The Letter to the Romans
Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Lakeside,
In [ 1 ]chapter 14, Paul discussed the importance of bearing with those who held
different opinions about meats and days. A similar thought continues through
15:7. The remainder of chapter 15 mainly points up OT Scriptures that predict the
salvation of Gentiles. Then in verses 24-33, Paul discusses his proposed trip to
Rome (see chart ROMANS 15 OUTLINE).
ROMANS 15 OUTLINE
1. Bearing with those with opinions about meats and
days (Ro 15:1-7).
2. OT Scriptures predicting salvation of Gentiles
3. Paul's proposed trip to Rome (Ro 15:24-33),
BEARING WEAKNESSES OF OTHERS
15:1 We then who are strong ought to bear with the scruples of the weak,
and not to please ourselves.
WHY BEAR WEAKNESSES OF THE WEAK
1. Someone ought to yield (Ro 15:1).
2. The strong not inhibited by scruples (Ro 15:1).
3. For edification (Ro 15:2).
4. To do so is according to Christ (Ro 15:5).
5. Christ's example of bearing reproaches (Ro 15:3, 7).
6. Patience and comfort of Scriptures (Ro 15:4).
7. Like the God of patience and comfort (Ro 15:4).
8. For the sake of one soul and unity (Ro 15:6).
We then who are strong [we, but we, now we, that are strong].[ 2 ] Paul's
discussion of the weak in chapter 14 did not mention the word "strong." He now
boldly includes himself as one of them. He tells the strong to suffer inconvenience
by bearing with the weak. Apparently he no longer observes Jewish days and their
rules of eating. He understands that meat offered to idols is good food. However,
his self-restraint comes into play. He is willing to suffer disadvantage and
discomfort in order to save even one precious soul who might be offended by
seeing another Christian eating meat offered to idols. He therefore will refrain
from eating that kind of meat (see 1Co 8:13).
Ought to bear with [we ought to bear].[ 3 ] The weaknesses of others are
burdens gladly borne by strong Christians.
The scruples [the failings, infirmities, weaknesses].[ 4 ] It is my opinion that the
RSV and NIV are inaccurate in translating ASTHENEMATA as failings, that is,
if the word is intended to imply that somehow the weak are stumbling in sin and
about to go under. True, they may be untaught and immature. They may make
unwise decisions but not failures.
Of the weak.[ 5 ] Romans 14:2-6 suggested that the "weak" were those who
observe days and have scruples about eating meat.
It is never right to wound another
by one's own self-indulgence.
And not to please ourselves [and not please ourselves].[ 6 ] Self-interest is not
the aim of the Christian. He does not live to be served but to serve others as did
the Lord (see note on verse 3).
15:2 Let each of us[ 7 ] please his neighbor for his good, leading to edification.
Let each of us [let each one, every one, of us].[ 8 ] The antecedent of "us" is the
"strong" (verse 1). However, the admonition to please a neighbor is not just for
them. It is for everyone.
Please his neighbor [favor the neighbor].[ 9 ] Pleasing others is not to be done
as "men-pleasers" (see Eph 6:6; Col 3:22). Neither should pleasing men be an
end in itself (see Ga 1:10). Instead it is for the spiritual improvement of another
and his salvation.
Give no offense, either to the Jews or to the Greeks or to the church of
God, just as I also please all men0 in all things, not seeking my own profit,
but the profit of many, that they may be saved (1Co 10:32, 33).
For his good [for that which, with a view to what is good, to the good].[ 10 ]
Whatever one does should benefit others. The exception is that anything wrong
in itself is forbidden. For example, it is wrong to "do evil that good may come"
(Ro 3:8). "His good" is more than just doing something good. It pertains to
salvation. Just as there is a blessing for the one who gives, there is a
compensation for the one who gives in.
I have shown you in every way, by laboring like this, that you must support
the weak. And remember the words of the Lord Jesus, that He said, "It is
more blessed to give than to receive" (Ac 20:35).
Therefore do not let your good be spoken of as evil; for the kingdom of
God is not eating and drinking, but righteousness and peace and joy in the
Holy Spirit. For he who serves Christ in these things is acceptable to God
and approved by men. 19 Therefore let us pursue the things which make
for peace and the things by which one may edify another (Ro 14:16-19).
Paul made concessions in matters of judgment in order to win souls.
To the weak I became as weak, that I might win the weak. I have become
all things to all men, that I might by all means save some (1Co 9:22).
A Christian becomes "weak" in a good sense when he acquiesces for the sake of
a weak brother or sister.
For we are glad when we are weak and you are strong. And this also we
pray, that you may be made complete (2Co 13:9).
Leading to edification [to, unto, edifying, edify him, build up].[ 11 ] PROS to,
for the purpose of, introduces the reason why Christians should please a neighbor.
That reason is to build him up. Upbuilding or edification is the opposite of tearing
down the work of God (see Ro 14:20). Offenses are destructive; edification is
beneficial. Edification is done mainly through teaching. However, unless
consideration is made for peace, very little teaching can be done.
Therefore let us pursue the things which make for peace and the things by
which one may edify another (Ro 14:19).
CHRIST DID NOT PLEASE HIMSELF
15:3 For even Christ did not please Himself; but as it is written, "The
reproaches of those who reproached You fell on Me."
For even Christ did not please Himself [for Christ, the Christ, pleased not,
also pleased not, also did not please, himself].[ 12 ] One reason for pleasing a
neighbor is in order to follow the example of Christ.
And whoever desires to be first among you, let him be your slave-- just as
the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life
a ransom for many (Mt 20:27, 28).
Jesus certainly had enjoyable times with family and the disciples. Among these
are the trip to the cool, beautiful big spring at Caesarea Philippi (Mt 16:13), the
large wedding party at Cana (Joh 2:1), the short "vacation" on the shore of the Sea
of Galilee at Capernaum when His mother, brothers and the disciples where they
"did not stay there many days" (Joh 2:12). However, I cannot think of anything
He did solely for His own personal pleasure. His purpose in coming to earth was
to please God.
And He who sent Me is with Me. The Father has not left Me alone, for I
always do those things that please Him (Joh 8:29).
Some churches have gone into the people-pleasing business. Entertainment is the
rule of the day. Their services include skits, plays, instrumental performances,
special songs with accompaniment. Their buildings are resorts of comfort, ease,
food and games. Their worship is contemporary, their preaching mild, pleasant
and full of pop psychology. They employ youth ministers to take the teens on
outings. They hire psychologists to counsel away depression and guilt. Are they
following Christ? Are they Christ-centered? In my judgment, they are not.
But as it is written [but according as it is written].[ 13 ] The reference is to a
psalm of David.
Because zeal for Your house has eaten me up, and the reproaches of those
who reproach You have fallen on me (Ps 69:9).
The reproaches of those [the reproaches of them].[ 14 ] Reproaches are insults
and defamations. When sinners reproached God, the same reproaches were
suffered by the Son of God (see chart REPROACHES OF GOD). Roy Deaver
applied the same principle to Christians bearing the reproaches.
As the Christ took the reproaches which were hurled at God, so we ought
to be anxious to take the reproaches which are hurled at God, at Christ, at
the Bible or at the Church.[ 15 ]
Who reproached You [that reproached thee].[ 16 ] Reasoning from Psalm 69,
we infer the antecedent of "You" in the present verse is God.
But if a man suffer as a Christian, let him not be ashamed; but let him
glorify God in this name (1Pe 4:16 ASV).
When one follows Christ he identifies with Him in suffering reproaches, self-denial and the cross itself.
Then Jesus said to His disciples, "If anyone desires to come after Me, let
him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow Me" (Mt 16:24;
compare 1Co 10:1; Php 2:5-7).
REPROACHES HURLED AT GOD
1. Insulting God by blaming Him for:
a. Broken homes.
b. Disease (Joh 9:2)
d. Misfortune (Job 2:6-9).
e. Unruly children.
2. Disagreeing with and disgusting God about:
a. The plain meaning of Scripture.
b. His uncompromising insistence upon obedience.
c. His decision to punish sin.
People ask, "Why does not God come down here and straighten out the
suffering, wickedness, famine, war and drug problems of the world?" Actually
that is what He did do. He came to earth in Jesus Christ to solve the world's
problems of sin, misery and heartache. He did everything except take away man's
free will. Human choices cause the world's misery. Choosing Christ and His
gospel removes the sin problem and brings eternal happiness.
