The Letter to the Romans
Chapter 13
Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Lakeside, California

This chapter[ 1 ] has three main points. The duty of Christians toward civil government. Christians should love one another. Be clothed upon with Christ (see chart ROMANS 13 OUTLINE).


    1. Duty of Christians toward government (Ro 13:1-7). 2. Love one another (Ro 13:8-10).
    3. Be clothed upon with Christ (Ro 13:11-14).


The Jews tried to array Jesus against Caesar. They said He was a rival king (Lu 23:2). During His trial, they cried out to Pilate:

If you let this Man go, you are not Caesar's friend. Whoever makes himself a king speaks against Caesar (Joh 19:12)

At Thessalonica, Paul was accused by the Jews of preaching "another king-- Jesus" (Ac 17:7). This is interesting because the Jews themselves were galled under Roman subjection. The Zealot party fanatically resisted the Romans. There was a controversy among Jews about paying taxes to a foreign government (Rome). When the Jews from various sects obeyed the gospel, for a while, some of them held on to a few of their old prejudices. Although they hated the payment of taxes, Jesus taught his followers to pay them (Mt 22:17-21; Mk 12:14-17; Lu 22:22-25). The consistent teaching of the Scriptures is that Christians should pay taxes, obey the laws and pray for rulers (see Mt 5:25, 26; 1Ti 2:1, 2; Tit 3:1; 1Pe 2:13-15). Without this teaching Roman persecution would undoubtedly have been worse than it was.

Civil obedience is right because it is God's will. Those who resist established government receive just penalties (see Ro 13:2, 3; paragraph on CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE below; note on Be subject at verse 1).

The Roman government changed hands rather rapidly and unexpectedly during the first century. Caligula reigned AD 37-41. Claudius was poisoned in AD 54. At age 31, Nero committed suicide in AD 68. Murder of an existing ruler was one way the throne was seized. Was each Caesar "ordained by God"? Yes. Even the Roman destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70 was carried out by "his armies," that is, God's (Mt 22:1-7).

The terrible persecution by Nero began after the great fire in Rome (AD 64). Paul wrote the Roman letter about seven years prior to that (AD 57). To argue that Christians were not required to submit to an evil regime because the existing Roman government was benevolent is to forget that the Holy Spirit knew the corruption of the Roman state and that persecution was coming on the church just as surely as Christ knew Jerusalem would be destroyed (see His remarks in Mt 24:2-41; Mk 13:2-30; Lu 21:5-36). Later Christians, some of whom wrote documents during Roman persecution, continued to confirm what Christ, Paul and Peter taught, namely, that Christians should pay taxes and obey the civil authorities.[ 2 ]

What would the world be like without civil government? Consider the riots and lootings by lawless people. Bad civil government is probably a little better than total anarchy.[ 3 ]


Is there ever a time when a Christian should disobey civil government? Yes, when that government contradicts the plain teaching of God (Ac 5:29). Even then one needs to be very careful. Christ refused to let Peter keep on defending Him with the sword. Yet Christ knew that His own arrest was unfair (Mt 26:51, 52; Mk 14:47; Joh 18:10, 11). There has been controversy about Roman laws protecting the institution of slavery. Paul did not act in contradiction to those laws when he returned a runaway slave to his master (Phm 10-12, 17; compare Eph 6:5-9; Col 3:22; 4:1; 1Ti 6:1, 2; Tit 2:9; 1Pe 2:18, 19).


13:1 Let every soul be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and the authorities that exist are appointed by God.

Let every soul [let every person, everyone is to].[ 4 ] The Roman letter was written to both Jews and Gentiles . None is exempt from its teaching. There is no excuse for anyone of any nation not to be a good citizen. Paul taught that all ages, races and religions are to submit to the civil authorities.

Be subject [be in subjection, submit to].[ 5 ] Obedience to civil government is demanded except when the demand is sinful. For example, the Egyptian midwives were right to refuse to kill the boy babies (Ex 1:17). When Israel entered Canaan, they were not required to obey the existing rulers. When Nebuchadnezzar commanded that his golden image be worshipped, Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego appropriately refused. God's honor of their civil disobedience was confirmed by the divine protection from harm in the fiery furnace (Da 3:5, 6, 17, 18, 25). In about AD 95, when Caesar-worship was demanded, many Roman Christians suffered death rather than submit to a government requirement to become guilty of idolatry.

How much rebellion against rulers is allowed? The example of God's OT prophets may help. As a general rule, the prophets were respectful of governing authorities. After Moses killed the abusive Egyptian, he feared governmental reprisals and so escaped into Midian (Ex 2:11, 12). When he returned to Egypt, he followed God's instructions and made request to Pharaoh for the release of the Hebrew slaves (Ex 4:23; 5:1; 6:11; 7:16). Moses stretched the favor of Pharaoh to the limit. Elijah's contest with the prophets of Baal was in rebellion to Queen Jezebel and King Ahab (1Ki 18:20-21:2). Daniel also was divinely protected from the lions after he disregarded the king's 30-day decree not petition anyone else (Da 6:7-9, 22). They did not "reject" or "despise" authority nor did they "speak evil at dignitaries" (Jude 8; compare 2Pe 2:10). Christians would do well to follow their example.


    (Ro 13:1)

    1. Therefore know this day, and consider it in your heart, that the LORD Himself is God in heaven
    above and on the earth beneath; there is no other
    (De 4:39).
    2. You reign over all. In Your hand is power and might (1Ch 29:12).
    3. The LORD sits as King forever (Ps 29:10; compare 47:2; 83:18; 93:1).
    4. Whatever the LORD pleases He does (Ps 135:6).
    5. And He changes the times and the seasons; he removes kings and raises up kings
    (Da 2:21; see 4:17, 25, 32, 34, 35).


    (Ro 13:1)

    1. God, who made the world and everything in it, since He is Lord of heaven and earth, does not dwell in temples made with hands (Ac 17:24).
    2. But indeed, O man, who are you to reply against God? (Ro 9:20).
    3. For there is no authority except from God, and the authorities that exist are appointed by God
    (Ro 13:1).

To the governing authorities [unto the higher powers, the authorities that are above, the government which is over, him].[ 6 ] God's authority is over and above all civil government, here called "governing authorities" or "higher powers."

For there is no authority except from God [for there is no power but of God].[ 7 ] The Jews may have thought theirs was the only governmental power authorized by heaven's throne. On the other hand, Paul implies that in all lands including Italy existing governments are of God. This does not mean that unrighteous civil laws are justified simply because God backs civil authorities. Neither are civil rulers exempt from committing sin just because God ordains them. Even though Pilate was governor, his handling of Christ was sinful. "Mob action" sins were not an innocent diversion either. In fact, what the Jews did to Christ was worse in God's sight than what the Roman governor did.

You could have no power at all against Me unless it had been given you from above. Therefore the one who delivered Me to you has the greater sin (Joh 19:11).



    (Ro 13:1-4)

    1. Abortion.
    2. Auto registration.
    3. Child care.
    4. Divorce for any cause.
    5. Economic welfare.
    6. Highway system.
    7. Liquor and tobacco laws.



    (Ro 13:1-4)

    1. Medical insurance.
    2. Public education.
    3. Social security.
    4. Space exploration.
    5. Support of homosexuality.
    6. Support of humanism.
    7. War on drugs.

And the authorities that exist [and those that exist, and all of them, for governments].[ 8 ] "The authorities that exist" were governments that existed at the time Paul wrote the Romans letter and by extension other governmental systems even during the present century.

Are appointed by God [are set up, have been instituted, are ordained of, by, are under, God]. [ 9 ] Whatever government is in power is set in order under God. Even Pilate received his authority "from above." Jesus said to him:

A Christian may come into conflict with an irritating tax rule, a speed restriction or a smoking ordinance that, to some, makes little sense. Yet, in honor to Christ, he submits in obedience.


13:2 Therefore whoever resists the authority resists the ordinance of God, and those who resist will bring judgment on themselves.

Therefore whoever resists the authority [therefore whosoever, he who, he that, so that he that, resisteth, sets himself in opposition to, the authorities, the power].[ 10 ] "Whoever" is general. It applies to Christians and non-Christians alike. Anyone who disobeys civil government opposes what God has instituted. This is reason enough to obey the laws. Another reason not to resist authority is because it is God-ordained for the good of the citizens.

Resists [withstandeth, resisteth, has set himself in opposition to].[ 11 ] To oppose, resist or rebel against the government is to withstand or set oneself against it. The occasional lapse or failure to obey the letter of the law is not in view here (but see 1Pe 2:13-15).

The ordinance of God [what God has appointed, God's ordinance].[ 12 ] God ordained or set in place civil government. The man who resists what He set in place, opposes God.

And those who resist [and they that withstand, who [thus] resist, oppose God's ordinance].[ 13 ] Resistance or opposition in the present verse is against the authority, the power or the ordinance of God.

Will bring judgment on themselves [will incur, shall receive, shall bring damnation, sentence of guilt, condemnation to, upon, themselves].[ 14 ] Verse 3 suggests the civil rulers will judge, sentence and punish those who withstand. Christians are not to commit sin by resisting established rulers.[ 15 ]

Therefore submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake, whether to the king as supreme, or to governors, as to those who are sent by him for the punishment of evildoers and for the praise of those who do good (1Pe 2:13, 14).


13:3, 4 For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to evil. Do you want to be unafraid of the authority? Do what is good, and you will have praise from the same. 4 For he is God's minister to you for good. But if you do evil, be afraid; for he does not bear the sword in vain; for he is God's minister, an avenger to execute wrath on him who practices evil.

For rulers [for the rulers].[ 16 ] Rulers may not be Christians but they are still servants of God. Their God-ordained mission is to uphold the good and oppose the evil. They are obligated to enact ordinances according to the good teaching of the Bible. Those rulers who work against God's people and those who promote humanism, abortion on demand or the practice of homosexuality are in blatant violation of God's will and will answer to Him at the judgment.

Are not a terror.[ 17 ] God has appointed that rulers cause evil-doers to fear. He expects rulers to be a terror to evil doers. When evil men and women are punished, the government is functioning within its divinely-ordained realm. However, this does not ensure a persecution-free government anymore than God's rules for moral living make everybody righteous (see note on Be subject at verse 1).

