as they did not approve (Williams).

[ 151 ]TON THEON ECHEIN EPIGNOOSEI, God to have in knowledge (Marshall 605); ECHEIN is the present active infinitive of ECHOO (Han 299); full knowledge, Vincent 3.21); to have a true knowledge of God (Arndt 202); to be kept in knowledge, that is, to keep the knowledge of the one true God which has illumined the soul (Thayer 154, 237); full knowledge (Vincent 3.21); God to have in realization (Lenski 117); hold fast, keep, metaphorically of the mind and conduct, To retain God in their knowledge to acknowledge God any longer, to have God in their knowledge, [God in their] exact or full knowledge; conduct, (Vine 529, 631); of fully recognizing God any longer (Williams).
[ 152 ]PAREDOOKEN AUTOUS HO THEOS, gave up them God (Marshall 605); PAREDOOKEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of PARADIDOOMI (Han 299); God gave them up (Williams); give them up did God (Lenski 117).
[ 153 ]EIS ADOKIMON NOUN, to a reprobate mind (Marshall 605; Lenski 117); literally, not standing the test (Vincent 3.21); [unto] a mind of which God cannot approve, and which must be rejected by him (Vine 955); [a mind] which does not prove itself to be such as it ought (Thayer 12); to minds that He did not approve (Williams).
[ 154 ]Vincent 3.21.
[ 155 ]POIEIN TA MEE KATHEEKONTA, to do the not being proper (Marshall 605); POIEIN is the present active infinitive of POIEOO (Han 299); to adopt a way of expressing by act the thoughts and feelings [not] befitting, proper (Vine 322, 436); what is [not] proper, duty (Arndt 389); things not fitting, that is, forbidden, shameful (Thayer 313); to do the things not fit (Lenski 117); to practices that were improper (Williams).
[ 156 ]PEPLEEROOMENOUS, having been filled (Marshall 605); the perfect passive participle, accusative plural masculine of PLEEROOO (Han 299); with dative of the thing, filled (Arndt 671); passive, [being] filled, diffused throughout one's soul (Thayer 517); made full, filled to the full, of the unregenerate who refuse recognition of God (Vine 426); because they overflow (William); having been filled (Lenski 117).
[ 157 ]PASEE ADIKIA, with all unrighteousness (Marshall 605; Lenski 117); characterized by [all] unrighteousness (Vine 38, 1185); every kind of, all sorts of unrighteousness, wickedness, injustice (Arndt 18, 631); unrighteousness of heart and life (Thayer 12); with every sort of evil-doing (Williams).
[ 158 ]PORNEEIA in the Received Text; see following footnote; notes on 1 Corinthians 6:13; Galatians 5:19.
[ 159 ]PONEERIA, wickedness (Marshall 605; Lenski 117); evil-doing (Williams); wickedness, baseness, maliciousness, sinfulness (Arndt 690); depravity, iniquity, wickedness (Thayer 530).
[ 160 ]PLEONEXIA, covetousness (Marshall 605; Lenski 117); [PLEON more, ECHOO to have], literally, a desire to have more, covetousness, always in a bad sense (Vine 245); greediness, insatiableness, avarice, covetousness (Arndt 667); greedy desire to have more, covetousness, avarice (Thayer 516); literally the desire of having more . . . the sinful desire which goes out after things of time and sense of every form and kind (Vincent 3.22); greed (Williams).
[ 161 ]KAKIA, evil (Marshall 605); badness in quality [the opposite of ARETEE, excellence], "the vicious character generally" [Lightfoot] (Vine 704); a special kind of moral inferiority, with other deficiencies, something like malice, ill-will, malignity (Arndt 397); malignity, malice, ill-will, desire to injure (Thayer 320); baseness (Lenski 117); and malice (Williams); see Ephesians 4:31; Colossians 3:8; Titus 3:3; James 1:21; 1 Peter 2:1.
[ 162 ]MESTOUS PHTHONOU, full of envy (Marshall 605; Lenski 117); probably akin to a root signifying to measure, hence conveys the sense of having full measure (Vine 466); stuffed (Vincent 3.22); full, filled with envy, jealousy (Arndt 508, 857); mind and thoughts filled with envy (Thayer 402; 652); they are full of envy (Williams).