Fell on Me [have fallen upon me].[ 17 ] Jesus not only bore "our sorrows" (Isa
53:4) but He bore insults and reproaches that were aimed at the Father, which like
arrows that missed their mark, struck the Son.[ 18 ]
PATIENCE AND COMFORT FROM SCRIPTURES
15:4 For whatever things were written before were written for our learning,
that we through the patience and comfort of the Scriptures might have hope.
FROM THE OT WE LEARN
1. God expects His will to be obeyed.
2. God's attitude toward sin.
3. How God patiently dealt with His people.
4. How God blessed the faithful through many
5. How the faithful obtained the promise of eternal life.
6. Prophecies about Christ and the church.
7. Many comparisons with the NT (type and antitype).
OT FOR OUR LEARNING
1. By the deeds of the Law no flesh will be justi-
fied (Ro 3:20) but it is for our instruction.
2. A man is justified by faith apart from the deeds of
the law (Ro 3:28) but it is for our instruction.
3. We are not under law but under grace (Ro 6:15) but
it is for our instruction.
4. We have been delivered from the Law (Ro 7:6) but
it is for our instruction.
5. The Law was "weak through the flesh" (Ro 8:3), but
it is for our instruction.
PURPOSE OF OT
1. To teach that man does not live by bread alone but
man lives by every word that proceeds out of the
mouth of the LORD (De 8:3).
2. To teach men to fear the LORD his God (De 17:19).
3. To give light and understanding to the simple
4. The Scriptures bear witness of Christ (Joh 5:39).
5. Scripture had to be fulfilled (Ac 1:16).
6. As an examples, for admonition (1Co 10:11).
7. For doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for
instruction in righteousness (2Ti 3:16).
For whatever things [for whatever, whatsoever things, as many things].[ 19 ]
The OT Scriptures teach patience, steadfastness, comfort and encouragement.
Were written before [was written, as have been written, in former days,
aforetime].[ 20 ] By things "written before" Paul alluded to the OT Scriptures. This
is implied by the immediate context in which he quoted Psalm 69:9.
Were written for our learning [was written, have been written, for our
instruction].[ 21 ] The OT explains how God expected His will to be obeyed and
how He patiently dealt with His people as they journeyed toward eternity. When
His people were faithful, He was with them through all kinds of adversities. Great
men and women of faith obtained the promises (see charts FROM THE OT WE
LEARN; OT FOR OUR LEARNING; PURPOSE OF OT).
That we through the patience [that by steadfastness, through endurance].[ 22 ]
Patience has a twofold meaning. It is both passive and active. First, it is passive
endurance in which one is free from cowardice and despondency (see Ro 5:3, 4).
My brethren, take the prophets, who spoke in the name of the Lord, as an
example of suffering and patience (Jas 5:10).
Secondly, it is actively persistent. This facet of patience comes as a result of
trials or proving (Jas 1:3). The OT Scriptures provide a shortcut to patience for
the wise as they learn of the patience of godly men and women such as Job (Jas
Now may the Lord direct your hearts into the love of God and into the
patience of Christ (2Th 3:5).
God's word inspires patience in the hearts of Christians (Joh 17:6; Re 3:8, 10).
Patience comes by keeping "the word of My perseverance," that is, trusting and
obeying the word that describes Christ's patience. In the immediate context,
patience primarily has to do with bearing the infirmities of the weak (verse 1).
Because thou hast kept the word of my patience, I also will keep thee from
the hour of temptation, which shall come upon all the world, to try them
that dwell upon the earth (Re 3:10 KJV).
And comfort of the Scriptures [and by, and through, the encouragement,
admonition, of the Scriptures].[ 23 ] David connected the comfort of God with His
In the multitude of my anxieties within me, your comforts delight my soul
This is my comfort in my affliction, for Your word has given me life (Ps
In speaking of God's dealings with Israel, Isaiah wrote:
In all their affliction He was afflicted, and the Angel of His Presence saved
them; in His love and in His pity He redeemed them; and He bore them and
carried them all the days of old (Isa 63:9)
Jesus implied that people are mistaken when they do not properly understand the
Scriptures (Mt 22:29). The Greek case[ 24 ] indicates that both patience and comfort
come from the Scriptures. Patience involves bearing with the weaknesses of
others. The encouragement or comfort of the Scriptures is centered in Jesus
Christ, our great example.
Might have hope [we might have hope].[ 25 ] The "Consolation of Israel" (Lu
2:25) and "redemption in Israel" (Lu 2:38) is the same as the "hope of Israel" (Ac
26:7; 28:20). This is none other than "the Lord's Christ" who was raised from
the dead (Lu 2:26). He is our hope, our consolation, our comfort.
PATIENCE AND COMFORT FROM GOD
15:5, 6 Now may the God of patience and comfort grant you to be like-minded toward one another, according to Christ Jesus, 6 that you may with
one mind and one mouth glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Now may the God of patience [may the God, now the God, of steadfastness,
endurance].[ 26 ] I especially appreciate one quality of God that he has shown
toward me. That attribute is His patience.
The steps of a good man are ordered by the LORD, and He delights in his
way. Though he fall, he shall not be utterly cast down; for the LORD
upholds him with His hand (Ps 37:23, 24).
But He, being full of compassion, forgave their iniquity, and did not destroy
them. Yes, many a time He turned His anger away, and did not stir up all
His wrath (Ps 78:38).
Indeed we count them blessed who endure. You have heard of the
perseverance of Job and seen the end intended by the Lord-- that the Lord
is very compassionate and merciful (Jas 5:11).
The patience of Christ is illustrated in the forgiveness of the debtor (Mt 18:26).
God's patience mirrors that of a husbandman.
Therefore be patient, brethren, until the coming of the Lord. See how the
farmer waits for the precious fruit of the earth, waiting patiently for it until
it receives the early and latter rain (Jas 5:7; compare 2Th 3:5).
God is the source of source of encouragement, grace, hope, love, peace,
perseverance and glory.
1. The God of glory (Ac 7:2).
2. The God of peace
(Ro 15:33; 16:20; Php 4:9; 1Th 5:23; Heb 13:20).
3. The God of love and peace (2Co 13:11).
4. The God of patience and comfort (Ro 15:5).
5. The God of all comfort (2Co 1:3).
6. The God of hope (Ro 15:13).
7. The God of all grace (1Pe 5:10).
And comfort [and of encouragement, consolation, admonition].[ 27 ] The Holy
Spirit is the Comforter (see Joh 14:26 ASV, KJV).
Then the churches throughout all Judea, Galilee, and Samaria had peace and
were edified. And walking in the fear of the Lord and in the comfort of the
Holy Spirit, they were multiplied (Ac 9:31).
God comforts His children in their affliction.
Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of
mercies and God of all comfort, who comforts us in all our tribulation, that
we may be able to comfort those who are in any trouble, with the comfort
with which we ourselves are comforted by God (2Co 1:3, 4).
According to verse 4 in the present chapter, God comforts through His holy
Grant you [give you, give to you].[ 28 ] "You" includes all Christians, both Jew
and Gentile (see verses 8, 9).
UNITY OF MIND
To be like-minded [to live in such harmony, to be of the same mind].[ 29 ]
Be of the same mind toward one another. Do not set your mind on high
things, but associate with the humble. Do not be wise in your own opinion
Being like-minded suggests that Christians are to be united in mind, love, spirit
and purpose (Php 2:2). They are to live in harmony (Php 4:2), exercise patience
with, and give comfort to, all other Christians.
To sum up, let all be harmonious, sympathetic, brotherly, kind-hearted, and
humble in spirit (1Pe 3:8 NASB).
Toward one another [with one, one with, one toward, another][ 30 ] (see verse
14; chart ONE ANOTHER PASSAGES at Ro 14:19).
According to Christ Jesus [in accord with Christ Jesus, in keeping with the
will of Christ Jesus].[ 31 ] "According to Christ Jesus" means according to His
will. His will is demonstrated to us by His prayers, His marvelous example and
His revealed word (see Ro 10:17; 1Co 1:10; 10:31-11:1; Eph 2:14, 15).
But whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in Me to sin, it
would be better for him if a millstone were hung around his neck, and he
were drowned in the depth of the sea. 7 Woe to the world because of
offenses! For offenses must come, but woe to that man by whom the offense
comes! If your hand or foot causes you to sin, cut it off and cast it from
you. It is better for you to enter into life lame or maimed, rather than
having two hands or two feet, to be cast into the everlasting fire. And if
your eye causes you to sin, pluck it out and cast it from you. It is better for
you to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes, to be cast
into hell fire. Take heed that you do not despise one of these little ones, for
I say to you that in heaven their angels always see the face of My Father
who is in heaven (Mt 18:6-10).
That you may with one mind [in order that together ye may, you all may,
with one accord].[ 32 ] It is the prayer of Christ that Christians have unity of heart
and mind (see Joh 17:20, 21; Ro 12:12-14; Eph 4:4, 16; Php 2:1, 2). If they are
united with "one mind" in "one accord" their teaching will go forth as "one
UNITY OF TEACHING
And one mouth glorify [with one voice, with, ye may with, one mouth,
glorify].[ 33 ] It is the will of Christ that Christians, both Jews and Gentiles, be
united in voice, in teaching and in praise. He is pleased when they have unity of
mind and teaching. This unity surely glorifies God.
The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ [God, even the Father of our
Lord Jesus Christ].[ 34 ] God is the God of our Lord Jesus Christ as well as being
His Father.[ 35 ]
ACCEPTING ONE ANOTHER GLORIFIES GOD
15:7 Therefore receive one another,[ 36 ] just as Christ also received us, to the
glory of God.
Therefore receive [welcome therefore, wherefore receive ye].[ 37 ] "Therefore"
refers back to the glorifying of God in unity of heart, teaching and praise (verse
6). The example of Christ in receiving sinners motivates Christians to receive one
another. Christians receive one another to the glory of God (see note on Ro 14:1).
The importance of receiving one another is shown by the emphasis given to it by
Paul in Romans 14:1 through 15:7. Verses 8-12 support the same proposition.
The great theme from the prophets points up the concurrent salvation of Gentiles
and Jews. That sublime topic makes petty judging about eating meats and
observing days rather insignificant.
One another.[ 38 ] All Christians are included, both Jew and Gentile.
OUR DIVINE EXAMPLE
(Ro 15:3, 5, 7)
1. Just as God in Christ forgave you
(Eph 4:32; Col 3:13).
2. Walk in love, as Christ also has loved us (Eph 5:2).
3. Who committed no sin, nor was deceit found in His
mouth (1Pe 2:22).
Just as Christ also received us [as, even as, according as, the Christ has
welcomed you, received you, also, also has, received you][ 39 ] (see Ro 11:15;
To the glory of God [for the glory of God]. [ 40 ] Look back at verses 3, 5, 7
(compare the chart OUR DIVINE EXAMPLE).
CHRIST, A SERVANT OF THE CIRCUMCISION
15:8, 9 Now I say that Jesus Christ has become a servant to the circumcision
for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made to the fathers, 9 and that
the Gentiles might glorify God for His mercy, as it is written: "For this reason
I will confess to You among the Gentiles, and sing to Your name."
Now I say [for I tell you, for I say].[ 41 ] Paul makes a strong statement about
Christ in order to support the premise that salvation is for all men and women, not
just the Jews.
That Jesus Christ has become a servant [that Christ became, was, hath been
made, a minister].[ 42 ] One can see how Christ became the minister for
circumcision (the Jews) and brought salvation to the Gentiles by following the
thought in Philippians 2. He "made Himself of no reputation" taking the form of
a bond-servant" (verse 7). In obedience, He suffered, died and was raised (verses
8, 9). He was highly exalted that every Jew and Gentile knee should bow before
Him (verse 10). This was all done to the glory of God (verse 11).
To the circumcision [to the circumcised, of the circumcision].[ 43 ] Christ
became a minister or servant for the salvation of the Jews. He did so to uphold
the truth of God in keeping the promises He made to the fathers. In keeping the
promises, He fulfilled the prophecies concerning Himself. However, in a general
sense, Christ confirmed all other prophecies (see following paragraph). In the
immediate context, Paul had in mind the specific prophecies relating to the
salvation of Gentiles. (see note below on To confirm).
CHRIST, MINISTER OF THE CIRCUMCISION
(Ro 15:8, 9)
1. To confirm the promises.
2. To uphold God's truthfulness.
3. To show from OT Scriptures that salvation was to
be brought to the Gentiles.
4. To become a servant to all by confirming that
Gentiles would be included in the plan of salvation.
5. That the Gentiles might glorify God.
For the truth of God [to show, to fulfil, God's truthfulness, for the truth of
God].[ 44 ] By fulfilling OT prophecies, Christ confirmed and established the
dependability, faithfulness and truth of God in everything.
To confirm [in order to confirm, that he might confirm]. [ 45 ] There were
several OT promises to save Jews (see De 18:15-18; 32:36-42; Jer 31:31; Eze
37:26-28; Joel 2:32). Jesus confirmed them. The following verses (Ro 15:9-12,
21) deal with promises to save Gentiles. Jesus confirmed them also. He
confirmed them in the sense that he made good beyond any shadow of doubt what
God had foretold.
The promises made to the fathers [the promises of, given unto, the
patriarchs].[ 46 ] Jesus confirmed the promises given to the fathers by first sending
the gospel to the Jews who, in turn, preached to Gentiles. An example of this is
Peter preaching to Cornelius. Another is the apostle Paul, a Jew, who converted
many thousands of Gentiles.
GENTILES BLESSED THROUGH CHRIST
[SUMMARY OF OT PROPHECIES CITED]
1. Christ to sing praises among Gentiles
(Ro 15:9; 2Sa 22:50).
2. Gentiles to rejoice with God's people
(Ro 15:10; De 32:43).
3. Gentiles to praise the Lord
(Ro 15:11; Ps 117:1).
4. The Root of Jesse [Christ] to rule over the Gentiles
(Ro 15:12; Isa 11:10).
5. Those who have not heard shall understand
[15:9] And that the Gentiles [and in order that the nations].[ 47 ] The Jews
were not the only ones included in God's promises. One reason Christ became a
minister of the circumcision was that by becoming Christians the Gentiles too
might glorify God.
Might glorify God [should glorify God][ 48 ] (see chart GENTILES BLESSED
For of Him and through Him and to Him are all things, to whom be glory
forever. Amen (Ro 11:36).
For His mercy [for mercy].[ 49 ] Gentiles in churches everywhere constantly
praise God for His remarkable mercy.
As it is written [according as it is written].[ 50 ] The OT Scriptures cited by Paul
thus far in this section are 2 Samuel 22:50 and Psalm 18:49. Additional verses
cited by him are Deuteronomy 32:43; Psalm 117:1; Isaiah 11:10). These verses
undergird what he had just written. The conclusion of them all is:
Therefore receive one another, just as Christ also received us, to the glory
of God (Rom 15:7).
For this reason [therefore, for this cause].[ 51 ] What is the reason? Primarily,
the salvation of the Gentiles.
I will confess to You [will I confess you, confess to thee, praise thee, give
praise unto thee].[ 52 ] These words are those of David, the great hero of Israel.
Psalm 18 is a Messianic psalm. Although the "I" initially was David, it
foreshadows the Christ. If David praised God among the Gentiles, surely Jewish
Christians should do so. If Christ does that, surely every Christian should do the
same. Since Christ received the Gentiles, Jewish Christians ought to accept them
(see verse 7; note on Ro 14:11). Not only that but Gentile Christians should
accept Jewish Christians.
Among the Gentiles [among the nations].[ 53 ] The fact that the Lord is praising
God among the Gentiles attests to the genuineness of their salvation. Note the
similarity in the following two verses.
Therefore I will give thanks to You, O LORD, among the Gentiles, and sing
praises to Your name (2Sa 22:50).
Therefore I will give thanks to You, O LORD, among the Gentiles, and sing
praises to Your name (Ps 18:49).[ 54 ]
And sing to Your name [and will sing unto thy name, and in your name sing
praises].[ 55 ] Christ is present when Christians eat the Lord's Supper. He also is
present in their singing. The thought goes on to suggest that Jews are to worship
and sing among the Gentiles. I picture a congregation of thousands in such in
Antioch or Rome made up of both Jewish and Gentile Christians as they sing the
same songs of praise to God (see Ac 11:20, 21).