To good works [to good conduct, to a, to the, good work].[ 18 ] Generally speaking, rulers are not a terror to good people. Exceptions include the casting of Jeremiah into a pit, Daniel to the lions, the three Hebrews into the fiery furnace, the unfair judgment of Christ, the execution of James (Ac 12:2), the arrest and beheading of Paul, as well as the persecution of Christians by Nero and others.

But for evil [but evil, the evil, to bad, an evil one]. Rulers are divinely instructed to be a terror to evil. That is, they should incite fear in those who would choose to commit crimes. Governors are sent by the king to punish criminals (1Pe 2:14).

Do you want to be unafraid of the authority? [wilt thou then, would you have, and wouldest thou have, dost thou desire then not be, not to be, afraid, to have no fear of, the power, him who is in authority?].[ 19 ] [ 20 ] Like all people, Christians are motivated by hope of reward and by fear of punishment. Fear should be a strong deterrent to crime. A backlog of court cases, delayed trials, over-crowded jails and lenient judges do little to deter crime.

Because the sentence against an evil work is not executed speedily, therefore the heart of the sons of men is fully set in them to do evil (Ec 8:11).

Do what is good [then do, practise, that which is, good].[ 21 ] Obedience to a higher law than civil government prompts the Christian to do what is right. If one consistently does good, he has little cause to fear. He should not have to fear governmental authorities because rulers are obligated to appreciate good, peaceful and patriotic citizens. Even if government should fail in this and should execute Christians for their faith, they do not really need to fear the persecutors, nor eternity (see Mt 10:28; Heb 10:31).

And you will have praise from the same [and receive, and thou shalt have, receive, his approval, praise from it, of it, of the same].[ 22 ] It is the responsibility of civil government to commend, encourage and praise that which is good.


    (Ro 13:1-4)

    1. In the OT, put away or put to death:
    a. Homosexuals (Le 20:13; 1Ki 15:11, 12).
    b. Mediums and spiritists (2Ki 23:24, 25).
    c. Idolatry (2Ki 3:2; 2Ch 15:8).
    2. Praise good works (Ro 13:3.
    3. Cause fear in those who would do evil (Ro 13:3).
    4. An avenger (Ro 13:4).
    5. Wrath [taxes paid for that] (Ro 13:5, 6).

[13:4] For he is God's minister [for it is God's servant, a, the, minister of God].[ 23 ] Rulers are in God's arrangement of things. They are "appointed by God" (verse 1). Some translators opt to render ESTIN it is.[ 24 ] Others render it "he is."[ 25 ] Civil government is to be a servant of God. It is divinely authorized to carry out His will.

To you for good [for your good, to thee for good, to do you good].[ 26 ] The pronoun SOI[ 27 ] to you refers to Christians, to those to whom the Roman letter was addressed. Thus rulers have a divine obligation to do positive good to and for Christians and encourage others to do the same. Under the broad heading "for good," government has assumed many things that may or may not be divinely intended as functions of the state (see charts DUTIES OF THE STATE; THINGS ASSUMED BY THE STATE NOT SPECIFIED IN SCRIPTURE A and B).

But if you do evil [but if thou do wrong, that which is evil, practisest evil]. [ 28 ] There is a possibility that a Christian may commit a crime. Whoever does so ought to expect punishment.

Be afraid [fear].[ 29 ] Punishment for crimes should be executed justly and quickly in order to instill fear in other would-be criminals. When the criminal justice system becomes so inefficient that criminals have little fear of it, it has failed in this aspect of its divinely-ordained mission (see note on verse 3).

For he does not bear [for it bears not, beareth not].[ 30 ] The tense of the Greek verb implies the bearing of the sword is a constant, continuous and never-ending responsibility of civil government. Very few countries have been able to long exist without some kind of police force.

The sword in vain [the sword without cause].[ 31 ] "The sword" stands for that which is used to punish criminals, particularly to execute them. One of the Ten Commandments plainly stated "You shall not RATSACH murder" (Ex 20:13). Nevertheless, under OT Law, civil government had authority to carry out capital punishment. In speaking of legal justice, the Lord said, "The man shall surely HARAG be put to death" (Nu 15:35; compare Ge 9:6). According to Paul, a similar principle holds true for civil government in the church age.

For he is God's minister [he is, for it is, God's servant, a, the, servant, minister, of God].[ 32 ] This phrase occurs twice in this verse (see previous note on For he is God's minister). As a minister or servant of God, civil government has a responsibility to know God's will and obey it.

An avenger to execute wrath [a revenger, for wrath, to execute wrath, his wrath].[ 33 ] Christians do not have the right to take the law into their own hands or carry out personal vengeance. It is, however, God's will that civil government should punish criminals.

On him who practices evil [on the evildoer, wrongdoer, to him, upon him, that does, that doeth, evil].
[ 34 ] "Him" or "the one" is general and applies to Christian and non-Christian alike. Civil magistrates should not show partiality. They are not interested in granting clemency to a law-breaker just because he happens to be a Christian.


13:5 Therefore you must be subject, not only because of wrath but also for conscience' sake.

Therefore [wherefore].[ 35 ] Three reasons are given for Christians to be in subjection. First, the government is God's minister for good (verse 4). Secondly, it is an avenger that brings wrath (also verse 4; see next three paragraphs). Thirdly, one should obey the laws of the land for conscience sake (verse 5).

You must be subject [one must be, ye must needs be,
it is necessary to be, in subjection].[ 36 ] Subjection to civil rulers is commanded. Reasons are listed above.

Not only because of wrath [not only for, on account of, wrath, to avoid God's wrath, the wrath].[ 37 ] One reason Paul gives for Christians to obey civil government is in order to avoid the penalty for disobedience.

But also for conscience' sake [but because of, also for the sake of, on account of, conscience].[ 38 ] Another reason for Christians to be law-abiding is that God commands it. Since He commands it, conscience demands it (see 1Pe 2:13, 14).


13:6 For because of this you also pay taxes, for they are God's ministers attending continually to this very thing.

For because of this [for for, this cause,
the same reason, on this account]. [ 39 ] Paul gave reasons for Christians to pay taxes (see verses 4, 5). Another reason is conscience. The government is expected to bring wrath upon those who practice evil.

You also pay taxes [ye pay, pay ye, tribute also].[ 40 ] Tribute is another word for taxes, especially property and poll taxes. Christians are to submit to the laws of their country and pay their taxes.

For they are God's ministers [for the authorities are God's officers, God's servants, ministers of God, ministers of God's service].
[ 41 ] Rulers are divinely ordained to serve God and carry out His will on earth. Since His will is for good and against evil, rulers are obligated to be for the good of the people and opposed to their harm.

Attending continually [devoting themselves].[ 42 ] The work of the government in punishing criminals is demanding, continuous and never-ending (see Ro 12:12).

To this very thing [on, upon, this very thing].[ 43 ] "This very thing" refers back to verses 4, 5 and the duty of the government to punish offenders.


13:7 Render therefore to all their due: taxes to whom taxes are due, customs to whom customs, fear to whom fear, honor to whom honor.


    (Ro 13:7)

    1. Be subject, obey (Ro 13:1; Tit 3:1; 1Pe 2:13-15).
    a. Exception: Obey God rather than men (Ac 5:29).
    2. Fear, honor, do not resist (Ro 13:2; 1Pe 2:17).
    3. Pay taxes, tribute, custom (Ro 13:7).
    4. Pray (1Ti 2:1, 2).
    5. Be ready for every good deed (Tit 3:1).

Render therefore to all their due [pay to all you owe, all of them, render to all, their dues].[ 44 ] The dues Christians owe the government include submission, honor, taxes and any required good work (see chart OBLIGATIONS TO GOVERNMENT).

What if the administration is evil? I do not understand the Scriptures to allow Christians to disobey it even then (see note on Ac 5:29). When Paul wrote this very letter, there was a fair amount of corruption in the Roman government and more was looming on the horizon.

It is an abomination for kings to commit wickedness, for a throne is established by righteousness (Pr 16:12).

Taxes to whom taxes are due [tribute to whom tribute, to whom tribute is due].[ 45 ] "Tribute" is a tax that may be levied on, but not limited to, persons. The word is broad enough to include income and property taxes.

Customs to whom customs [revenue to whom revenue is due, custom to whom custom, to whom custom, custom, tax to whom tax].
[ 46 ] "Customs" are taxes levied on goods. Gasoline, luxury, cigarette, import and sales taxes are examples (see note on verse 6).

Fear to whom fear [respect to whom respect is due, to whom fear, fear].[ 47 ] Christians are to give honor and respect to the existing authorities, that is to government officials.

Honor to whom honor [honor to whom honor is due, to whom honour, honour].
[ 48 ] Paul once called to attention the OT command not to curse a ruler of your people (Ac 23:5; compare Ex 22:28). David refused to strethc out his hand against "the Lord's anointed" (1Sa 24:6). Solomon advised not to curse the king "even in your thought" (Ec 10:20). Jude listed speaking evil of dignitaries along with filthy dreaming and defiling the flesh (Jude 8).

Honor all people. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honor the king (1Pe 2:17).


    (Ro 13:7)

    1. In God's sight, is civil government necessary?
    2. Does He set it up or ordain it?
    3. Can or does He put it down?
    4. Does it have a right to enact bad laws?
    5. Can it legislate about Bible teaching and morals?
    6. Should it provide freedom of true worship? Freedom of false worship?
    7. Is it right for for it to legislate what violates man's conscience (Ps 33:12; Isa 60:12)?
    8. Does it have the right to persecute religious people?


13:8 Owe no one anything except to love one another, for he who loves another has fulfilled the law.

Owe no one anything.[ 49 ] Before contracting a debt, one should ask himself the reason for it. A debt made for vanity, pride or from covetousness is wrong. A debt made in order to "keep up" with others is in serious question. A debt that hurts the church, one's family or others is bad. Some have argued that all buying on credit is sinful. I disagree. As long as the payments are kept current, installment buying does not violate the command to love one another. My view is that a debt is not "owed" until it is due or past due.


    (Ro 13:8)

    1. Pay obligations of obedience and taxes to government (Ro 13:1-7).
    2. Owe nothing to anyone except to love one another (Ro 13:8).
    3. Love does no harm to a neighbor (Ro 13:10).
    4. Christians pay their bills [on time].
    5. Sinful to owe "bad debts" that wrong another.
    6. Make satisfactory arrangements to pay outstanding debts.


