The Letter to the Romans
Chapter 14

Copyright ©2010, Charles Hess, Ridgefield, Washington


Neither in this chapter1 nor anywhere did the Holy Spirit contradict anything else He inspired. Chapter 14 deals with unity in diversity but not with unity in doctrinal diversity. Nothing in Paul's writings should be taken as an endorsement of that (see Ga 1:6-10). Attention is called to the marking those causing divisions contrary to the doctrine (Ro 16:17). Satan has effectively used liberalism, prejudices, preconceived ideas and narrow conceptions to divide and destroy God's people. Let us not allow him to use us in his sinister schemes.


1. Gentle treatment of a weaker brother (Ro 14:1-13).
2. Scruples may make a thing unclean (Ro 14:14).
3. Love, righteousness and peace (Ro 14:15-19).
4. Do not do anything that causes a brother to stumble (Ro 14:20-22).
5. Whatever is not of faith is sin (Ro 14:23).


Attitudes toward "days" and "foods" were responsible for a bit of segmentation in the church (see Ro 14:5). I am not absolutely certain (does it matter?) whether the "days" were Jewish or pagan festivals or whether the meat had been offered to idols or at the Jewish temple. The concerns of both Gentile and Jewish Christians give the sub-points of the chapter. Eating meat, drinking wine and observing days serve as a lattice upon which the eternal principle of love of neighbor is beautifully presented (see chart ROMANS 14 OUTLINE).

There was some degree of disunity at Rome as suggested in this chapter and, possibly, by Paul's discussion of the Law (chapter 7) together with the mention of division (chapter 16). Priscilla and Aquila, "recently come from Italy," and with whom Paul had resided and made tents, may have informed Paul of the problems (see Ac 18:2, 3, 26; Ro 16:3; 1Co 16:19). It is also possible the Holy Spirit revealed the matter to the apostle.


No other chapter better portrays the change Christ wrought in Paul's life. In the distant past, he persecuted the church of the Lord unmercifully. Now it is evident that he cares deeply about each Christian. He does not want a single child of God to be offended, hurt or destroyed. He stresses graciousness, kindness and unity. He labors tirelessly to impart the spirit of love, courtesy and consideration into the hearts of each and every Christian at Rome-- and in the hearts of each one today.

God does not wink at or excuse false teachings or sinful practices. Nevertheless, Christians need to be careful not to condemn too hastily, even when moral or doctrinal points are at stake. He enjoins tolerance of others' oddities, eccentricities, assumptions and opinions.


As Paul discussed in 1 Corinthians 8-10, it is essential that Christians treat each other with gentleness, thoughtfulness and forbearance as they work for peace. God searches the heart. Until demonstrated otherwise, people accept the words and actions of others as being just as sincere as their own. Sincere conviction is very important but that does not prove one is doctrinally or morally right. Paul's own example proves this point. He often spoke of the time when he oppressed Christians. From his honest and faithful heart He once spoke out:

    I would to God that not only you, but also all who hear me today, might become both almost and altogether such as I am, except for these chains (Ac 26:9; compare 23:1).

Much later, in humility before the Christ whom he loved, he wrote,

    This is a faithful saying and worthy of all acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am chief (1Ti 1:15).


Coffman imagined a difference between Paul's dealing with problems at Rome, Corinth and Galatia.2 To the Corinthians, he was dogmatically firm.

    Therefore concerning the eating of things offered to idols, we know that an idol is nothing in the world, and that there is no other God but one (1Co 8:4).

Paul was concerned about the Galatians.

    You observe days and months and seasons and years. I am afraid for you, lest I have labored for you in vain (Ga 4:10, 11).

Some have observed that Paul was gentler with the Romans. They suppose that the problems at Galatia and Corinth were more severe in the sense that members bound their own views upon others as conditions of salvation. But again, Paul did not start the church in Rome nor had he visited there before he wrote the Roman letter. This also may have tempered his writings to them.


(Ro 14:1)

1. May refuse meats and eat only vegetables [in honor of the Lord] (Ro 14:2, 6).
2. May exalt certain days (Ro 14:5).
3. Gives thanks to God (Ro 14:6).
4. May refuse to drink wine (Ro 14:21).


14:1 Receive one who is weak in the faith, but not to disputes over doubtful things.