The careful reader will notice that Greek lexicons differ as to whether the
meaning of PSALLOO is to sing to the accompaniment to an instrument or merely
to sing. It appears that the latter is correct meaning IN THE NT. Those who insist
upon musical instruments in the worship do so by improper reliance upon the
ancient meaning of the word PSALLOO and not its usage in Koine, that is, NT or
BE OF ONE MIND (A)
1. Now may the God of patience and comfort grant you
to be like-minded toward one another (Ro 15:5).
2. According to Christ Jesus (Ro 15:5).
3. That you may with one mind and one mouth glorify
the God and Father (Ro 15:6).
4. Of our Lord Jesus Christ (Ro 15:6).
BE OF ONE MIND (B)
1. Therefore receive one another, just as Christ also
received us (Ro 15:7).
2. To the glory of God (Ro 15:7).
3. Now I say that Jesus Christ has become a servant
to the circumcision (Ro 15:8).
4. For the truth of God (Ro 15:8).
15:10 And again he says: "Rejoice, O Gentiles, with His people!"
And again he says [and again, and again it is said, he saith].[ 56 ] "Again" is
short for "Again it is written" (see verse 9). The verse quoted here is from the
song of Moses, the great lawgiver, who wrote:
Rejoice, O Gentiles, with His people; for He will avenge the blood of His
servants, and render vengeance to His adversaries; he will provide
atonement for His land and His people (De 32:43).
Rejoice [Praise the Lord].[ 57 ] Gentiles ought to be happy because God has
made salvation available to them through His Son Jesus Christ.
O Gentiles [Gentiles, ye Gentiles, nations, all you nations].[ 58 ] In this amazing
passage, Gentiles are invited to be glad and rejoice with the Jews, that is, with
those who have become Christians.
With His people [and praise him all you people].[ 59 ] Righteous and devout
Simeon, "waiting for the Consolation of Israel" (Lu 2:25), held the baby Jesus in
his arms and rejoiced, saying in part,
For my eyes have seen Your salvation Which You have prepared before the
face of all peoples, A light to bring revelation to the Gentiles, and the glory
of Your people Israel (Lu 2:30-32).
Jewish Christians at Jerusalem rejoiced when they heard Peter tell of the
conversion of Cornelius.
When they heard these things they became silent; and they glorified God,
saying, "Then God has also granted to the Gentiles repentance to life" (Ac
PRAISE THE LORD, ALL YOU GENTILES!
15:11 And again: "Praise the Lord, all you Gentiles! Laud Him, all you
And again.[ 60 ] "And again" follows "As it is written" in verse 9 as well as "And
again" in verse 10. Paul's quotation from the shortest psalm (only two verses)
exhorts the Gentiles to praise the Lord.
Praise the LORD, all you Gentiles! Laud Him, all you peoples! For His
merciful kindness is great toward us, and the truth of the LORD endures
forever. Praise the LORD! (Ps 117:1, 2).
Praise the Lord.[ 61 ] The OT looks forward to the time when the Gentiles will
become Christians. They are commanded to praise the Lord. In fact, they ought
to be continually[ 62 ] praising Him!
Therefore by Him let us continually offer the sacrifice of praise to God, that
is, the fruit of our lips, giving thanks to His name (Heb 13:15).
All you Gentiles! [all, all ye, nations].
Laud Him, all you peoples! [and let all the peoples praise him, and laud him,
all ye people].[ 63 ] What lessons are we to learn from this? That God has accepted
the Gentiles. Jewish Christians are to accept them too. God has received Jewish
Christians. Gentile Christians are to do the same.
SALVATION AND PRAISE OF GENTILES
1. Glorify God! Confess! Sing! (verse 9).
2. Rejoice! (verse 10).
3. Praise the Lord! (verse 11).
4. Hope! (verse 12).
5. Joy and peace in believing! (verse 13).
15:12 And again, Isaiah says: "There shall be a root of Jesse; and He who
shall rise to reign over the Gentiles, in Him the Gentiles shall hope."
And again [and further][ 64 ] (see note above on And again.
Isaiah says [Esaias saith].[ 65 ] The quotation from Isaiah 11:10 foretells that the
nations (Gentiles) will be blessed in the root of Jesse (Christ).
There shall be a root of Jesse [the root of Jesse shall come].[ 66 ] The Root of
Jesse is Jesus Christ (see Isa 11:1, 10). In John's vision, one of the heavenly
elders called Jesus "the Root of David" (Re 5:5). David was the son of Jesse (Mt
1:6). Jesus is "the Root and the Offspring of David" (Re 22:16). The root gives
strength to the tree. Surprisingly, in the present context, "the root" is the
offspring of Jesse. Christ gave strength to His ancestors Jesse and David. To an
unbeliever, this is impossible! To the believer in Christ's pre-existence, it is
accepted and cherished (compare Gen 49:10; Heb 7:14).
And He who shall rise [he, even he, and one, that rises, arises, ariseth].[ 67 ]
The Root of Jesse was to stand up, or arise, to rule over the Gentiles. The "Root"
who "shall arise" to reign is Christ. In the immediate figure, He is raised up as
a banner to be followed by His soldiers. Thus, He is their Captain, Ruler and
King. One cannot but connect this thought with His glorious resurrection from the
dead and His wonderful ascension into heaven.
And in that day there shall be a Root of Jesse, who shall stand as a banner
to the people; for the Gentiles shall seek Him, and His resting place shall
be glorious (Isa 11:10).
To reign over the Gentiles [to rule, to rule over, the nations].[ 68 ] The
prophets foretold that Christ would be chief, leader and ruler. He would reign
over the Gentiles. He now governs them according to the rules in His word. The
Bible has been slandered by those who say it is not a book of rules. How can
Christ rule without rules? Let the liberals answer that. If they say He rules by
love, even love demands the keeping of His commandments (Joh 14:14, 21, 23;
15:10; 1Jo 2:3, 4; 5:2, 3; 2Jo 6).
In Him the Gentiles shall hope [on him shall the nations trust, in him the
Gentiles shall hope].[ 69 ] The Gentiles trust Christ for salvation by faith and
submission to His rule as they build their hope on him.
JOY AND PEACE IN BELIEVING!
15:13 Now may the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing,
that you may abound in hope by the power of the Holy Spirit.
Now may the God of hope [may, now, the God of hope].[ 70 ] In this chapter,
Paul has been working toward getting the Roman Christians, both Jew and Gentile,
to accept one another. To support this thought, he has cited OT prophecies again
and again. He has given the examples of God and Christ. To all Christians, God
is the God "of patience and comfort" (verse 5). To the Gentiles, Paul emphasizes
that He is he God of hope. He wrote of Christ on whom the Gentiles would build
their hope (verse 12). Because of God's prophecies recited in verses 7-12, it
should be easily seen that God's acceptance of the Gentiles is a major component
of His overall redemptive plan.
Fill you with all joy.[ 71 ] God fills Christians with joy and peace as a result of
their believing what Paul had just written to them.
And peace.[ 72 ]
For the kingdom of God is not eating and drinking, but righteousness and
peace and joy in the Holy Spirit (Ro 14:17).
In believing.[ 73 ] There is great joy and peace in believing the gospel of Christ.
There is also joy in believing that both the Jew and Gentile can be saved by it. It
is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes (Ro 1:16; compare Ro
3:22; 4:11; 10:4; 13:11). There is joy and peace in believing but that is not the
sole purpose. They contribute to and reinforce an abiding and abounding hope.