It is never right to "skip out" without paying the last few months' rent. It is a sin to buy on credit and then move with no forwarding address and no intention to pay. Such schemes are dishonest. On the other hand, it is an abomination for the "provider" to sell inferior or unusable goods or to charge for repairs not made. A landlord who bleeds tenants for all the rent he can get but fails to provide a livable environment is despicable.

Except to love one another [save to, but to, unless to, love one another].[ 50 ] Love given away is not lost. It is the only debt that can never be completely repaid. To whom does one owe a debt of love? To God, one's spouse, children, parents, the lost, enemies, and others. Specifically, "one another," in the present context, alludes to Christians (see Mt 22:37, 38; 1Co 13:1-8; Col 3:14; note above on Owe no man anything).


    (Ro 13:8)

    1. A little sleep, a little slumber, a little folding of the hands to rest; So shall your poverty come like a prowler, and your need like an armed man
    (Pr 24:33, 34).
    2. Not lagging in diligence, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord (Ro 12:11).
    3. Let him who stole steal no longer, but rather let him labor, working with his hands what is good, that he may have something to give him who has need
    (Eph 4:28).
    4. Aspire to lead a quiet life, to mind your own business, and to work with your own hands, as we commanded you (1Th 4:11).

For he who loves another [for he that loveth his neighbor, the other].[ 51 ] HETEROS another or neighbor usually means another of a different sort. However, that meaning should not be dogmatically insisted upon here. The Greek suggests that Christians are to love others who are different. They are not allowed to freely choose to love only those "others" with whom they have everything in common. They are to love people dirty and clean, ignorant and educated, old and young, red and yellow, poor and rich, pretty and ugly, fat and thin, normal and handicapped, far and near, enemies and friends.


Has fulfilled the law [hath fulfilled the law].[ 52 ] Obedience to God is not complete until one loves his neighbor. Jesus pointed out that OT Laws stemmed from the commands to love God and man (Mt 22:37-40; Mk 12:29-31; Lu 10:27, 28). However, in the present verse, the law to be fulfilled is the law of Christ (see Ga 6:2). Since love "does no harm to a neighbor" (verse 10), and since love is to be "in deed and in truth" (1Jo 3:18), we may conclude that the debt of love is paid by doing good (and no ill) to others. Love does not excuse or compromise with sin. Instead, it motivates one to obey even the detailed commandments of God (verse 9; compare Lu 11:42; Joh 14:15; 15:10; 1Jo 2:5; 5:3). It does not authorize the violation of a single NT command. On the contrary, it enjoins the keeping of them all.


13:9 For the commandments, "You shall not commit adultery," "You shall not murder," "You shall not steal," "You shall not bear false witness," "You shall not covet," and if there is any other commandment, are all summed up in this saying, namely, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself."

For the commandments [for, for this, the commandments].[ 53 ] Although the phrase "the commandments" does not appear in the first part of this verse in the Greek, translators appropriately supply it. Those who do so looked ahead in the verse to the phrase "any other commandment." The commandments mentioned are similar to those in Exodus 20:13-17 and Deuteronomy 5:17-20 except that they are not complete and are in a different order.[ 54 ] Because of the unusual order, some have imagined that Paul was following Christ or James rather than the OT. Note that all the commandments Paul lists are NT commandments also. "You shall love your neighbor" was not one of the Ten Commandments. It was first recorded in Leviticus 19:18. This commandment has a NT counterpart too. Christ enjoins loving others as He loved us (Joh 13:34; 15:12).

You shall not commit adultery [thou shalt not commit adultery].[ 55 ] Adultery is sexual intercourse between parties one of whom is married but not to each other. It is expressly forbidden in the NT (see 1Co 6:9; 2Pe 2:14). It is also forbidden by implication in the command to love one's neighbor. This commandment shows that the Lord honors marriage. Obedience to the command against adultery protects the family from destruction due to infidelity that is so flagrant in our day.

    (Ro 13:9)

    1. Civil laws of persons
    a. Father and son.
    b. Husband and wife.
    c. Master and slave.
    d. Strangers.
    2. Laws about things
    a. Land and possessions.
    b. Debt.
    c. Taxation, royal revenue.
    (Barnham 535, 536)

    (Ro 13:9)

    1. Criminal laws
    a. Against God.
    b. Against man.
    2. Judicial and constitutional
    a. Jurisdiction.
    b. The power of the king and princes.

    (Barnham 535, 536)

    (Ro 13:9)

    1. Ecclesiastical and ceremonial laws
    a. Sacrifices (burnt, meal, peace, sin offerings).
    b. Special sacrifices (consecration of priests, purification of women, cleansing of lepers, day of atonement, great festivals).
    c. Laws of holiness (people, priests, places, things, times).
    (Barnham 535, 536)

You shall not murder [you shall not kill, thou shalt not kill].[ 56 ] The words RATSACH (Hebrew) and PHONEUSEIS (Greek) appear in commands that condemn murder.[ 57 ] A reason that murder is wrong is because life is the basic and ultimate possession of a human being. Murder is also a sin against man who is made in the image of God (see Ge 1:26; 5:1; 9:6). Most of the reasons not to murder apply against premeditated abortion.

You shall not steal [thou shalt not steal].[ 58 ] Certain possessions are absolutely essential to man's well-being. Among these are food and covering (see Pr 30:8; 1Ti 6:8). Whether or not an item is indispensable to daily life, it is a sin to steal anything. White collar crime is just as heinous as burglary.

You shall not bear false witness [thou shalt not bear false witness]. This command is omitted in most revised Greek texts. In reciting the commandments to the rich young ruler Jesus included it (Mt 19:18; Mk 10:19; Lu 18:20). In Exodus and Deuteronomy, it was limited to bearing false witness "against your neighbor" (Ex 20:16; De 5:20). In the present chapter, the command is general enough to include all kinds of false witness such as perjury, libel, misrepresentation, slander, vilification or defamation of character.

You shall not covet [thou shalt not lust].[ 59 ] Covetousness is a secret sin of the heart. It is an intense desire. In the present context, it is especially a desire for forbidden or evil activities involving self, persons or things. It frequently leads to impure or immoral acts. Paul said a covetous man "is an idolater" (Eph 5:5).

Therefore put to death your members which are on the earth: fornication, uncleanness, passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry (Col 3:5).


    (Ro 13:9)

    1. Like fornication, it is a sin against God (Ge 39:9).
    2. It is plainly forbidden (Ga 5:19; Eph 5:5).
    3. It is unlike Christ in His faithfulness to the church (Eph 5:25-32).
    4. Its sinfulness is implied by the command to love one's neighbor.
    5. It causes deep-seated and inconceivably dreadful harm to the family.

    (Ro 13:9)

    1. Laws of pardon.
    a. Alien sinner (hear, believe, repent, confess Christ, be baptized).
    b. Erring Christian (repent, confess sins, pray).
    2. Laws of worship.
    a. Acts and spirit of worship (singing, praying, giving, teaching, Lord's supper).
    b. Dedication of one's life.
    c. Fasting (optional).
    d. Time of worship (Lord's day).


And if there is any other commandment [and, and if there be, any other commandment].[ 60 ]



    (Ro 13:9)

    1. Laws relating to self.
    a. Add Christian graces, fruit of the Spirit.
    b. Avoid works of the flesh.
    c. Compassion, generosity, moderation.
    d. Forgiving spirit.
    e. Purity of heart.
    f. Repentance, prayer.
    2. Laws relating to others.
    a. To the brethren (love, kindness, fellowship, forgiveness, restoration, encouragement).
    b. To family (parents, husband and wife, children).
    c. Against murder, adultery, fornication, stealing.
    d. To the poor.
    e. Prayer.
    f. To slaves and masters, employers, employees.
    g. To the world (Great Commission).



    (Ro 13:9)

    1. Laws relating to the government.
    a. Honor.
    b. Subjection, obedience.
    c. Taxes.
    d. Prayer.
    2. Laws relating to money and property.
    a. Be generous and kind to poor.
    b. Elders and others not to love money.
    c. Flee from covetousness.
    d. Give on first day of week.
    e. God's kingdom and righteousness take precedence over material things.
    f. Private ownership of property approved.

Are all summed up in this saying [are, it is, briefly comprehended in this sentence, word, statement].[ 61 ] The command to love one's neighbor encompasses all human relationships. All immoral and sinful acts against others are forbidden by it. All positive humanitarian virtues are encouraged.

Namely, You shall love your neighbor as yourself [namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself].[ 62 ] The Greek word for "neighbor" primarily signifies one who is near. He or she may be of any race, color, status or religious preference. A neighbor is anyone near enough to meet. The positive Christian seeks to expand his list of neighbors (Mt 5:46, 47), as well as his neighborliness (Lu 10:25-37). Does love permit adultery, mercy killing, abortion, stealing, lying? Not at all. Just the opposite is true. If one truly loves his neighbor he will totally refrain from violating the other commands (see Le 19:18).


13:10 Love does no harm to a neighbor; therefore love is the fulfillment of the law.

Love does no harm [love does no wrong, works, worketh, no ill, no evil].[ 63 ] Some of the purposes of the OT Law were to focus upon sin, to educate and benefit man . A major aspect of NT commands are stressed by the statement, "Love does no harm to a neighbor."

To a neighbor [to its, to his, neighbor].[ 64 ] In the present verse, one's spouse, family members, relatives and several other people may be considered to be neighbors (see note on verse 9).

Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law [so love, love therefore, fulfills the law, is the fulfilling of the whole law].[ 65 ] All NT commandments are summed up in love (see Ro 13:9). For example, when Christians bear one another's burdens, their love fulfills the law of Christ (see Ga 6:2).


13:11 And do this, knowing the time, that now it is high time to awake out of sleep; for now our salvation is nearer than when we first believed.

And do this [besides this, and this, and that, this also, moreover].[ 66 ] By way of transition, Paul introduces the idea of spiritual awakening. He then discusses putting on the armor of light, the urgency of quitting all sins of darkness and a gives a description of the Christian walk that proper or becoming.

Knowing the time [you know what hour it is, knowing the season].[ 67 ] The "time" or "season" may have been part of the early church age, the time of the rapid spread of the gospel as well as the time of bitter persecution. To those in the present century, it need not correspond to those events. To modern Christians, it illustrates the urgency of righteous living (compare "Today" in Heb 3:7-15; 4:7).