Receive [welcome him, but receive, ye, you are to receive].
3 Some of the members at Rome were "strong" while others were "weak." From verses 4, 10, 13, 15 and 20, it is clear that those weak in faith were Christians, not alien sinners (see Ac 28:2; Phm 17).

Who then were the weak Christians at Rome? Surprisingly, she4 or he was quite strict. I suppose a strait-laced, Jewish vegetarian was startled to learn that Paul considered her weak. She was not weak because of any lack of conviction but because of imperfect understanding. She may have been a very sincere believer in Christ and the gospel. She was weak in the faith because she had not given up certain past opinions, prejudices and preferences but she "was not a fool."5

According to Paul, the "weak" thought certain meats were unclean so they ate only vegetables (verses 2, 14). Unconverted Jews (and some who were Christians) were afraid of defiling themselves with what had been offered to idols. They may have exalted certain OT religious days. This is not surprising because from their youth they had observed them in honor to God (verse 5; see notes on Ga 4:10; Col 2:16). Some apparently refused to drink wine (verse 21). They were prone to bind their traditions and the OT Laws on Gentiles, for example, circumcision (see Ac 15:1, 2; Ga 2:3, 4). A similar observation may be given of "weak" Gentiles who had in the past eaten meats offered to idols but became vegetarians to avoid any possible impurity from idol worship.

One who is weak in the faith [as for the man who is weak in faith, him that is weak in faith].
6 In Rome, the weak were strict vegetarians. Paul was willing to become a vegetarian to avoid offending even one brother (1Co 8:13).

Strong Christians have a special duty to help and support the weak. They bear their infirmities without grilling them or looking down upon them (see 1Th 5:14). From the present verse and from Romans 15:1, it appears that Jewish Christians were the "weak" members. Some of them made every effort to persuade Gentile Christians to perform the works of the OT Law.

On the other hand, the weak are not to be elevated as judges. The weak brother should be received but not in such a way as to make his petty scruples the rule of the congregation.7 The weak should be fully approved as Christians but not allowed to pressure others into submitting to their views as law. Although they are not to become church judges, they must not be treated unkindly. Every effort must be made not to offend them.

    So let no one judge you in food or in drink, or regarding a festival or a new moon or sabbaths (Col 2:16).

    Therefore receive one another, just as Christ also received us, to the glory of God (Ro 15:7).

But not to disputes over doubtful things [yet not for, not to, disputes over opinions, decision of scruples, doubtful disputations, judge disputable matters, the determining of questions of reasoning].8 "Disputes" in Greek has to do withjudging or discerning (compare 1Co 12:10). "Doubtful things" are ideas not spelled out in Scripture. For example, there is no gospel requirement for eating meat or not eating it. Vegetarians are to be received without argument. Weak members, opinions and all, are to be welcomed as Christians in genuine fellowship both in the home and in the congregation.

The Greek DIALOGISMOON doubtful things may mean a deliberating or questioning about what is true. Or, when used in reference to what ought to be done, a hesitation or doubting.9 Those weak in the faith are to be received without the slightest doubt or a moment's hesitation. There is to be no inquisition, no vote. There is an implication that one's thoughts about things not regulated by command are one's own private business.10

The word "receive" or "accept" is much more than a casual term. It implies a hearty welcome into one's home or special circle of friends. It enjoins full and complete fellowship without reservation. Christians receive each other with the same enthusiasm with which they desire Christ to receive them. Accept them but not for the purpose of deciding whether opinions about certain things are proper. Paul's own attitude toward others was seen in what he wrote to the Corinthians:

    To the weak I became as weak, that I might win the weak. I have become all things to all men, that I might by all means save some (1Co 9:22).


(Ro 14:1)

1. Do not pass judgment based on speculative ideas.
2. Never engage in harsh arguments over optional matters.
3. Avoid making someone become more entrenched in his biased ideas.
4. Never withdraw fellowship because of opinions.
5. Kindness prevents Christians from forcing their way upon the weak.
6. Do not allow opinionated people to run the whole church.


(Ro 14:2; 15:1)

1. In honor of the Lord, he believes he may eat all things (Ro 14:2, 6, 14; compare Mk 7:19; 1Ti 4:4).
2. Esteems every day alike (Ro 14:5).
3. Gives God thanks (Ro 14:6).