[ 163 ]PHONOU, of murder (Marshall 605); singular, of murder in general (Vine 764); murder, killing, (Arndt 864); murder, slaughter (Thayer 657; murder (Lenski 117; Williams); see Galatians 5:21; 1 Peter 4:15.
[ 164 ]ERIDOS, of strife (Marshall 605); strife, contention is the expression of enmity (Vine 1095); strife, discord, contention (Arndt 309); contention, strife, wrangling (Thayer 249); strife (Lenski 117); quarreling (Williams).
[ 165 ]See any good English dictionary; compare the French word DEBATTRE, to beat down, contend.
[ 166 ]DOULOU, of guile (Marshall 605); [from DELOO to take with bait], primarily a bait, snare, hence, craft, deceit, guile (Vincent 271); deceit, cunning, treachery (Arndt 203); cunning (Lenski 117); deceit (Williams).
[ 167 ]Zerr 351.
[ 168 ]KAKOEETHIAS, of malignity (Marshall 605); [KAKOS bad, ETHOS manner], hence an evil disposition that tends to put the worst construction on everything, malice, malevolence, craftiness (Vine 704); malice, malignity, craftiness (Arndt 397); malevolence (Lenski 117); ill-will (Williams).
[ 169 ]PSITHURISTAS, whisperers (Marshall 605); whisperers, in an evil sense, those who do it clandestinely (Vine 1224); whisperers, tale-bearers (Thayer 893); they are secret backbiters (Williams); slanderous whisperers (Lenski 117).
[ 170 ]KATALALOUS, railers (Marshall 605); [KATA against, LALEOO to speak], backbiters (Vine 86); defamers, evil speakers (Thayer 332); slanderers (Arndt 412); backbiters, those guilty of open calumny (Vine 1224); open slanderers (Williams). Calumny is a false and malicious statement designed to hurt another.
[ 171 ]THEOSTUGEIS, God-haters (Marshall 605); hateful to God, exceptionally impious and wicked (Thayer 288); all classical usage is in favor of the passive sense, but all the other items in the list are active . . . Meyer defends the passive on the ground that the term is a summary of what precedes. The weight of authority is on this side (Vine 3.24); hateful to God (Williams).
[ 172 ]Clement of Rome (35) cited by Staniforth 41.
[ 173 ]HUBRISTAS, insolent (Marshall 605; Williams); violent, injurious, insolent (Vine 593); an insolent man, "one who, uplifted with pride, either heaps insulting language upon others or does them some shameful act of wrong (Thayer 634).
[ 174 ]HUPEREEPHANOUS, arrogant (Marshall 605); [HUPER over, PHAINOMAI to appear], always used in the NT in the evil sense of arrogant, disdainful, haughty (Vine 528); with an overweening estimate of one's means or merits, despising others or even treating them with contempt, haughty (Thayer 641); haughty (Williams). Overweening means excessively proud, arrogant or conceited. The proud and haughty exalt themselves.
[ 175 ]ALAZONAS, boasters (Marshall 605); [ALE wandering], boasters (Vine 128); swaggerers, not necessarily implying contempt or insult (Vincent 3.24); empty pretenders, boasters (Thayer 25); compare ALAZONES boasters (2Ti 3:2).
[ 176 ]EPHEURETAS KAKON, inventors of evil things (Marshall 605); inventors, contrivers [of] morally or ethically evil . . . emotions, passions, deeds (Vine 599); inventors, contrivers [of] evil things, what is contrary to law, either divine or human, wrong, crime (Thayer 265, 320); inventors of cruelties (Lenski 117).
[ 177 ]GONEUSIN APEITHEIS, to parents disobedient (Marshall 605; Lenski 117); [A negative, PEITHOO to persuade], unwilling to be persuaded, spurning belief, disobedient to begetters, fathers (Vine 311, 831); impersuasible, uncompliant, contumacious [to] begetters, parents (Thayer 55, 120); undutiful to parents (Williams. "Contumacious" means to be stubbornly insubordinate, disobedient.
[ 178 ]ASUNETOUS, undiscerning (Marshall 605); without understanding or discernment (Vine 1182); unintelligent, without understanding . . . because a wicked man has no mind for the things which make for salvation (Thayer 82); senseless (Lenski 117); conscienceless [literally, without intelligence (moral)] (Williams). see note on verse 21).