That now it is high time [how it is full time now, that already it is time, that it is already time].[ 68 ] It is always the time to awaken from moral stupor. Such encouragement is appropriate in any time, especially so in the present century.


    (Ro 13:11)

    1. Samson's sleep of presumption on Delilah's knees (Jg 16:19, 20).
    2. The sleep of the sluggard (Pr 24:30-34).
    3. Sleep to avoid reality (Jonah 1:5; Eph 5:14).
    4. The sleep of the foolish virgins (Mt 25:5).
    5. The sleep of weary disciples (Mt 26:40).
    6. The sleep of the careless (Mk 13:35-37).
    7. Spiritual sleep of the Corinthians (1Co 11:30).
    (Adapted from Coffman 459, 460)

To awake out of sleep [for you to wake, arise, that we should be aroused, from sleep]. [ 69 ] The light of the gospel awakens from spiritual sleep. Paul insists that Christians wake up in order to not be indifferent to evil. There must be no hesitation in the proclamation of the gospel or in putting away sin. Any heathen, Jewish or worldly error that remains must be cast off.

Awake to righteousness, and do not sin; for some do not have the knowledge of God. I speak this to your shame (1Co 15:34; see also Eph 5:14; 1Th 5:6, 7).

For now our salvation is nearer [for salvation is nearer to us now, for now is, is our, salvation nearer, nearer to us].[ 70 ] "Now" is in accord with Paul's use of the word "near" or "nigh" earlier in the Roman letter (see note on Ro 5:8). A good understanding of the gospel motivates Christians to live a better life. As they grow older and become more conscious of mortality, they realize with certainty that they are travelling toward the judgment day and heavenly salvation. Their spiritual goal will come to fruition at the end of a life of faith (see 1Pe 1:9; 1Jo 2:25).

Than when we first believed [than when we believed].[ 71 ] "When we first believed" stands for the time when Paul and people in Rome became Christians. It was the time when they believed in Jesus Christ, repented of sins, confessed their faith in Him and were baptized into Him. They had since grown in faith and knowledge. Their better understanding was improving their lives.


13:12 The night is far spent, the day is at hand. Therefore let us cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armor of light.

The night is far spent [the night is far gone, is almost gone].[ 72 ] The "night" was the time in the past before Paul's readers became Christians. That was the ideal point of time to cast off the works of darkness. However, time had elapsed. Now, with more knowledge, they must do so without hesitation (compare a similar figure in Ro 12:1, 2; 1Co 15:34). Dear reader, let us awaken to a new day of exhilarating and joyous life of purity in the Lord.

You are all sons of light and sons of the day. We are not of the night nor of darkness (1Th 5:5).

The day is at hand [and the day is near].[ 73 ] Thayer missed the idea when he attributed the day at hand to the final judgment. The apostles did not believe nor teach that day was near. Paul simply meant it was "getting-up" time. It was time to get moving and start obeying the Lord's will in everyday living.

Therefore He says: "Awake, you who sleep, arise from the dead, and Christ will give you light" (Eph 5:14).



    (Ro 13:11)

    1. They knew Jerusalem would first be destroyed
    (Mt 24:1, 2; Mk 13:1, 2; Lu 21:5, 6).
    2. They knew the gospel of the kingdom would first be preached to the whole world (Mt 24:14).
    3. They knew Paul would suffer for the name of Christ (Ac 9:15, 16).
    4. They knew Paul would first be bound at Jerusalem
    (Ac 21:11).



    (Ro 13:11)

    1. They knew Peter and Paul would die first
    (Joh 21:18, 19; 2Ti 4:6).
    2. They knew the man of sin would first be revealed
    (2Th 2:3, 4).
    3. They knew the fullness of the Gentiles would first come in (Ro 11:25).

The Ephesians did not have to wait for the judgment day for Christ to shine upon them. Neither did the Romans, nor do we (see Joh 9:4).

Therefore let us cast off [let us then, therefore, cast away, put off].[ 74 ] Most people take off their sleeping clothes when morning comes. In like manner, Christians cast off or lay aside the works of darkness. This is their definite plan, not a whim or fantasy. They make an unequivocal decision to cast off the works of darkness. They form a specific and precise goal and immediately begin to accomplish it.


The works of darkness.[ 75 ] There is as much difference between right and wrong as between light and darkness. Because of carelessness, permissiveness and indifference, some cannot see the distinction. As one put it, some Christians "have run with the goats so long they can't tell `sneeze weed' from clover." It would help if God's people would quit viewing soap operas, begin serious Bible study, exercise their senses and discern good and evil (compare Eph 5:11; Heb 5:14).

And let us put on [and put on].[ 76 ] The command to "put on" or be clothed with the gospel armor is important and should be obeyed decisively. Christians respond positively and make appropriate changes in order to conform to what they have learned.

The armor of light.[ 77 ] God is light (1Jo 1:5). Christians' His armor is made up of both protection and weapons of light. The battle is against evil forces of darkness. One must fully armed for a mighty conflict (see 2Co 10:4; Eph 6:13; 1Th 5:8; 2Ti 4:7). In Paul's mind, there was no such thing as fighting with only part of the armor. All of it was (is) needed for protection and combat-readiness. The armor of light is "the panoply[ 78 ] of God." "Put on the PANOPLIAN full armor of God" (Eph 6:11).


    (Ro 13:13)

    1. Proper behavior as in open sunlight! (Ro 13:13).
    2. Living "as is fitting for saints" (Eph 5:3).
    4. Conduct worthy of the gospel of Christ (Php 1:27).
    5. Proper for women professing godliness, with good works (1Ti 2:10).
    6. Speak the things which are proper for sound doctrine (Tit 2:1).
    7. Deeds of faith, virtue, patience, kindness, love
    (2Pe 1:5-10).


13:13 Let us walk properly, as in the day, not in revelry and drunkenness, not in lewdness and lust, not in strife and envy.

Let us walk properly [let us conduct ourselves becomingly, honestly].[ 79 ] The Christian's daily walk of honesty, decency and righteousness is observed by others. A life of good works is becoming (compare Mt 3:15; 1Ti 2:10). He who is properly clad in glistening armor,[ 80 ] consistently and faithfully serving Christ, is beautiful to see (see 1Th 4:11, 12). His purity and dedication make viewing him very enjoyable. A Christian is never ashamed of his pure and steadfast life. Contrast this with the shameful, ugly selfishness of humanistic or atheistic hedonism.

As in the day.[ 81 ] "Day" is the time when people expect to be seen. Even at night, Christians are to walk "as" in the day. They expect others to notice their conduct. In this figure, night-living corresponds to sin, day-living to righteousness.

For you were once darkness, but now you are light in the Lord. Walk as children of light (for the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness, righteousness, and truth), finding out what is acceptable to the Lord (Eph 5:8-10; compare Ro 12:2).


    (Ro 13:13)

    1. Revelry, carousing, drinking parties, orgies.
    2. Strong drink, drunkenness.
    3. Lewdness, chambering, sexual promiscuity.
    4. Lust, sensuality, wantonness, unchaste handling of males and females.
    5. Strife, contention, quarrels, wrangling.
    6. Envy, jealousy.

"Day" brings the sunlight of God's blessings. When Jesus was physically present on earth, it was "day" to those who walked and worked with Him (see Joh 9:4; 11:9). In a very real sense, He is with Christians now (Mt 28:20). A walk with Him is "day"! In heaven, it is a glorious "day" (see Re 22:5).

Not in revelry [not in reveling, rioting, merry-making].[ 82 ] Carousing is what goes on late at night in worldly parties. There is usually a lot of eating, drinking of liquor, immoral talk and shameful activities (see chart SIX SINS OF DARKNESS).

And drunkenness.[ 83 ]

Not in lewdness [not in debauchery, chambering, sexual lewdness].[ 84 ] The Greek word for "lewdness" or "chambering" in the Greek Septuagint OT is the "lie." In the NT it has to do with what goes on in bed between people not married to each other. "Lewdness" includes both heterosexual and homosexual promiscuity.

You shall not lie with a male as with a woman. It is an abomination (Le 18:22).

And lust [and licentiousness, lasciviousness, wantonness].[ 85 ] In this context, "lust" is associated with sexual excesses and indecency. Some have interpreted "lust" as "sodomitical practices."[ 86 ]

Not in strife [not in quarreling].
[ 87 ] At Rome, there may have been strife between Jews and Gentiles. There is strife over the authority of Scripture, social issues, personalities and material things.

And envy [and jealousy, envying, emulation].[ 88 ] Each Christian has an essential part to play in the body of Christ. Jealousy should not be in any Christian's thoughts because he or she is fulfilling a special purpose in the work of God.


13:14 But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, to fulfill its lusts.

But put on the Lord Jesus Christ [but put ye on, but clothe yourselves with, the Lord Jesus Christ].[ 89 ] The figure of putting on or being clothed sometimes means "abundance." Job said:

I put on righteousness, and it clothed me; my justice was like a robe and a turban (Job 29:14).

Righteousness, along with patience, was a major characteristic of Job's life. Being clothed may suggest abundance.

The pastures are clothed with flocks; the valleys also are covered with grain; they shout for joy, they also sing (Ps 65:13).

Being clothed may also imply nearness or intimacy and, then, inward qualities.
As he clothed himself with cursing as with his garment, so let it enter his body like water, and like oil into his bones (Ps 109:18).

Being clothed with Christ implies nearness to Him and being inwardly and abundantly supplied with His character traits.

At the moment a believer is baptized into Christ he puts on[ 90 ] Christ (Ga 3:27). Although he is clothed upon with Christ, he does not instantly become fully grown into His complete likeness. He continues to grow "in grace and knowledge" (2Pe 3:18). The baptized believer is admonished to "put on the new man" (Eph 4:24; Col 3:10). Putting on "the new man" implies taking on the characteristics of Christ.

Therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, put on tender mercies, kindness, humility, meekness, longsuffering (Col 3:12).

Christians follow the example of Christ, learn His doctrine, imbibe His attitudes, respect His authority and obey His commands.


And make no provision [and make not provision, do not take forethought, and do not prepare].[ 91 ] A Christian's mind and spirit do not to look forward to sinful, fleshly gratification. He does not plan, prepare or "make provision" for the flesh and its unlawful desires.

For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit (Ro 8:5).

The spiritual part of man guides and controls the activities of a Christian's body. There are desires of the flesh and "desires of the mind" that have to be dealt with (Eph 2:3).