14:2 For one believes he may eat all things, but he who is weak eats only vegetables.

For one believes [one, one man, hath faith, believeth, is assured].11 Paul describes a man who believes he has liberty in Christ to eat anything. Since he speaks in generalities, some think that he is using a hypothetical case similar to, but not necessarily identical with, what was true in Rome.12 Private ideas may be innocent but become sinful when elevated to the status of divine commands. Following the latter is absolutely essential.

    Not everyone who says to Me, 'Lord, Lord,' shall enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of My Father in heaven (Mt 7:21).

    And having been perfected, He became the author of eternal salvation to all who obey Him (Heb 5:9).

He may eat all things [that he may, to eat anything, everything, all kinds of food].13Eating "all things" has nothing to do with whether or not foods are fattening or nutritious or whether one's diet is balanced. Apparently the "strong" had thrown off the shackles of Judaism and/or heathenism. His new understanding is that he may eat any of the meat sold in the markets without any pang of conscience. Paul implies he should also be strong enough to receive all of his brothers and sisters, even if they were not so enlightened as he about foods.

When my wife Jean and I were in Jerusalem, bacon and ham were never served in the hotel dining room. At Passover time, all yeast, leavened bread and similar products were removed from stores and pantries. In nearby Athens, on the otherhand, all kinds of foods were served, including sausage and pork chops. Paul must have encountered similar scruples about eating. There was also a problem with idolatrous sacrifices. Only a part of each animal was sacrificed. The rest was sold in the markets. Under certain conditions, Christians were allowed to purchase and eat that kind of meat (1Co 10:25). Paul implies Christian liberty allows one to "eat all things" but one must be careful not to lend approval to sin or idolatry.

    But if anyone says to you, "This was offered to idols," do not eat it for the sake of the one who told you, and for conscience' sake; for "the earth is the Lord's, and all its fullness" (1Co 10:28; compare Ps 24:1).

But he who is weak [but the weak, while the weak man, but he that, but the one who, another who, is weak].14 Until Acts 10, Peter said he had eaten nothing "common or unclean" (Ac 10:14). Apparently, he was still following Jewish rules of eating. Other Jewish converts, like Peter, could not easily discard their old concerns about not eating "defiled" meat. Some of the Gentiles who had come out of idolatry also abhorred it. Most would eat market meat because they realized the idol was nothing. In this chapter, Paul's thoughts generally relate to differences between Jews and Gentiles. Paul himself was born a Jew but became as a Gentile in the sense that he had given up all dietary prejudices (see Ga 2:11-15). It seems to have been the prejudiced Jewish converts, interestingly, that he classed as weak (see note on verse 21).

Eats only vegetables [eateth herbs, vegetables].15 Daniel and his three Jewish friends provide an illustration of this problem. They refused the Babylonian king's meat and wine (Da 1:8-12). There was a genuine fear of defilement. The Jews had been warned not to make a covenant with idolatrous Gentiles, lest someone "invites you and eat of his sacrifice" (Ex 34:15). Since most markets in the first century didnot offer kosher16 foods, some of the [weak] Jewish converts tended to err on the side of caution and not buy any meat. They were so afraid of accidentally eating something offered to idols that they refused to eat meat, period. The alternative was to live on garden vegetables or "herbs." There was also a possibility that meat in the Gentile markets had not been properly bled (see Le 17:12; Ac 15:20, 29; 21:25). They avoided sinning "unwittingly" by inadvertently eating a little blood (Le 4:2, 3; 5:15; Nu 15:24, 26-28). Almost everywhere, Jewish Christians who lived among Gentiles and worshipped with them had this problem. Dietary matters became a vital issue that threatened to destroy the unity of early churches of Christ (see notes on 1Co 10:20-32).

In the first century, vegetarianism was practiced by the Jewish Essenes as well as the Greek Orphic and Pythagorean sects.17 Paul's instructions would also applied to converts from these sects.


14:3 Let not him who eats despise him who does not eat, and let not him who does not eat judge him who eats; for God has received him.

Let not him who eats [let not him that eateth, the one who eats all things is not to].18 This phrase describes the "strong" Christian who has no scruples about eating meats (see verse 20).