[ 179 ]Coffman 56, 57.
[ 180 ]ASUNTHETOUS, faithless (Marshall 605); not covenant-keeping, that is, refusing to abide by covenants made, covenant-breaking, faithless . . . presumes a state of peace interrupted by the unrighteous (Vine 244); covenant-breaking, faithless (Thayer 82); merciless (Lenski 117); treacherous (Williams).
[ 181 ]ASTORGOUS, without natural affection (Marshall 604); [A negative, STORGEE love of kindred, especially of parents] (Vine 29); without natural affection, Thayer 82); with no human love (Williams).
[ 182 ][ASPONDOUS in the Received Text A negative, SPONDEE a libation], literally without libation, that is, without a truce, as a libation accompanied the making of treaties and compacts, then one who cannot be persuaded to enter into a covenant, implacable (Vine 580).
[ 183 ]ANELEEEMONAS, unmerciful (Marshall 605); that cannot be persuaded to enter into a covenant, implacable (Thayer 81); presumes a state of war which the implacable refuse to terminate equitably (Vine 244); [A negative, N euphonic, ELEEMON merciful], without mercy] (Vine 1184; without mercy, merciless (Thayer 44); no pity (Williams).
[ 184 ]EPIGNONTES, knowing (Marshall 606); the second aorist active participle, nominative plural masculine of EPIGINOOSKOO (Han 299); [EPI upon, GINOOSKOO to know], suggests generally a directive, a more special recognition of the object known than does GINOOSKOO; it may also suggest advanced knowledge or special appreciation . . . knowing full well (Vine 629); having realized (Lenski 117); know full well (Williams)
[ 185 ]TO DIKAIOOMA TOU THEOU, the ordinance of God (Marshall 606); an ordinance, righteous act, that is, what God has declared to be right, referring to his decree of retribution (Vine 612, 614); ordinance (Vincent 3.24); the righteous ordinance of God (Lenski 117); God's sentence (Williams).
[ 186 ]HOTI HOI TA POIAUTA PRASSONTES, that the such things [ones] practicing (Marshall 606); PRASSONTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of PRASSOO (Han 299); practice (Vine 870); that those who practice such things (Williams); that those practicing such things (Lenski 117).
[ 187 ]AXIOI THANATOU EISIN, worthy of death are (Marshall 606); EISIN is third person plural, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 299); deserve to die (Williams); of weight, worth, worthy, in a bad sense (Vine 1249); are worthy of death (Lenski 117).
[ 188 ]OU MONON AUTA POIOUSIN, not only them do (Marshall 606); POIOUSIN is third person plural, present active indicative of POIEOO (Han 299); [not only] do, adopt a way of expressing by act [such] thoughts and feelings (Arndt 322); not only practice them (Williams); not only keep doing them (Lenski 117).
[ 189 ]ALLA KAI SUNEUDOKOUSIN, but also consent to (Marshall 606); SUNEUDOKOUSIN is third person plural, present active indicative of SUNEUDOKEOO (Han 299); literally, think well with, consenting in doing evil (Vine 221); agree with, approve of, consent to, sympathize with, with dative of the person, approve of [them] (Arndt 788); be pleased at the same time with, consent, agree to, with a dative of a person applaud (Thayer 604)but even applaud (Williams); but also keep applauding (Lenski 117).

Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Lakeside, California, U.S.A.
This material may be copied for personal study only.
It may not be distributed or published in any form whatever
without the copyright owner's written permission.
This copyright notice must be included on all copies made.

The basic text, and all quotations not designated otherwise, are from the New King James Version, copyrighted ©1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. All rights reserved. Used by permission. Bracketed alternatives are drawn from various sources such as the ASV, Darby, KJV and RSV. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.

Published in The Old Paths Archive (

To the Index