    (Ro 13:14)

    1. Dress modestly.
    2. Do not view salacious magazines, movies, videos.
    3. Turn off questionable TV shows.
    4. Never buy tickets to hedonistic movies.
    5. Separate from worldly friends.

A Christian has no business engaging in activities calculated to arouse evil, sensual desires in herself or in others. Some endeavors that seem innocent to a man in our permissive generation actually "make provision" for the flesh. The desires of the flesh include more than "wine, women and song" (see Ga 5:19-21). Amos described them.

Who lie on beds of ivory, stretch out on your couches, eat lambs from the flock and calves from the midst of the stall; Who sing idly to the sound of stringed instruments, and invent for yourselves musical instruments like David; Who drink wine from bowls, and anoint yourselves with the best ointments, but are not grieved for the affliction of Joseph (Am 6:4-6).

To make provision for something implies attention, forethought and preparation. The Christian is never to dwell upon, plan or prepare for impurity. If he was "overtaken" or "caught" in any trespass (Ga 6:1), it should never be because he slowed down on purpose so that the trespass could catch up with him.[ 92 ] In an effort to obey Paul's command, some have limited or stopped watching television. Others have trashed some of their literature and videos. A decision to completely avoid worldly friends has helped a lot of people avoid making provision for the flesh.

For the flesh [of the flesh].[ 93 ] The Holy Spirit inspired Paul to write the word SARKOS flesh but, perhaps due to theological bias, some translators, instead of translating, have supplied "your sinful nature."[ 94 ] Even the scholarly Vine writes of "the depraved nature" as if to imply one may have inherited from Adam a nature innately sinful! Some Calvinists argue that so long as the spirit of man is pure, the body can, and does, sin. They suggest bodily sins never cause the loss of eternal salvation. Why, then, do they worry at all about a so-called inherited "sinful nature" if, according to their false theory, it is all bodily anyway! (see charts IS SIN PART OF MAN'S NATURE at Ro 7:3; MAN'S TWOFOLD BEING (A) at Ro 7:18). Paul is speaking of the sin of unlawfully satisfying the bodily appetites.

"For we are also His offspring" (Ac 17:28). God is "the Father of spirits" (Heb 12:9). Would not the spirit have to be born pure since the inherited spirits come from God Himself? Nevertheless, Paul taught that one must make a real effort to control fleshly desires. He did not say one is to make "a little less" provision, but no provision to fulfill the lusts of the flesh. Will it make any difference in eternity whether one's spirit controlled his bodily lusts? According to Paul, it will matter greatly. Those who practice the works of the flesh "will not inherit the kingdom of God" (Ga 5:21).

To fulfill its lusts [to gratify, to its, desires, the lusts thereof, to gratify the lusts].
[ 95 ] The deliberate or careless kindling of evil desires is a peril to one's salvation.

Beloved, I beg you as sojourners and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts which war against the soul (1Pe 2:11).

In Romans 23, we have read about the duty of Christians toward civil government. Stress was given to the command to love one another. We should put off sin and be clothed upon with Christ.