Despise him who does not eat [set at nought the one, make little of him, who abstains, that eats, eateth, not].19 "Him who does not eat" is not one who eatsnothing at all but one who does not eat "all things" (verse 2). In other words, he is a vegetarian. Gentiles could easily despise Jewish vegetarians who had, in their opinion, silly scruples. Jewish Christians could just as easily disdain the poor defiled Gentiles. They could look down their noses at the miserable people who ate anything and everything they wanted.

It is a character flaw to set at nought others just because they do not see optional matters exactly as we do. The labels, "liberal," "legalist," "anti" and "heretic" make it easy to isolate and smoke them out! Denominational names also, whether self-assumed or given in derision, facilitate the "despising" or "setting at nought" of whole factions. It is convenient and almost effortless to categorize, separate and segregate a large group of people at once. Humanly devised church names identify and help to lump together those with peculiar false doctrines. Human names and creeds work against unity by isolating and encouraging distrust. They make achieving harmony extremely difficult (listen for Satan's laughter here).

And let not him who does not eat judge him who eats [and let not him who abstains, and the one not eating, which, that, eats, eateth not, pass judgment on, is not to condemn, him, the one, that eateth].20 I suppose it was almost impossible for a strict Jewish Christian to watch a Gentile Christian eat meat without asking (at least inwardly), "Why are you doing that?" "How do you know that meat is not unclean?" Are you not giving honor to an idol?"

The Gentile could have replied, An idol is nothing. The meat is the same whether or not it was offered to an idol. As a Christian, I am loyal to God alone. I would never give honor to an idol.

Such a reply should satisfy the one "who does not eat." If it does not, for the sake of his soul,21 the eater should push his plate back and quit eating the meat.

Some folk seem to look with pity and contempt upon narrow-minded people who hold to a strict interpretation of the word. Conservatives in turn may be even more critical and condemnatory than liberals (compare Mt 7:1; Lu 6:37; Ro 2:1, 3). Whenever one bunch condemns another, those condemned tend to answer back with their own brand of judging. When lines are drawn, it is hard for either side to cross over in understanding and restoration of fellowship. All Christians ought to treat each other with kindness and consideration before division becomes a reality. They should be gracious, tender, gentle and friendly toward all those with whom they differ (see notes on verses 10, 13).

For God has received him [for God hath welcomed, accepted, him].22 The Holy Spirit states that God has accepted the "strong" eater. The Lord knows the heart. He is able to judge on the basis of sincerity and conviction when humans cannot. He counts as true Christians some who are judged and condemned by men. How thankful we are for that! If He has received them, how can human beings justify themselves in refusing to fellowship them?


(Ro 14:4)

1. The "great sin" of the Israelites (Ex 32:30; compare 1Sa 12:17; 2Ch 28:13; 33:9)?
2. Violating the least of the commandments (Mt 5:19)?
3. Violating the first and great commandment (Mt 22:38)?
4. Breaking the second commandment (Mt 22:39)?
5. The "greater sin" than Pilate's (Joh 19:11)?


(Ro 14:4)

1. More tolerable in judgment (Mt 11:22, 24).
2. Greater condemnation (Mk 12:40; Lu 20:47).
3. Many or few lashes (Lu 12:47, 48).
4. A stricter judgment (Jas 3:1).

One way to evaluate the degree of a sin is to understand how unlike God it is. Especially bad are divisive sins that place one in bold contrast to God's nature. Rejecting a brother is a pretty bad sin because it is opposite to what God does (see Ro 8:33). Whether or not one eats meat is only a matter of opinion. Rejecting a brother for such a reason is always sinful. It is akin to the sin of respect of persons (see notes on Jas 2:9; Joh 19:11).


14:4 Who are you to judge another's servant? To his own master he stands or falls. Indeed, he will be made to stand, for God is able to make him stand.

Who are you to judge? [who art thou to pass judgment on, that judgest?].
23 Jewish converts with a strict OT background may have had a greater tendency to judge than the Gentiles. James warned,

    There is one Lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy. Who are you to judge another? (Jas 4:12).

Is all judging forbidden? Obviously not, or else false teachers or evil workers could not be disciplined (see Mt 7:15; Ro 16:17; Php 3:2). For more on the kind of judging required of Christians, see notes on John 7:24; 1 Corinthians 6:3, 4.