That you may abound in hope [that ye, so that you, should abound in
hope].[ 74 ] As belief increases hope grows stronger. And peace like a river
By the power of the Holy Spirit [in the, through the, power of the Holy
Ghost, of a holy spirit].[ 75 ] The saints at Rome had been baptized into Christ (Ro
6:3, 4). They had the Spirit of Christ (Ro 8:9) and, like Corinthians, they had the
indwelling Spirit (1Co 6:19). At least some of them lacked miraculous gifts but
Paul was soon going to be present in order to impart additional gifts them by the
laying on of his hands (Ro 1:11). We infer that, in the present verse, Paul is not
expressing a desire for them to receive a so-called "ordinary" gift of the Holy
Spirit nor even a miraculous gift. He does not appear to mean being "sanctified
by the Holy Spirit" (verse 16). What then? He apparently associates the Holy
Spirit with knowledge or the ability to admonish one another (verse 14). The
power of the Holy Spirit worked through the inspired teaching Paul was giving
them as he wrote the Roman letter. So we conclude that non-gifted Christians
abound in hope because of the inspired word.
ABLE TO ADMONISH ONE ANOTHER
15:14 Now I myself am confident concerning you, my brethren, that you also
are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, able also to admonish one
Now I myself am confident concerning you my brethren [I myself, I myself
also, and I myself, but I am, also am, persuaded, satisfied, about you, of you,
my brethren].[ 76 ] Because of the report of others or revelation or both Paul had
been convinced of the goodness of his readers.
That you also are full of goodness [you yourselves, that ye also, that
yourselves also, that ye yourselves, are full of goodness].[ 77 ] In line with his
bold words about receiving one another (verses 1-14), Paul gives the Roman
Christians assurance that he cares for them and believes they are good people who
have been born again with "built-in" care for each other. As a result of the new
birth, they are ready to love one another fervently (see 1Pe 1:22).
Filled with all knowledge.[ 78 ] Not only are the Roman Christians good but they
know how to instruct and what to teach.
Able also to admonish [able, and able, to instruct, counsel].[ 79 ] When
Christians genuinely care for each other they may find it necessary to warn each
other. Paul is leading up to the justification for his own boldness. Since the
Roman Christians are first good and then able to admonish one another, he, with
the same characteristics, plus the outpouring of God's grace, is much more
qualified to do so (see verse 15).
One another[ 80 ] (see note on verse 5).
PAUL'S BOLD STATEMENTS (A)
1. Do not let sin reign in your mortal body (Ro 6:12).
2. Just as you presented your members as slaves of
uncleanness, and of lawlessness leading to more
lawlessness, so now present your members as
slaves of righteousness for holiness (Ro 6:19).
3. Do not boast against the branches. But if you do
boast, remember that you do not support the root,
but the root supports you (Ro 11:18).
4. Let not him who eats despise him who does not
eat, and let not him who does not eat judge him
who eats; for God has received him (Ro 14:3).
PAUL'S BOLD STATEMENTS (B)
1. Who are you to judge another's servant? To his
own master he stands or falls (Ro 14:4).
2. But why do you judge your brother? Or why do you
show contempt for your brother? For we shall all
stand before the judgment seat of Christ (Ro 14:10).
3. Therefore let us not judge one another anymore, but
rather resolve this, not to put a stumbling block or a
cause to fall in our brother's way (Ro 14:13).
PAUL'S BOLD STATEMENTS (C)
1. Do not destroy with your food the one for whom
Christ died (Ro 14:15).
2. Do not destroy the work of God for the sake of food
3. But he who doubts is condemned if he eats, because
he does not eat from faith; for whatever is not
from faith is sin (Ro 14:23).
GRACE AND PAUL'S MINISTRY
15:15, 16 Nevertheless, brethren, I have written more boldly to you on some
points, as reminding you, because of the grace given to me by God, 16 that I
might be a minister of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles, ministering the gospel of
God, that the offering of the Gentiles might be acceptable, sanctified by the
PAUL AUTHORIZED TO ADMONISH
1. Because of the grace given to me by God [out-
pouring of the Holy Spirit] (Ro 15:15; Tit 3:5).
2. By his success converting Gentiles (Ro 15:16, 17).
3. Things which Christ has not accomplished through
him (Ro 15:18).
4. Mighty signs and wonders, by the power of
the Spirit of God (Ro 15:19).
Nevertheless, brethren I have written [but I write, but I have written,
brethren].[ 81 ]
More boldly to you [to you very boldly, the more boldly unto you,
brethren].[ 82 ] Paul loved his readers. He was "full of goodness" and had
admonished them (see chart PAUL AUTHORIZED TO ADMONISH).
On some points [in some measure, in some sort, in part, partly].[ 83 ] All of
the Roman letter should not be thought of as bold. However, there are several
spots that are quite forward and plain.
As reminding you [by way of reminder, as putting you in mind, again in
remembrance, as to remind you].[ 84 ] Paul's instructions were not new. He
reminded them of what they had already learned.
Because of the grace. Paul speaks of the grace that made him an apostle to the
Gentiles. Because of his divine commission, he wrote boldly (see charts PAUL'S
BOLD STATEMENTS A, B and C; note on Ro 1:5).
Given to me by God [given me, that was, that is, given me, of God].[ 85 ]
There was a definite point in time when the gift of grace was bestowed upon Paul.
That gift equipped him to be an apostle. I understand it to be the outpouring of
the Holy Spirit that enabled him to perform miracles and speak by inspiration (see
Tit 3:5, 6). Because of God's gift of grace, his ministry to the Gentiles had both
divine approval and enabling power.
SPIRIT CONFIRMS PAUL'S COMMISSION
[15:16] That I might be a minister of Jesus Christ [to be, that I should be,
for me to be, minister, the minister, a servant, of Christ Jesus][ 86 ] (see note on
To the Gentiles [unto the nations].[ 87 ]
Ministering [in the priestly service, carrying on as a sacrificial service].[ 88 ]
HIEROURGOUNTA ministering is a sacerdotal[ 89 ] term. Paul was a priest. So
are all Christians (1Pe 2:5, 9; Re 1:6). As a priestly servant and a minister of
Christ he preached the gospel of God.
The gospel of God [of the gospel, the message of glad tidings, of God].[ 90 ]
The gospel was conveyed to man because of the love of God (Joh 3:16). It is of
both God and Christ (Ro 1:1-3; 15:19). The outpouring of the Holy Spirit enabled
Paul to preach the gospel by inspiration and to confirm it by miracles.
That the offering of the Gentiles [so that, in order that, the offering up of
the nations].[ 91 ] Paul compares his ministry to the Gentiles with the ministry of
a priest. As an apostle, he converted many Gentiles. As they were saved they
were offered up to the Lord. Their conversion and transformation was regarded
by him as a priestly offering to God (see Ro 11:13). His priestly worship included
the offering of the Gentiles to God in salvation. Another aspect of the priestly
work was his carrying the monetary contribution to the saints in Jerusalem.
Might be acceptable [may be made acceptable].[ 92 ] When Gentiles obeyed the
gospel they were made acceptable to God (compare Ac 10:34, 35). This provides
a rule of fellowship. All Christians are to accept all those whom God accepts.
Sanctified by the Holy Spirit [being sanctified by the Holy Ghost, the Holy
Spirit, sanctified in a holy spirit].[ 93 ] There is a connection between being made
acceptable and being sanctified by the Holy Spirit. In an effort to avoid the
necessity of water baptism, some have referred this to the outpouring of the Holy
Spirit on the household of Cornelius. They reason that Cornelius' household was
sanctified and made acceptable by the Spirit. They erroneously make this
equivalent to salvation and then jump to the conclusion people may be saved
without water baptism. Jesus had water baptism in view when He said,
He who believes and is baptized will be saved; but he who does not believe
will be condemned (Mk 16:16).
The point in the Cornelius narrative was not that the Holy Spirit saved them
before baptism[ 94 ] but that they were made acceptable subjects of baptism and
salvation (see Ac 10:47, 48; 11:14, 18; compare Joh 1:12)
REASON FOR BOASTING
15:17 Therefore I have reason to glory in Christ Jesus in the things which
pertain to God.
Therefore I have reason to glory in Christ Jesus [[then in Christ Jesus I have
cause to be proud, whereof to boast, of boasting, I may glory, my glorifying,
through Jesus Christ].[ 95 ] By virtue of Paul's spiritual union with Christ he could
boast. He could boast because he was in Christ, in His body the church. He
could boast because of what Christ had done through him. He could boast of the
great numbers of Gentile souls saved by the gospel he preached (see charts PAUL
COULD BOAST; THINGS PERTAINING TO GOD).