[ 1 ]The basic text in this chapter is the NKJV. Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright 1979, 1980, 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. Alternate phrases in brackets are from ASV, Darby, ESB, KJV and RSV and occasionally another version. Greek transliteration approximates the BibleSoft method.
[ 2 ]Several of the above ideas were gleaned from Barclay 186, 187.
[ 3 ]Compare Moule 254.
[ 4 ]PASA PSUCHEE, every soul (Marshall 643); every man (Vincent 3.163); every soul, that is, every one (Thayer 677); by metonymy, that which possesses life or a soul, a living creature . . . everyone (Arndt 894); every person (Lenski 785); everybody (Williams).
[ 5 ]HUPOTASSESTHOO, let be subject (Marshall 643); third person singular, present middle imperative of HUPOTASSOO (Han 312); subject oneself, obey, be subject to (Vine 1099); subject oneself, be subjected or subordinated, obey, with dative of actual persons worthy of respect, toward secular authorities (Arndt 848); middle voice, subject one's self, obey, submit to one's control, yield to one's admonition or advice (Thayer 645); let him range himself under (Lenski 785); must obey (Williams).
[ 6 ]EXOUSIAS HUPERECHOUSAIS, authorities to superior (Marshall 643); HUPERECHOUSAIS is the present active participle, dative plural feminine of HUPERECHOO (Han 312); those who possess authority, authorities, dignities [persons], of magistrates, the prominent men, rulers (Thayer 225, 641); literally, authorities which have themselves over (Vincent 3.163); literally, to hold over anything, as bring superior, used metaphorically of rulers, as the "higher powers" (Vine 550); governing authorities (Arndt 841); superior authority (Lenski 785);the civil [implied in context] authorities that are over him (Williams); government [from EXOUSIA power; "the powers that be" are political powers, government (Littrell).
[ 7 ]OU GAR ESTIN EXOUSIA EI MEE HUPO THEOU, for there is no authority except by God (Marshall 643); ESTIN is third person singular, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 312); see note above; the bearers of the authority, human authorities, officials, government (Arndt 278); for authority does not exist except by God (Lenski 785); for no authority exists except by God's permission (Williams).
[ 8 ]HAI DE HOUSAI, and the existing [ones] (Marshall 643); HOUSAI is the present active participle, nominatie plural feminine of EIMI (Han 312); literally, the existing. Powers is not in the text, but is correctly supplied from the preceding clause (Vincent 3.164); and those existing (Lenski 785).
[ 9 ]HUPO THEO TETAGMENAI EISIN, by God having been ordained are (Marshall 643); EISIN is third person plural, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 312); of positions of military and civil authority over others, whether appointed by men or God (Vine 61, 816); perfect tense: have been ordained, and the ordinance remains in force (Vincent 3.164); arranged, assigned a place, appointed (Thayer 615); [the authorities] who are now in power are instituted by God (Arndt 805); exist as having been arranged by God (Lenski 785); have been established by Him (Williams).
[ 10 ]HOOSTE HO ANTITASSOMENOS TEE EXOUSIA, so the [one] resisting the authority (Marshall 643); ANTITASSOMENOS is the present middle participle, nominatie singular masculine of ANTITASSOO (Han 312); literally, setteth himself in array against (Vincent 3.164); resists, of resisting human potentates, Vine 958; middle voice, opposes one's self, resists (Thayer 51); opposes, resists (Arndt 76); therefore, he who ranges himself against the authority (Lenski 787); so that anyone who resists the authorities (Williams).
[ 11 ]ANTHESTEEKEN, has opposed (Marshall 643); third person singular, perfect active indicative of ANTHISTEEMI (Han 312); withstandeth (Vincent 3.164); withstands, opposes, resists (Vine 958); perfect active, sets one's self against, withstands, resists, opposes (Thayer 45); set [themselves] against, oppose, resist, withstand, used impersonal (Arndt 67); withstands (Lenski 787); sets himself against (Williams).
[ 12 ]TEE TOU THEOU DIATAGEE, the of God ordinance (Marshall 643); [from TASSOO to put in place], which appears in the first resisteth [above]. He setteth himself against that which is divinely set (Vincent 3.164); an ordinance (Vine 314, 818); a disposition, arrangement, ordinance (Thayer 142); ordinance, direction (Arndt 189); the arrangement of God (Lenski 787); what God has established (Williams).
[ 13 ]HOI DE ANTHESTEEKOTES HEAUTOIS, and the [ones] having opposed to themselves (Marshall 643); ANTHESTEEKOTES is the perfect active participle, nominative plural masculine of ANTHISTEEMI (Han 312); those who resist (Arndt 67); and they who withstand (Lenski 787); and those who set themselves against Him (Williams)..
[ 14 ]KRIMA LEEMPSONTAI, judgment will receive (Marshall 643); LEEMPSONTAI is third person plural, future middle indicative of LAMBANOO (Han 312); judicial sentence, judgment (Vincent 3.164); with dative incommodi added, [shall] receive [what is given], gain, get, obtain condemnatory sentence, penal judgment, sentence, with genitive of the one who pronounces judgment (Thayer 360, 371); of the sentence of condemnation, also of the condemnation and the subsequent punishment itself (Arndt 450); shall receive judgment for themselves (Lenski 787); will get the penalty due them (Williams).
[ 15 ]As I edit these notes in 2003, Saddam Hussein has just been deposed in Iraq. North Korea, Sudan, Cambodia and other nations are said to be ruled by despots. Some readers will recall the bloody reigns of Noriega, Adolf Hitler, Benitto Mussilini, Josef Stalin and others.
[ 16 ]HOI GAR ARCHONTES, for the rulers (Marshall 643; Lenski 788); magistrates (Thayer 79); of those in authority, authorities, officials (Arndt 114); for civil authorities (Williams).
[ 17 ]OUK EISIN PHOBOS, are not a fear (Marshall 643); EISIN third person plural, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 312); in an objective sense, that which strikes terror, or more correctly, a terror to [or for] (Thayer 656); fear (Vine 1131); that which causes fear, a terror (Arndt 863); are not a fright (Lenski 788).
[ 18 ]TOO AGATHOO ERGOO, to the good work (Marshall 643); deeds, acts of believers, that which is salutary, suited to the course of human affairs (Vine 494, 1243); of the deeds of men, exhibiting a consistent moral character (Arndt 308); for the good work (Lenski 788); to the man who does right (Williams).
[ 19 ]ALLA TOO KAKOO, but to the evil (Marshall 643); [morally, that is,] of a mode of thinking, feeling, acting; base, wrong, wicked (Thayer 320); of the characteristics , actions, emotions, plans, etc., of men, bad deeds (Arndt 397); but for the bad (Lenski 788); but they are to the man who does wrong (Williams).
[ 20 ]THELEIS DE MEE PHOBEISTHAI TEEN EXOUSIAN, and wishest thou not to fear the authority? (Marshall 643); THELEIS is second person singu lar, present active indicative of THELOO; PHOBEISTHAI is the present middle infinitive of PHOBEOO (Han 312); by metonymy, that which causes fear (Vine 414); fear, fear, be afraid, of one, lest he do harm, be displeased (Thayer 656); [of] human authorities, officials, government (Arndt 279); now dost thou not want to be frightened by the authority? (Lenski 788, 789); do you want to have no dread of the civil authorities? (Williams).
[ 21 ]TO AGATHON POIEI, the good do (Marshall 643); POIEI is third person singular, present active indicative of POIEOO (Han 312); do what is good, Arndt 681); keep doing the good (Lenski 789); then practice doing right (Williams).
[ 22 ]KAI EXEIS EPAINON EX AUTEES, and thou wilt have praise from it (Marshall 643); EXEIS is second person singular, future actie indicative of ECHOO (Han 312); the approbation of well-doers by human rulers (Vine 870); approbation, commendation, praise (Thayer 227); praise, approval, recognition from men (Arndt 281); and thou shalt have praise from it (Lenski 789); and you will be commended for it (Williams).
[ 23 ]THEOU GAR DIAKONOS ESTIN, for of God a minister he is (Marshall 643); ESTIN is third person singular, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 312); servant, attendant, minister, deacon (Vine 744); those through whom God carries on his administration on earth, as magistrates (Thayer 138); helper, agent, the governmental authorities (Arndt 184); for God's minister it is (Lenski 789); for the civil authorities are God's servants (Williams).
[ 24 ]ESTIN may be rendered "it is" in order to modify "the authority" or "the power" (see verse 3).
[ 25 ]ESTIN may be rendered "he is" in order to modify the bearer of the sword (verse 4).
[ 26 ]SOI EIS TO AGATHON, to thee for the good (Marshall 643; Lenski 789); specifically, what is salutary, suited to the course of human affairs (Thayer 3); for good, to advantage (Arndt 3); to do you good (Williams).
[ 27 ]The pronoun SOI is in the dative case, to or for you.
[ 28 ]EAN DE TO KAKON POIEES, but if the evil thou doest (Marshall 643); POIEES is second person singular, present active subjunctive of POIEOO (Han 312); do, commit evil (Thayer 320); do [what is] evil (Arndt 397); but if thou doest the bad (Lenski 789); but if you practice doing wrong (Williams).
[ 29 ]PHOBOU, fear (Marshall 643); second person singular, present middle imperative of PHOBEOO (Han 312); fear, be afraid, be struck with fear, be seized with alarm: of those who fear harm or injury (Thayer 655); be frightened! (Lenski 789); you should dread them (Williams).
[ 30 ]OU GAR PHOREI, for not he bears (Marshall 643); PHOREI is third person singular, present active indicative of PHOREOO (Han 312); beareth and weareth [a frequentative form of PHEROO to bear] (Vincent 3.164); not the simple act of bearing, but a continuous or habitual condition, for example, of the civil authority in bearing the sword as symbolic of execution (Vine 93); [does not] bear consistently, wear (Thayer 657); bears [in contrast to PHEROO bear, carry], for a considerable time or regularly, hence, wear (Arndt 864); for not does it bear (Lenski 789); for they do not wield (Williams).
[ 31 ]EIKEE TEEN MACHAIRAN, in vain the sword (Marshall 643; Lenski 789); borne as the symbol of the magistrate's right to inflict capital punishment (Vincent 3.164); a short sword or dagger, as the instrument of a magistrate or judge, to no purpose, in vain (Vine 1113, 1193); bear the sword, is used of him to whom the sword has been committed, that is, to use when a malefactor is to be punished; hence it is to have the power of life and death (Thayer 393); carry the sword to no purpose (Arndt 222); the sword for nothing (Williams).
[ 32 ]THEOU GAR DIAKONOS ESTIN, for of God a minister he is (Marshall 643); helper, agent, the governmental authorities (Arndt 184); for God's minister it is (Lenski 789); indeed, they are God's servants (Williams).
[ 33 ]EKDIKOS EIS ORGEEN, an avenger for wrath (Marshall 643; Lenski 789); primarily, without law, then, one who exacts a penalty from a person, an avenger, a punisher, of a civil authority in the discharge of his function of executing wrath on the evildoer (Vine 82); an avenger who brings [God's] wrath upon the evil-doer (Arndt 238); to inflict punishment [Greek, avengers for wrath] (Williams).
[ 34 ]TOO TO KAKON PRASSONTI, to the [one] evil practicing (Marshall 643); PRASSONTI is the present active participle, dative singular masculine of PRASSOO (Han 312); [that does what is] evil (Arndt 397, 398); upon people who do wrong (Williams); to the one doing the bad (Lenski 789).
[ 35 ]DIO, wherefore (Marshall 643; Lenski 793); equivalent to DIA HO (the neuter of the relative pronoun HOS (Vine 1222); inferential conjunction, therefore, for this reason (Arndt 198); therefore (Williams).
[ 36 ]ANANKEE HUPOTASSESTHAI, it is necessary to be subject (Marshall 643); HUPOTASSESTHAI is the present middle infinitive of HUPOTASSOO (Han 312); literally, [it is] necessary [to be subject] (Vine 777); middle voice, necessity, imposed either by the external condition of things, or by the law of duty, followed by infinitive, [to] subject one's self, obey, submit to one's control; yield to one's admonition or advice (Thayer 36, 645); subject [yourselves] (Vine 1099); therefore it is necessary [for you] to be subject, subject oneself, be subjected or subordinated, obey (Arndt 52, 848); [there is] necessity for being in subjection (Lenski 793); you must obey them (Williams).
[ 37 ]OU MONON DIA TEEN ORGEEN, not only because of wrath (Marshall 643); because disobedience is visited with punishment (Thayer 452); of the judgment upon the desert generation, the wrath (Arndt 579); not only because of this wrath (Lenski 793); not only for the sake of escaping punishment [literally, because of wrath] (Williams).