Another's servant [the servant of another, another man's servant]24


1 The basic text in this chapter is the NKJV. Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright 1979, 1980, 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. Alternate phrases in brackets are from ASV, Darby, ESB, KJV and RSV and occasionally another version. Greek transliteration approximates the BibleSoft method.
2 Coffman 463.
3 PROSLAMBANESTHE, now receive ye (Marshall 645); second person plural, present middle imperative of PROSLAMBANOO (Han 313); into fellowship (Vincent 3.167); take to yourselves [PROS to, LAMBANOO to take or receive], always in the middle voice, signifying a special interest on the part of the receiver, suggesting a welcome (Vine 927); receive, that is, grant one access to one's heart; take into friendship and intercourse (Thayer 548); receive or accept in one's society, in[to] one's home or circle of acquaintances, of one Christian receiving another, welcome (Arndt 185, 716); keep receiving unto yourselves (Lenski 813); make it your practice to receive into full Christian fellowship [in preposition--perfective accusative] (Williams).
4 Do not be startled by the feminine pronoun used only for the purpose of giving recognition to woman's role in the church.
5 McGarvey 524.
6 TON DE ASTHENOUNTA TEE PISTEI, Now the [one] being weak in the faith (Marshall 645); ASTHENOUNTA is the present active participle, accusative singular masculine of ASTHENEOO (Han 313); in faith (Vincent 3.167); lacks strength (Vine 1216); is doubtful about things lawful and unlawful to a Christian (Thayer 80); a participle, not an adjective, thus indicating that the weakness is not inherent and permanent, but only a temporary defect, liable to be self-corrected at any moment (McGarvey 524). weak [from ASTHENEOO to be weak, infirm, deficient], not well-informed in "the faith," the doctrine of Christ [Jude 3; 2Jo 9] (Littrell); now [transitional DE] him who continues to be weak as to the faith (Lenski 813); people who are overscrupulous [literally, weak in faith] (Williams).
7 Coffman 465.
8 MEE EIS DIAKRISEIS DIALOGISMOON, not to judgments of thoughts (Marshall 645); judge [from DIAKRISIS a distinguishing], a judging in certain matters as eating certain foods, observing days (Littrell); literally, judgings of thoughts. The primary meaning of DIALOGISMOOS is a thinking-through or over . . . discerning with a view to forming a judgment (Vincent 3.167); more literally rendered in the margin "not for decisions [of doubts]" (Vine 273); distinguishing, discerning, judging [of] thoughts, inward reasonings (Thayer 139); literally, not acting so as to make distinctions [or determinations] which belong to disputatious reasonings (Conybeare 576); but not for the purpose of getting into quarrels about opinions (Arndt 185, 186); unto doubts or fluctuations of opinions or reasonings" (Barnes 4.297); not [however] for disputations on opinions (Lenski 813); but not to criticize their views (Williams).
9 See Thayer 139.
10 Lard 413.
11 HOS MEN PISTEUEI, one man indeed believes (Marshall 645); PISTEUEI is third person singular, present active indicative of PISTEUOO (Han 313); the point is the strength or weakness of the man's faith (Vincent 3.167); something like the one who trusts himself to eat anything [a combination of two ideas: "he is so strong in the faith" and: "he is convinced that he may" (Arndt 662); since according to the conception of Christian faith Christ alone is the author of salvation, HO PISTEUOON repudiates all the various things which, aside from Christ, are commended as means of salvation [such, for example, as abstinence from flesh and wine], and understands that all things are lawful to him which do not lead him away from Christ; hence PISTEUEI [TIS] PHAGEIN PANTA hath faith [to eat all things] (Thayer 512); the one has the confidence (Lenski 815); one man believes (Williams).
12 Another example of using hypothetical language is when Paul wrote about the divisions in the church at Corinth. He said, "Now these things, brethren, I have figuratively applied to myself and Apollos for your sakes, that in us you might learn not to exceed what is written, in order that no one of you might become arrogant in behalf of one against the other" (1Co 4:6).
13 PHAGEIN PANTA, to eat all things (Marshall 645); construed with an accusative of the thing, to eat [consume] [all] things, to eat all things or so that he eats all things (Thayer 252, 512); eats all kinds of food (Arndt 312); to eat everything [in the way of food] (Lenski 815); that he can eat anything (Williams).