PAUL COULD BOAST
1. In tribulations (Ro 5:3).
2. In the Lord (Ro 15:17; 1Co 1:31; 2Co 10:17).
3. In God's wisdom that he preached without charge
(1Co 2:7; 9:15, 18).
4. In his converts (1Co 15:31; 2Co 7:4; 1Th 2:19;
5. In things concerning his weakness
(2Co 11:30; 12:9).
6. About visions and revelations (2Co 12:1).
7. In the cross (Ga 6:14).
THINGS PERTAINING TO GOD
1. Paul was made a minister of God by the grace given
him of God (Ro 15:15, 16).
2. He labored "more abundantly than they all" because
of the grace of God (1Co 15:10).
3. The results of his labors were due to what "God had
done" (Ac 14:27; 15:4, 12; Ro 15:18).
4. In fulfillment of God's promises, he offered up
to Him the redeemed Gentiles as a sacrifice
(Ro 15:16; compare verses 9-12, 21).
I affirm, by the boasting in you which I have in Christ Jesus our Lord, I die
daily (1Co 15:31).
In the things which pertain to God [of my work for God, in things, in those
things, pertaining to God].[ 96 ] Priests functioned in things pertaining to God.
Paul himself was "ministering the gospel of God" that the offering of the Gentiles
might be acceptable. Thus in the present verse, the "things which pertain to God"
are primarily those things involved in the conversion of the Gentiles. Paul was
made a minister by the grace of God to offer up as a sacrifice the redeemed
Gentiles according to the God's OT promises. Christ Himself, as High Priest, also
serves "in things pertaining to God."
Therefore, in all things He had to be made like His brethren, that He might
be a merciful and faithful High Priest in things pertaining to God, to make
propitiation for the sins of the people (Heb 2:17).
For every high priest taken from among men is appointed for men in things
pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins (Heb
PURPOSE OF PAUL'S WORK: OBEDIENCE OF GENTILES
15:18, 19 For I will not dare to speak of any of those things which Christ has
not accomplished through me, in word and deed, to make the Gentiles
obedient-- 19 in mighty signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God,
so that from Jerusalem and round about to Illyricum I have fully preached the
gospel of Christ.
For I will not dare [for I shall not venture, not presume].[ 97 ] Paul had a real
fear of saying the wrong thing. He shunned to declare anything that might make
his own abilities appear to be the primary reason for his success.
To speak of any of those things [to speak anything, of anything, of the
things, of any things].[ 98 ] Intellectually, educationally and traditionally, Paul had
reason for worldly boasting but he chose to minimize these assets in view of the
surpassing importance of the redemption of the cross.
Which Christ has not accomplished through me [except what, save those
which, Christ worked, wrought, has accomplished, has wrought, hath not
wrought, by me].[ 99 ] The statement here that is confusing to some is a figure of
speech called "litotes."[ 100 ] Paul does not toot his own horn but acknowledges
only the work of Christ in his success in converting Gentiles. He spoke of what
God had "done" through them (compare Ac 14:27, 15:4) and what God had
"worked" through them (Ac 15:12).
In word and deed [by word and deed].[ 101 ] Christ accomplished His work
through Paul and others by word, that is, by the "revelation of Jesus Christ" (Ga
1:12). He also wrought through deed by miracles (see note below on In mighty
To make the Gentiles obedient [to win, to obtain, for the, obedience, of,
from, the nations].[ 102 ] Christ did not work directly upon the hearts of sinners
but He worked through Paul to bring the Gentiles to obedience by means of the
gospel. The salvation of the Gentiles was dependant upon their obedience
(compare Mt 7:21; Mk 16:16; Heb 5:8, 9; Ro 10:16).
In mighty signs [by the, in the, through, power of signs].[ 103 ] Some of Paul's
powerful miracles were the blinding of Elymas (Ac 13:9-11), the healing of the
impotent man (Ac 14:8-10) and the raising of Eutychus from the dead (Ac 20:9-12; see chart SIGNS ACCOMPANYING PAUL).
SIGNS ACCOMPANYING PAUL
1. Prophecy (Ac 13:1).
2. Healing (Ac 14:8-10).
3. Raising the dead (Ac 20:9, 10).
4. Not hurt by the bite of deadly viper (Ac 28:3-5).
5. Speaking in foreign tongues (1Co 14:18).
And wonders [and miracles].[ 104 ] People were amazed at Paul's mighty
miracles. An example of this is when he remained unharmed after being bitten by
a serpent (Ac 28:3-6).
By the power of the Spirit of God [in the power of the Holy Spirit, the Spirit
of God].[ 105 ] That the Holy Spirit spoke through Paul is evident (Ac 13:1; 1Co
2:13; 14:37; Ga 1:12). The Holy Spirit was also behind the miracles he
performed (see 1Co 12:6-11; 2Co 12:12; Tit 3:5, 6).
So that from Jerusalem [so that I, from Jerusalem].[ 106 ] We normally think
of Paul's mission work beginning from Antioch (see Ac 13:1-3). However,
following his conversion and brief ministry in Damascus, he went to Arabia (Ga
1:17). Then he preached in Jerusalem in the same synagogues where Stephen
debated the Jews. Because his life was in danger (Ac 9:29), Christ warned him
to leave (Ac 22:17-21). The brethren sent him to Cilicia where he preached the
gospel and established congregations (Ac 9:30; Ga 1:21).
And round about [round about, and as far round, and in a circuit
round].[ 107 ] Paul had preached "everywhere," mostly to the north and west of
Jerusalem (see note above on So that from Jerusalem; also Ac 13-19).
To Illyricum [as, even unto, Illyricum].[ 108 ] This is the only reference to
Paul's work north of Macedonia. Since Illyricum (Dalmatia or Yugoslavia) is
north of Greece, it is possible that he visited it from there. He may have taken the
trip in connection with the work described in Acts 20:1-3.
I have fully preached [have fully preached].[ 109 ] The "whole counsel of God"
was to be preached to the whole world (see Mk 16:15, 16; Ac 20:27; Col 1:6, 23,
25). This Paul had done in the locales he mentioned. He was not allowed to go
in certain directions. For example, the Spirit did not permit his company of
workers to go into Bithynia (Ac 16:7).
The gospel of Christ [the glad tidings of the Christ].[ 110 ] Paul faithfully
carried out his commission from Christ (see chart THE GOSPEL OF CHRIST).
THE GOSPEL OF CHRIST
1. That Christ died for our sins (1Co 15:3).
2. That He was buried (1Co 15:4).
3. That He rose again the third day (1Co 15:4).
4. That He was seen by Cephas, then by the
twelve (1Co 15:5).
PREACHING WHERE CHRIST WAS NOT NAMED
15:20, 21 And so I have made it my aim to preach the gospel, not where
Christ was named, lest I should build on another man's foundation, 21 but as
it is written: "To whom He was not announced, they shall see; and those who
have not heard shall understand."
And so I have made it my aim [thus, and thus, yea, making it my ambition,
aiming].[ 111 ] Paul counted it an honor to carry out the commission Christ gave
him (see Ac 9:15, 16). He had an aspiration, a goal, an aim to preach in regions
where the gospel had not gone.
To preach the gospel [so to, yea, so have I strived, earnestly endeavored, to
announce the glad tidings].[ 112 ] Paul's preaching was not superficial, speculative
or perfunctory. He preached with a purpose. He always made clear to his
listeners what they needed to do to be saved. When he concluded, he expected an
obedient response. Preachers today should take a lesson from him in this vital
feature of preaching. He did not waste time with current events, book reviews or
psychology. He preached the gospel! (see chart THE GOSPEL OF CHRIST).
Not where Christ was named [not where Christ has been named, has
already, was already, named, been named, where Christ had not been made
known].[ 113 ] "Where Christ was named" has a very positive significance. Not
only does it mean that His name was upheld in gospel preaching but that there
were people who believed in Him and confessed His name (see Ro 10:9, 10).
Naming the name of Christ stands for not only the preaching the truth of Christ
but obedience to Him. It would be in harmony with Paul's thought to say he
desired to preach in areas where people had not yet been saved.