[ 38 ]ALLA KAI DIA TEEN SUNEIDEESIN, but also because of conscience (Marshall 643); [SUN with, OIDA to know], acting in a certain way because conscience requires it (Vine 220); for conscience' sake, because the conscience requires it (Thayer 602); for conscience' sake (Arndt 786); but also because of the conscience (Lenski 793); but also for conscience' sake (Williams).
[ 39 ]DIA TOUTO GAR, for therefore (Marshall 644); for this cause, for this reason, therefore, on this account, since this is so (Thayer 134); literally, on account of this, for this cause, signifying the ground or reason (Vine 167); for for this reason (Lenski 794); for this is the reason (Williams).
[ 40 ]KAI PHOROUS TELEITE, also taxes pay (Marshall 644); TELEITE is second person plural, present active indicative of TELEOO (Han 312); [akin to PHEROO to bring], tribute paid by a subjugated nation (Vine 1168); TELEITE ye pay is, literally, ye accomplish or fulfill, carrying the sense of the fulfillment of an obligation. PHOROUS tribute is from PHEROO to bring, something brought (Vincent 3.164); bring to an end, complete, fulfil, [here] has the meaning pay (Vine 841); pay tribute, especially the annual tax levied upon houses, lands, and persons (Thayer 619, 657); pay tribute to the one entitled to receive tribute (Arndt 865); also you keep paying taxes (Lenski 794); why you pay your taxes (Williams).
[ 41 ]LEITOURGOI GAR THEOU EISIN, for ministers of God they are (Marshall 644); EISIN is third person plural, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 312); the word here brings out more fully the ruler, like the priest, discharges a divinely ordained service. Government is thus elevated into the sphere of religion (Vincent 3.164); those by whom God administers his affairs and executes his decrees: so of magistrates (Thayer 376); of earthly rulers, who though they do not all act consciously as servants of God, yet discharge functions which are the ordinance of God (Vine 744); literally, of Greco-Roman officials, servants of God (Arndt 471); for public servants of God are they (Lenski 794); for the civil authorities are God's official servants (Williams).
[ 42 ]PROSKARTEROUNTES, attending constantly (Marshall 644); the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of PROSKARTEREOO (Han 312); [PROS towards, intensive, KARTEROS strong], continuing steadfastly in a thing and giving unremitting care to it, of rulers in the discharge of their functions (Vine 79); continuing steadfastly (Vincent 3.164); steadfastly attending unto, giving unremitting care to (Thayer 547); busying themselves with, be busily engaging in, being devoted to (Arndt 715); steadily attending (Lenski 794); faithfully devoting themselves (Williams).
[ 43 ]EIS AUTO TOUTO, for this very thing (Marshall 644); [this] very thing (Vine 1197); to this very thing (Lenski 794); to this very end (Williams).
[ 44 ]APODOTE PASIN TAS OPHEILAS, render to all men the dues (Marshall 644); APODOTE is second person plural, second aorist active imperative of APODIDOOMI (Han 312); probably all magistrates, though some explain all men (Vincent 3.165); pay off, discharge, what is due [because a debt, like a burden, is thrown off, APO, by being paid]; tribute and other dues to the government, that which is owed, metaphorically, plural, dues (Thayer 61, 469); of human acts, give up or back, render dues (Vine 334, 949, 950); fulfill [your] duty, obligation to [all their] due, of taxes (Arndt 90, 598); duly give to all their dues (Lenski 794); pay all of them what is due them (Williams).
[ 45 ]TOO TON PHORON TON PHORON, to the [one] tax the tax (Marshall 644); tribute on persons (Vincent 3.165); [akin to PHEROO to bring] denotes tribute paid by a subjugated nation (Vine 1168); tribute (Thayer 657); tax to whom the tax (Lenski 794); tribute to the officer [only implied] to receive it (Williams).
[ 46 ]TOO TO TELOS TO TELOS, to the [one] the tribute the tribute (Marshall 644); custom on goods (Vincent 3.165); toll, custom, [that is, an indirect tax on goods] (Thayer 620); an end, termination, whether of time or purpose, denotes in its secondary significance, what is paid for public ends, a toll, tax, custom. In Palestine the Herods of Galilee and Perea received the custom; in Judea it was paid to the Procurator for the Roman Government (Vine 255); tax to whom the tax (Lenski 794); taxes to the officer to receive them (Williams).
[ 47 ]TOO TON PHOBON TON PHOBON, to the [one] the fear the fear (Marshall 644); reverence, respect [for authority, rank, dignity] (Thayer 656); respect that is due officials (Arndt 864); fear to whom fear (Lenski 794); respect to the man entitled to it (Williams).
[ 48 ]TOO TEEN TIMEEN TEEN TIMEEN, to the [one] the honor the honor (Marshall 643); deference, reverence (Thayer 624); primarily a valuing, hence, objectively, honor, esteem, to be given to all to whom it is justified before God thereby (Vine 560); the respect that one enjoys, honor (Arndt 817); deference, reverence (Thayer 624); honor to whom the honor (Lenski 794); and honor to the man entitled to it (Williams).
[ 49 ]MEEDENI MEEDEN OPHEILETE, to no one no(any)thing owe ye (Marshall 644); OPHEILETE is second person plural, present active indicative or imperative of OPHEILOO (Han 313); [do not] owe, be a debtor (Vine 826); owe nothing to anyone (Arndt 598); owe no one anything except to love one another, because we must never cease loving and the debt of love can never be paid (Thayer 469); be owing no one anything (Lenski 797); stop owing anybody anything (Williams).
[ 50 ]EI MEE TO ALLEELOUS AGAPAN, except one another to love (Marshall 644); AGAPAN is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of AGAPAOO (Han 313); with accusative of the person, have a preference for, wish will to, regard the welfare of (Thayer 3); except to love each other (Arndt 598); except to be loving each other (Lenski 797); except the obligation to love one another (Williams).
[ 51 ]HO GAR AGAPOON TON HETERON, for the [one] loving the other (Marshall 644); AGAPOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of AGAPAOO (Han 313); that is in the process of loving (Harrison 572); literally, the other, or the different one, the word emphasizing more strongly the distinction between the two parties (Vincent 3.165); the other, when the relation of conduct to others is under consideration is often put by way of example for any other person whatever, and stands for "the other affected by the action in question" [and may be translated thy neighbor, thy fellow, etc.] (Thayer 254); one's neighbor [the contrast is with AUTOS self] (Arndt 315); for he that loves the other (Lenski 797).
[ 52 ]NOMON PEPLEEROOKEN, law has fulfilled (Marshall 644); PEPLEEROOKEN is third person singular, perfect active indicative of PLEEROOO (Han 313); is in a state of having fulfilled the law (Harrison 572); of the observance of the [Mosaic] law, a fulfilling, keeping (Thayer 427, 428, 518); "the royal law," the law of love, royal in the majesty of its power, the law upon which all others hang (Vine 645); fulfilled by deeds . . . a law, a commandment (Arndt 671); has fulfilled law (Lenski 797); has perfectly satisfied [Greek, has fulfilled or filled to the full] the law (Williams).
[ 53 ]TO GAR, for (Marshall 644); the neuter [Greek] article TO can turn any word or collection of words which follow it into a noun equivalent, especially when the words are a quotation of something which has been said before (Nunn 73); for this (Lenski 798); for the commandments (Williams).
[ 54 ]Some Scriptures giving the commandments in different orders are Mt 19:18; Mk 10:19; Lu 18:20; Jas 2:11. In the original Ten Commandments, the command not to murder came before the one against adultery (see Ex 20:13, 14; De 5:17, 18).
[ 55 ]OU MOICHEUSEIS, thou shalt not commit adultery (Marshall 644); MOICHEUSEIS is second person singular, future active indicative of MOICHEUOO (Han 313); commit adultery [be an adulterer] (Thayer 417; Vine 25); OU is used to negative the prohibitive future [as in] [all the commandments from the Decalogue], commit adultery, of both sexes (Arndt 526, 590); thou wilt not commit adultery! (Lenski 798); you must not commnit adultery (Williams).
[ 56 ]OU PHONEUSEIS, thou shalt not kill (Marshall 644); PHONEUSEIS is second person singular, future active indicative of PHONEUOO (Han 313); [akin to PHONEUS a murderer] (Vine 620); kill, slay, murder, absolutely commit murder (Thayer 657); you shall not commit murder (Arndt 864); thou wilt not murder! (Lenski 798); you must not murder (Williams).
[ 57 ]Several other words are used elsewhere for "kill" including the Hebrew HARAG and the Greek SPHAZOO, THANATOOO, DIACHEIRIZOO and APOKTEINOO. The Ten Commandments (with the exception of the Sabbath command) apply today because they are "brought over" into the NT.
[ 58 ]OU KLEPSEIS, thou shalt not steal (Marshall 644); KLEPSEIS is second person singular, future active indicative of KLEPTOO (Han 313); steal, commit a theft (Thayer 348); [akin to KLEPTEES a thief; compare English kleptomania], steal (Vine 1085, 1086); steal (Arndt 434); thou wilt not steal! (Lenski 798); you must not steal (Williams).
[ 59 ]OUK EPITHUMEESEIS, thou shalt not covet (Marshall 644); EPITHUMEESEIS is second person singular, future active indicative of EPITHUMEOO (Han 313); [EPI upon, used intensively, THUMOS passion], fix the desire upon whether things good or bad; hence, long for, lust after, covet, used with the meaning, covet evilly (Vine 244); lust after, covet, of those who seek things forbidden (Thayer 238); desire, long for (Arndt 293); thou wilt not covet! (Lenski 798); you must not have an evil desire (Williams).
[ 60 ]KAI EI TIS HETERA ENTOLEE, and if [there is] any other commandment (Marshall 644); commandment, that is, a prescribed rule in accordance with which a thing is done, especially of particular precepts of this law as distinguished from HO NOMOS [the law] their body or sum (Thayer 218); in general, an injunction, charge, precept, commandment (Vine 202); of single commandments (Arndt 269); and if there be any other commandment (Lenski 798); and any other commandment if there is any (Williams).
[ 61 ]EN TOO LOGOO TOUTOO ANAKEPHALAIOUTAI, in this word it is summed up (Marshall 644); ANAKEPHALAIOUTAI is third person singular, present passive indicative of ANAKEPHALAIOOO (Han 313); [ANA up, KEPHALEE a head], summed up, gathered up, presented as a whole, passive voice (Vine 1105); ANA has the force of again in the sense of recapitulation . . . the verb is compounded, not with KEPHALEE head, but with its derivative KEPHALAION the main point (Vincent 3.165); [from KEPHALAIOO to summarize, from KEPHALAION the main point], is summed up [again], repeated summarily and so condensed into a summary [as the substance of a speech] (Thayer 38); everything is summed up in this word [the commandment of love] (Arndt 56); it is summed up, namely, in this one (Lenski 798); are summed up in this command (Williams).
[ 62 ][EN TOO] AGAPEESEIS TON PLEESION SOU HOOS SEAUTON, thou shalt love the neighbor of thee as thyself (Marshall 644); AGAPEESEIS is second person singular, future active indicative of AGAPAOO (Han 313); the Greek idiom is the whole commandment being taken as a substantive with the definite article (Vincent 3.165); the preposition EN in, with the article [is] literally "in the," and is translated "namely" (Vine 773); any other person, according to the teaching of Christ, any other man irrespective of race or religion with whom we live or whom we chance to meet [which idea is clearly brought out in the parable, Lu 10:25-37] (Thayer 519); near, close by, the one who is near or close by, the fellow man (Arndt 672); thou wilt love thy neighbor as thyself! (Lenski 798).
[ 63 ]HEE AGAPEE KAKON OUK ERGAZETAI, love evil works not (Marshall 644); affection, good-will, love, benevolence (Thayer 4); used transitively, works something, produces, performs (Vine 1243); human love does, accomplishes, carries out, [no] evil, harm, wrong, does [no] wrong (Arndt 5, 307, 398); the love works no ill (Lenski 799); love never does a wrong (Williams).
[ 64 ]TOO PLEESION, to the (one's) neighbor (Marshall 644); the neuter of the adjective PLEEISOS [from PELAS near] is used as an adverb accompanied by the article, literally, "the [one] near;" hence, one's neighbor (Vine 779); to one's neighbor (Arndt 307); to the neighbor (Lenski 799); to one's neighbor (Williams).
[ 65 ]PLEEROOMA OUN NOMOU HEE AGAPEE, [is] fulfillment therefore of law love (Marshall 644); a fulfilling, keeping TOU NOMON [the law] (Thayer 518); filling up, fulfillment, of the fulfilling of the Law (Vine 467); fullness, accordingly, of law-- this love (Lenski 800); so love is the perfect satisfaction of the law (Williams).