14 HO DE ASTHENOON, but the [one] being weak (Marshall 645); ASTHENOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of ASTHENEOO (Han 313); lacking strength, doubtful about what is lawful or unlawful; figurative, of religious and moral weakness (Arndt 115); the other who is weak (Lenski 815); another who is overscrupulous (Williams).
15 LACHANA ESTHIEI, herbs eats (Marshall 645); ESTHIEI is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of ESTHIOO (Han 313); [from LACHAINOO to dig], garden herbs, vegetables (Vincent 3.167); garden herbs, vegetables, in contrast to wild plants (Vine 546); eats vegetables (Arndt 312); eats vegetables [only] (Lenski 815); eats nothing but vegetables (Williams); garden herbs, as opposed to wild plants, any pother, vegetables (Thayer 373); By "pother" Thayer has reference to greens such as spinach that one may cook.
16 "Kosher" has to do with what is blessed by a Rabbi, ritually fit or sanctioned according to Jewish law or custom.
17 Ferguson 166; Macknight 126, 390; McGarvey 524.
18 HO ESTHIOON TON MEE, the [one] eating the [one] not (Marshall 645); ESTHIOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of ESTHIOO (Han 313); specifically in opposition to abstinence from certain kinds of food (Thayer 252); he who eats let him not (Lenski 816); the man who eats anything (Williams).
19 ESTHIONTA MEE EXOUTHENEITOO, eating not let despise (Marshall 645); ESTHIONTA is the present active participle, accusative singular masculine of ESTHIOO (Han 313); literally, throw out as nothing (Vincent 3.167); set at nought, treat with contempt, despise (Vine 790); make of no account, despise utterly (Thayer 225); despise, disdain someone (Arndt 277); let him not set at nought him who does not eat (Lenski 816); must not look down on the man who does not do so (Williams).
20 HO DE MEE ESTHIOON TON ESTHIONTA MEE KRINETOO, and the [one] not eating not let judge (Marshall 645); ESTHIOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of ESTHIOO; ESTHIONTA is the present active participle, accusative singular masculine of ESTHIOO; KRINETOO is third person singular, present active imperative of KRINOO (Han 313); judgment is assigned to the weak brother, contempt to the stronger (Vincent 3.167); of those who judge severely [unfairly], finding fault with this or that in others (Thayer 361); especially in an unfavorable sense pass an unfavorable judgment upon, criticize, find fault with, condemn (Arndt 452); condemn [from KRINOO to judge, assume censorial power over, to exercise judgment over] (Littrell); and he who does not eat let him not judge (Lenski 816); nor must the man who does not do so condemn (Williams).
21 The soul of the critic.
22 HO THEOS GAR AUTON PROSELABETO, for God him received (Marshall 645); PROSELABETO is third person singular, second aorist middle indicative of PROSLAMBANOO (Han 313); the aorist [tense] points to a definite time . . . though there is still a reference to his present relation to God as determined by the fact of his reception then, which may warrant the rendering by the perfect (Vincent 3.167, 168); middle voice, has taken him to himself (Vine 927); those whom, formerly estranged from [him, he] has reunited to [himself] by the blessings of the gospel (Thayer 548); literally, received him unto Himself (Conybeare 576); of God accepting the believer (Arndt 717); God did receive him for himself (Lenski 817); for God has fully [expressed by preposition] accepted him (Williams).
23 SU TIS EI HO KRINOON, thou who art the [one] judging (Marshall 645); EI is second person singular, present active indicative of EIMI; KRINOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of KRINOO (Han 313); thou [is] first in the Greek order and peculiarly emphatic. Addressing the weak brother, since judgest corresponds with judge in verse 3 (Vincent 3.168); thou, who art thou that judgest (Lenski 818); who are you to criticize? (Williams).
24 ALLOTRION OIKETEEN, belonging to another a household servant (Marshall 645); strictly, household servant, a servant in Christ's household (Vincent 3.168); house-servant [OIKEOO to dwell, OIKOS a house], Vine 1020; one who lives in the same house with another, spoken of all who are under the authori

Copyright ©2010, Charles Hess, Ridgefield, Washington, U.S.A.
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It may not be distributed or published in any form whatever
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The basic text, and all quotations not designated otherwise, are from the New King James Version, copyrighted ©1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. All rights reserved. Used by permission. Bracketed alternatives are drawn from various sources such as the ASV, Darby, KJV and RSV. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.

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