Lest I should build [that, so that, I might not build].[ 114 ] In some European
countries, an apprentice carpenter works some twenty years with an experienced
builder. He learns every phase of construction, including laying a foundation,
framing, roofing, plumbing, electrical and finish carpentry. Paul was a master
builder, a pioneer in the gospel (1Co 3:10). He understood all phases of the work
of establishing churches. It was his delight to be the first to introduce the gospel
into an area where it was not previously known. He would travel to a location and
immediately begin to build and build up a congregation as men and women
believed, obeyed the truth and developed in service to Christ.
On another man's foundation [on another's, upon another man's,
foundation].[ 115 ] Others besides Paul had evangelized part of the world. When
their preaching was successful, they laid a foundation. Paul alluded to the primary
work of another preacher as "another man's foundation." When "Christ was
named" in salvation (see Ro 10:9, 10), there came into being a nucleus of
Christians to carry on the work of Christ. Paul's goal was to start churches, not
to preach to existing ones. As long as this aspect of his work was being targeted
he was not ready to go to Rome where thousands of Christians lived (see Ro 1:13-15).
[15:21] But as it is written [but according as it is written].[ 116 ] Reference is
made to a prophecy of Isaiah.
So shall He sprinkle[ 117 ] many nations. Kings shall shut their mouths at
Him; for what had not been told them they shall see, and what they had not
heard they shall consider (Isa 52:15).
To whom He was not announced [who have never been told of him, to whom
no tidings of him came, he was not spoken of, to whom there was nothing told
concerning him, who had no message concerning him].[ 118 ] No glad tidings
came to the Gentiles until the gospel had gone first to the Jew. Afterwards Paul
and others preached to those "to whom He was not announced," that is, to the
They shall see.[ 119 ] The obedient Gentiles did not close their eyes but
understood with their hearts and were converted (compare Mt 13:15).
And those who have not heard [and who have never heard of him, and they
that have not heard].[ 120 ] This alludes to hearing the gospel (see Ro 10:14).
Shall understand [they shall understand].[ 121 ] Understanding the gospel
message is essential to salvation. Unless preaching is understood people cannot
be saved (compare Joh 8:32; 1Co 14:9). Jesus placed understanding before
For the hearts of this people have grown dull. Their ears are hard of
hearing, and their eyes they have closed, lest they should see with their eyes
and hear with their ears, lest they should understand with their hearts and
turn, so that I should heal them (Mt 13:15).
When the Gentiles heard the gospel they understood it before they were baptized.
One Gentile nobleman had difficulty comprehending the prophecy of Isaiah 53.
Philip assisted him.
So Philip ran to him, and heard him reading the prophet Isaiah, and said,
"Do you understand what you are reading?" 31 And he said, "How can I,
unless someone guides me?" And he asked Philip to come up and sit with
him (Ac 8:30, 31).
PAUL'S VISIT TO ROME DELAYED
15:22-25 For this reason I also have been much hindered from coming to you.
23 But now no longer having a place in these parts, and having a great desire
these many years to come to you, 24 whenever I journey to Spain, I shall come
to you.[ 122 ] For I hope to see you on my journey, and to be helped on my way
there by you, if first I may enjoy your company for a while. 25 But now I am
going to Jerusalem to minister to the saints.
For this reason [this is the reason why, wherefore, wherefore also, for which
cause].[ 123 ] The reason Paul was hindered from going to Rome is explained in
verses 20, 21.
I also have been much hindered from coming to you [I have been, also I have
been, also I was, often, so often been, I have often been, hindered, much
hindered, these many times, from coming to you].[ 124 ] There had been place
after place where Paul had opportunities to preach where the gospel had not gone.
He kept on travelling and preaching in unevangelized territory until he fulfilled his
[15:23] But now.[ 125 ] The virgin territory east of Rome had now been
evangelized. Spain and regions to the west still needed to hear the gospel. Paul
intended to go there after visiting Rome.
No longer having a place [since I no longer have any room for work, having
no longer, no more, no further, any, place].[ 126 ] When Paul wrote the Roman
letter he was winding down his evangelistic operation among the Gentiles. His
opportunities to lay the ground work in establishing churches was being completed
(see Col 1:23).
In these parts [in these regions].[ 127 ] Paul was in Corinth when he wrote the
Roman letter. He had already collected most of the funds for the saints in Judea.
His trip to Rome began some time after he arrived in Jerusalem and was arrested.
And having a great desire [and since I have longed, and having great desire,
a longing].[ 128 ] Rome was the capital of the world. For a long time, Paul longed
to visit that city of over a million souls[ 129 ] but was hindered many times over a
period of many years. If he had desired to go to Rome from the day of his
conversion, "many years" could have amounted to as many as twenty-four.[ 130 ]
These many years to come to you [for many years to come unto you, to come
to you these many years].[ 131 ] Paul earnestly desired to teach and preach in
Rome. For one thing, the impartation of spiritual gifts would help them to mature
in Christ (see Ro 1:11). Not only was the Roman church of Christ large but it
needed strengthening. There were also countless lost souls in and around the great
JERUSALEM, ROME AND SPAIN
[15:24] Whenever I journey to Spain [as, whenever, whensoever, I go, I
should go, I take my journey, as I pass through; in passing, as I go through,
unto, into, Spain].[ 132 ] In addition to Paul's longing to visit Rome, he hoped to
preach the word in Spain, a region that then included everything west of the
Pyrenees mountains along the border of what we now call France and Spain.
Information about Paul's work there is incomplete. I trust that his intent was
fulfilled after the release from his first Roman imprisonment.
I shall come to you [I will come to you, for I hope to visit you].[ 133 ]
For I hope to see you [I hope, for I trust, to see you].[ 134 ]
On my journey [in my journey, passing through].[ 135 ] Paul did not intend his
visit to Rome to end his ministry nor did it. He was released, preached in various
places and later was re-arrested.
And to be helped on my way there by you [to be sped on my journey there,
brought on my way thitherward, helped on my way by you, and by you to be
set forward thither].[ 136 ] It was the common practice for churches to send
provisions and money with an evangelist when he left for another work. Often
they would supply men to accompany him in travel for at least part of the way (see
note on Ac 15:3).
If first [once, and after].[ 137 ] "If first" suggests that Paul would have liked to
enjoyed a rather long stay with the Roman church.
I may enjoy your company [I have enjoyed, shall have been satisfied with,
be somewhat filled with, shall have been in part filled with, your
company].[ 138 ] As it turned out, Paul went to Rome as a prisoner with privileges.
He was under what might be termed "house arrest." Then he was released,
possibly went to Spain, was re-arrested and taken from the maximum security
prison in Rome outside the city to be beheaded.
For a while [for a little, in some measure].[ 139 ]
CONTRIBUTION BEING CARRIED TO JERUSALEM
[15:25] But now [at present, however].[ 140 ] When Paul was writing the Roman
letter he was "getting packed" for a trip to Jerusalem.
I am going to Jerusalem [I go, I say, I go, unto Jerusalem].[ 141 ] Paul's
Jerusalem trip was not primarily a preaching tour on behalf of the unsaved.
To minister [with aid, ministering].[ 142 ] The purpose of Paul's trip to
Jerusalem was to deliver money contributed by Gentile churches mainly for the
poor Jewish saints.
To the saints [for, unto, the saints].[ 143 ] The contribution itself on was only
a part of Paul's mission to Jerusalem. Along with it he hoped to cement the
fellowship between Jewish and Gentile brethren everywhere.
CONTRIBUTION FROM MACEDONIA AND ACHAIA
15:26 For it pleased those from Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain
contribution for the poor among the saints who are in Jerusalem.
For it pleased [for have been pleased, for it hath pleased them, been the
good pleasure of, for have been well pleased].[ 144 ] The contribution from the
Gentile brethren was of their own free will (see 2Co 8:1-5). They were glad to
help their Jewish brothers and sisters.
Those from Macedonia [Macedonia].[ 145 ] The contribution Paul carried was
partly from the Macedonian churches (northern Greece) including those in Philippi,
Thessalonica and Berea.
And Achaia.[ 146 ] Paul also collected money from churches in Achaia (southern
Greece) including Cenchrea and Corinth.
To make a certain contribution [to make some contribution].[ 147 ] The Greek
word KOINOONIAN fellowship is used for the contribution (see note above on To
the saints, on verse 25).
For the poor among the saints [to the poor of the saints].[ 148 ] A depression
had hit hard in Judea. Still all the saints were not on or below the poverty level.