[ 66 ]KAI TOUTO, and this[,] (Marshall 644); and this, and that, and that too, especially (Thayer 316); the article TO [the neuter] is virtually equivalent to "the following" (Vine 1142); and, also ascensive, and indeed, and at that (Arndt 393); and this too (Lenski 801); do [implied] this in particular (Williams).
[ 67 ]EIDOTES TON KAIRON, knowing the time (Marshall 644); EIDOTES is the perfect active participle, nominative plural masculine of OIDA (Han 313); knowing, seeing that ye know, the particular season or juncture (Vincent 3.165); a fixed and definite time (Thayer 318); used in the NT to signify a season, a time, a period possessed of certain characteristics, frequently rendered "time" or "times" (Vine 1005); the present time, [some interpret it as] one of the chief eschatological terms, the time of crisis, the last times (Arndt 395, 396); knowing the time-period (Lenski 801); because you know the present crisis [literally, time] (Williams).
[ 68 ]HOTI HOORA EEDEE, that hour now=it is now an hour (Marshall 644); already, Vincent 3.165; any definite time, point of time, moment (Thayer 679); EEDEE [already] is always used of time in the NT and means now, at (or by) this time, sometimes in the sense of "already," that is, without mentioning or insisting upon anything further; (primarily, any time or period fixed by nature (Vine 41, 1150); the time when something took place, is taking place, or will take place (Arndt 896); that it is already time (Lenski 801).
[ 69 ]HUMAS EX HUPNOU EGERTHEENAI, you out of sleep to be raised=for you to be raised out of sleep (Marshall 644); EGERTHEENAI is the first aorist passive infinitive of EGEIROO (Han 313); metaphorically, of awaking from a state of moral sloth (Vine 84); metaphorically, to arise from a state of moral sloth to an active life devoted to God (Thayer 165); awaken from sleep [that is, thoughtless indolence] (Arndt 215); for us to be aroused from sleep (Lenski 801).
[ 70 ]NUN GAR ENGUTERON HEEMOON HEE SOOTEERIA, for now nearer [is] of us the salvation (Marshall 644); construe HEEMOON of us [salvation of us, that is, our] with nearer, and render salvation is nearer to us (Vincent 3.165); to sentences in which something is commanded or forbidden, GAR annexes the reason why the thing must either be done or avoided (Thayer 109); of the future deliverance of believers at the Parousia of Christ for His saints, a salvation which is the object of their confident hope, nearer, ENGUTERON is the comparative degree of ENGUS [near, nigh], and the neuter of the adjective ENGUTEROS [nearer], used adverbially (Vine 776, 988); for now the salvation is near to us (Lenski 801); for our salvation is now nearer [final deliverance at Christ's second coming is nearer] to us (Williams). This verse has been given different interpretations: (1) Salvation, or deliverance, from Jewish persecution was nearer and would end about AD 70. This interpretation would not especially motivate Roman Christians to become less indifferent toward sin, as would the following two possible meanings. (2) The eternal reward is nearer for all than when they first became Christians. This is sometimes described as "total salvation," or all Christ will do for believers at his second advent (Harrison 573). (3) It is possible that salvation is used by metonymy to mean the gospel of salvation is nearer, that is, God's will is better understood than when first believed (see Lu 19:9; Ac 13:26; Ro 11:11; 2 Co 6:2).
[ 71 ]EE HOTE EPISTEUSAMEN, than when we believed (Marshall 644); EPISTEUSAMEN is first person plural, first aorist active indicative of PISTEUOO (Han 313); aorist, became believers (Thayer 512); when we first believed (Arndt 588); than when we came to believe (Lenski 801).
[ 72 ]HEE NUX PROEKOPSEN, the night advanced (Marshall 644); PROEKOPSEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of PROKOPTOO (Han 313); originally to beat forward or lengthen out by hammering; hence to promote, and intransitively to go forward or proceed (Vincent 3.165, 166); to cut forward a way, advance, said metaphorically of "the night," the whole period of man's alienation from God. Though the tense is aorist, it must not be rendered "was far spent," as if it referred, for example, to Christ's first Advent. The aorist is here perfective, "is far spent," the advanced state of the "night" of the world's spiritual darkness (Vine 25, 1074); metaphorically, the time for deeds of sin and shame, the time of moral stupidity and darkness, the night is advanced [day is at hand] (Thayer 421); of a time of darkness, is advanced, far gone, the night is far gone (Arndt 546, 708); the night has advanced (Lenski 801); the night has almost passed (Williams).
[ 73 ]HEE DE HEEMERA ENGIKEN, and the day has drawn near (Marshall 644); ENGIKEN is third person singular, perfect active indicative of ENGIZOO (Han 313); day, the period of natural light, used figuratively (Vine 521); the last day of the present age, the day in which Christ will return from heaven, raise the dead, hold the final judgment, and perfect his kingdom, intransitive, draws, or comes near, approaches (Thayer 164, 278); of approaching time, the day (Arndt 213, 346); and the day is near (Lenski 801); the day is at hand (Williams).
[ 74 ]APOTHOOMETHA OUN, let us cast off therefore (Marshall 644); APOTHOOMETHA is first person plural, second aorist middle subjunctive of APOTITHEEMI (Han 313); as one puts off the garments of the night (Vincent 3.166); put off, lay aside, denotes, in the middle voice, put off from oneself, cast off, used figuratively of works of darkness, "let us cast off," [aorist tense, denoting a definite act] (Vine 165); aorist, put off from one's self, tropically, those things are said to be put off or away, which any one gives up, renounces (Thayer 69); take off, literally, of clothes, figuratively, lay aside, rid oneself of (Arndt 101); let us put away, therefore, from ourselves (Lenski 804); so let us put aside (Williams).
[ 75 ]TA ERGA TOU SKOTOUS, the works of the darkness (Marshall 644; Lenski 804); deeds, acts, of evil works of unbelievers (Vine 260; 1243); acts, deeds, things done, done in darkness, deeds done in darkness, harmonizing with it (Thayer 248, 580); sins (Arndt 758); the deeds of darkness (Williams).
[ 76 ]ENDUSOOMETHA DE, and let us put on (Marshall 644); ENDUSOOMETHA is first person plural, first aorist middle subjunctive of ENDUOO (Han 313); middle voice, metaphorically of putting on the armor of light (Vine 908); [properly to envelop in, to hide in], put on, in metaphorical phrases: of armor, figuratively so-called (Thayer 214); middle voice, [let us] clothe [ourselves] in, put on, wear (Arndt 264); and let us draw on (Lenski 804); and put on (Williams).
[ 77 ]TA HOPLA TOU PHOOTOS, the weapons of the light (Marshall 645); the armor of light, righteousness (Vine 67, 670); plural, arms used in warfare, weapons, adapted to the light, such as light demands (Thayer 449); put on the weapons of light (Arndt 575); the weapons of the light (Lenski 804).
[ 78 ]PANOPLIA is from PAS all and HOPLON a weapon. It is, literally, all armor, full armor (see notes on Eph 6:10-17; Songs 480).
[ 79 ]EUSCHEEMONOOS PERIPATEESOOMEN, becomingly let us walk (Marshall 645); PERIPATEESOOMEN is first person plural, first aorist active subjunctive of PERIPATEOO (Han 313); [from EU well, SCHEEMA fashion], becomingly, refers more particularly to the outward life, and thus accords with walk, and in the day the time of observation (Vincent 3.166); figuratively, signifying the whole round of the activities of the individual life, whether of the unregenerate [Eph 4:17] or the believer [1Co 7:17; Col 2:6], in honesty (Vine 1207); regulate one's life, conduct one's self in a seemly manner, decently (Thayer 262, 504); figuratively, of the walk of life, decently, becomingly, behave decently [as of one properly attired] (Arndt 327, 649); let us walk decorously (Lenski 806); let us live becomingly (Williams).
[ 80 ]See Romans 13:12.
[ 81 ]HOOS EN HEEMERA, as in [the] day (Marshall 644); figuratively, for a period of opportunity for service [is] drawing nigh (Vine 262); live decorously as though it were light, that is, as if HO AIOON HO MELLOON [the future age] were already come (Thayer 277); the period of human life (Arndt 346); as in daytime (Lenski 806); for people who are in the light of day (Williams).
[ 82 ]MEE KOOMOIS, not in revelings (Marshall 645); plural, literally, revellings (Vincent 3.166); revels, carousals, the concomitant and consequence of drunkenness, used in the plural, translated by the singular (Vine 965); generally feasts and drinking-parties that are protracted till late at night and indulge in revelry; plural, revellings (Thayer 367); carousing, revelry (Arndt 461); from KOOMOS the god of feasting and revelling (Macknight 124); not with carousings (Lenski 806); not in carousing (Williams).
[ 83 ]KAI METHAIS, and in drunken (Marshall 645); [akin to METHU wine], plural, strong drink, denotes drunkenness, habitual intoxication (Vine 333, 334); [METH mead] intoxication, drunkenness (Thayer 395); drunkenness (Arndt 498); and drunkenness (Lenski 806; Williams).
[ 84 ]MEE KOITAIS, not in beds (Marshall 645); primarily a place in which to lie down, hence, a bed, especially the marriage bed, denotes illicit intercourse (Vine 171); plural, sexual intercourse (Thayer 352); sexual excesses (Arndt 440); not with harlotries (Lenski 806); not in sexual immorality (Williams).
[ 85 ]KAI ASELGEIAIS, and excesses (Marshall 645; Lenski 806); plural, excess, licentiousness, absence of restraint, indecency, wantonness (Vine 640); plural, "wanton [acts or] manners, as filthy words, indecent bodily movements, unchaste handling of males and females, etc." (Thayer 79, 80); follow the inclination to sensuality, especially of sexual excesses (Arndt 114); and licentiousness (Williams).
[ 86 ]Hesychius, Phavorinus, cited by Macknight 124.
[ 87 ]MEE ERIDI, not in strife (Marshall 645); strife, contention, the expression of enmity (Vine 1095); contention, strife, wrangling (Thayer 249); quarrels (Arndt 309); not with strife (Lenski 806); not in quarreling (Williams).
[ 88 ]KAI ZEELOO, and in jealousy (Marshall 645); zeal, jealousy (Vine 603); an anxious and contentious rivalry, jealousy (Thayer 271); jealousy, envy (Arndt 337); and jealousy (Lenski 806; Williams).
[ 89 ]ALLA ENDUSASTHE TON KURION 'IESOUN CHRISTON, but put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ (Marshall 645); ENDUSASTHE is second person plural, first aorist middle imperative of ENDUOO (Han 313); middle voice, put on oneself, or on another, metaphorically, of putting on the Lord Jesus Christ (Vine 908); become so possessed of the mind of Christ as in thought, feeling, and action to resemble him and, as it were, reproduce the life he lived (Thayer 214); clothe [yourselves] in the Lord Jesus Christ (Arndt 264); but put on the Lord Jesus Christ (Lenski 806); instead, put on the Lord Jesus Christ (Williams).
[ 90 ]"Put on" in Galatians 3:27 is "clothed upon."
[ 91 ]KAI PRONOIAN MEE POIEISTHE, and forethought make not (Marshall 645); POIEISTHE is second person plural, present middle imperative of POIEOO (Han 313); and etymologically akin to take thought for, in Romans 12:17 (Vincent 3.166); stop making provision (Harrison 573); forethought [PRO before, NOEOO to think], provision (Vine 899); forethought, provident care, make provision for a thing, have regard for, care for, make provision for (Thayer 526, 540); foresight, care, make provision for something, be concerned for or about something (Arndt 708); and be making no provisions (Lenski 806).
[ 92 ]See notes and chart on WHY FLEE FORNICATION at 1 Corinthians 6:18; FLEE FROM IDOLATRY at 1 Corinthians 10:14, 15.
[ 93 ]TEES SARKOS, of the flesh (Marshall 645); in the moral sense, the depraved nature (Vincent 3.166); [for] the flesh, the willing instrument of sin (Arndt 744); for the flesh (Lenski 806).
[ 94 ]See the NIV; also some of the Greek-English lexicons.
[ 95 ]EIS EPITHUMIAS, for [its] lusts (Marshall 645); [EIS denotes] the end by which a thing is completed, that is, the result or effect, so that iniquity was the result, to arouse lusts (Thayer 185, 239); evil desires which are ready to express themselves in bodily activity, the lusts of the flesh ( Vine 697); [make [no] provision, care (Arndt 683); for lusts (Lenski 806); evil desires (Williams).

Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Lakeside, California, U.S.A.
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The basic text, and all quotations not designated otherwise, are from the New King James Version, copyrighted ©1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. All rights reserved. Used by permission. Bracketed alternatives are drawn from various sources such as the ASV, Darby, KJV and RSV. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.

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