There were poor among them. Others would be helped who were not even
members of the churches of Christ (2Co 9:12, 13).
Who are in Jerusalem [at, that are at, which are at, in, Jerusalem].[ 149 ] In
addition to the famine, One reason the brethren in Jerusalem were poor was
because after Pentecost property owners had sold out and contributed the money
to the church. The funds were used up to feed, clothe and house the new
Christians who remained under the teaching of the apostles. Others who did not
sell immediately had their goods confiscated (see Heb 10:34).
HAPPY GENTILE CHRISTIANS PAYING A DEBT
15:27 It pleased them indeed, and they are their debtors. For if the Gentiles
have been partakers of their spiritual things, their duty is also to minister to
them in material things.
It pleased them indeed [they were, they have been, pleased, well pleased
indeed, to do it, yea, it hath been their good pleasure, pleased them verily, for
it pleased them].[ 150 ] The repetition of this thought intensifies it (see verse 26).
Paul did not want his readers to miss the point that the Greek Christians cheerfully
gave money for their Jewish brothers. They contributed out of a heart of love.
And they are their debtors [and indeed they are in debt to them, and their
debtors they are, they were obligated to them].[ 151 ] The Gentiles were gladly
paying a debt to the Jews from whom they received the gospel.
For if the Gentiles [for if the nations].[ 152 ]
Have been partakers [shared, have come to share, have been made
partakers, have participated].[ 153 ]
Of their spiritual things [their spiritual things, in their spiritual
blessings].[ 154 ] Gentiles shared the spiritual blessings in Christ (Eph 1:3) when
they obeyed the gospel and were baptized into Him (Ro 6:3, 4; Ga 3:26, 27). The
contribution had been cheerfully given by the Gentile Christians. Those who
delivered it enjoyed a pleasant activity as they saw how graciously it was received.
They marveled at the magnificent unifying effect it had both upon those who had
contributed and those who received it. What Paul said about it helped a lot. It not
only benefitted those who gave and received but it was a blessing to those who
heard about it.
Their duty is also [they ought, they ought also, owe it to them, also].[ 155 ]
The Gentiles were bound by necessity. It was their God-given duty to aid their
Jewish brethren. The love of Christ in their hearts also obligated them to help.
To minister to them [to be of service unto them, to share with the Jews].[ 156 ]
The word "minister" implies priestly service (see note on verse 16). In this verse,
it consisted of a material offering to God in the form of a contribution for the
saints at Jerusalem.
In material things [in carnal, in fleshly, their material, blessings, things].[ 157 ]
An offering to God may be the fruit of lips (Heb 13:15). Here it was a
contribution of "material things" to provide necessities such as food and clothing.
The church relief was given out to the Christians. Additional help was made
available to other indigent people in and around Jerusalem, some of whom were
For the administration of this service not only supplies the needs of the
saints, but also is abounding through many thanksgivings to God, while,
through the proof of this ministry, they glorify God for the obedience of
your confession to the gospel of Christ, and for your liberal sharing with
them and all men (2Co 9:12,13).
TO VISIT SPAIN
15:28 Therefore, when I have performed this and have sealed to them this
fruit, I shall go by way of you to Spain.
Therefore, when [when, when therefore].[ 158 ] Paul returns to the topic of
I have performed this [I have completed, accomplished, having finished,
shall have finished, this mission].[ 159 ]
And have sealed [and having delivered].[ 160 ] In ancient times, sacks of grain
were sealed to guarantee full measure and quality. Paul would not consider his job
done until he had safely delivered the entire collection and given an accounting to
the Jerusalem elders.
To them this fruit [to them what has been raised, this offering to them].[ 161 ]
"This fruit" was the collection from the Gentile churches that Paul had previously
written about (1Co 16:1, 2; 2Co 8, 9).
I shall go by way of you [I will come by you, set off by you, go on by
you].[ 162 ] There remained some suffering of Christ to be fulfilled in Paul. There
was still some suffering that Christ would show him (Ac 9:15, 16; 20:23; 21:11;
Col 1:24). Although his prayers were answered, some of the suffering would
occur on his trip to Rome and during his imprisonment (see notes on verses 31,
32). To Paul, this was a part of his life's journey toward heaven. The eventful
trip to Rome was a preaching tour!
To Spain [unto, into, on my way to, Spain].[ 163 ] Paul mentions Spain again
as if to say this particular trip to Rome would not bring him to his final destination
(see note on verse 25).
COMING IN THE BLESSING OF CHRIST
15:29 But I know that when I come to you, I shall come in the fullness of the
blessing of the gospel of Christ.
But I know that when I come to you [and I know that, am sure that, coming
unto you].[ 164 ] There was no doubt in Paul's mind that he was going to travel to
I shall come in the fullness [I will come in the fullness].[ 165 ]
Of the blessing of the gospel of Christ [of the blessings of Christ].[ 166 ] Christ
had tremendously blessed Paul's ministry. He would come to Rome with the same
STRIVE TOGETHER IN PRAYERS
15:30-32 Now I beg you, brethren, through the Lord Jesus Christ, and
through the love of the Spirit, that you strive together with me in prayers to
God for me, 31 that I may be delivered from those in Judea who do not
believe, and that my service for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints, 32
that I may come to you with joy by the will of God, and may be refreshed
together with you.
Now I beg you [I appeal to, beseech, but I beseech, you].[ 167 ] Paul's request
for prayer is not casual or nonchalant: it is earnest.
PAUL'S PRAYER REQUESTS
(Ro 15:31, 32)
1. To be delivered from those in Judea who do not
2. That his service [contribution] would be acceptable
to the saints in Jerusalem.
3. To come to Rome with joy by the will of God.
4. And be refreshed together with them.
Brethren [brothers].[ 168 ] "Brethren" is a term of affection, fraternity and
fellowship (see verses 14, 15).
Through the Lord Jesus Christ [by our Lord Jesus Christ, for the Lord
Jesus Christ's sake].[ 169 ] Jesus had much to say about prayer and He prayed long
and often for the apostles (see Lu 6:12; Joh 17:6-9). Paul reminded his readers
of the concern of Christ for His people, as well as his own. The Lord's concern
for His people continues after His ascension to heaven.
And through the love of the Spirit [and by, and for, the love of the
Spirit].[ 170 ] This is one of many instances where the kindness of deity is
mentioned. The Holy Spirit inspires love in the hearts of Christians (Ga 5:22; Php
2:1). This love shows itself in deeds and in prayer.
That you strive together with me [strive, to strive, that ye strive, together
with me].[ 171 ] Paul asks the Christians at Rome to strive, struggle and wrestle
along with him in earnest and sincere prayer to God.
In prayers to God for me [in your prayers to God in, on, my behalf, for me
to God].[ 172 ] Paul does not urge his readers to start praying. He assumes they
already pray regularly. He makes request that the content of their prayers include
him for at least four specific needs (see chart PAUL'S PRAYER REQUESTS).
[15:31] That I may be delivered [that I may be saved, rescued].[ 173 ] There
was a possibility that Satan would use the unbelieving Jews to disable or kill Paul.
It was in answer to prayer that God prevented that (see the account of his rescue
in Acts 21, especially verse 30).
From those in Judea who do not believe [from in Judea, from them in
Judaea, the unbelievers, that are, who are, disobedient, that do not believe,
in Judea].[ 174 ] Some of the Jews In Judea who rejected Christ had once before
intended to kill Paul in Jerusalem (see Ac 9:28-30; 22:18-21). They would have
liked nothing more than to finish what they had failed to accomplish.
And that my service [and that my ministry, ministration, which I have].[ 175 ]
Because the Gentiles were indebted to the Jews, they would "minister" to them
(verse 27). The contribution was, in part, their ministration. Paul's part consisted
in collecting and delivering it. This was his ministration, his service.
For Jerusalem [to the saints].[ 176 ] "Jerusalem" stands for any of the inhabitants
of Jerusalem but especially, but not limited to, saints or Christians (see 2Co 8:4;
9:1, 13; compare Ga 6:10).
May be acceptable to the saints [may be accepted of the saints].[ 177 ] Besides
relieving poverty in Jerusalem, the gracious acceptance of the contribution from
the Gentile Christians served to weld together the two great factions[ 178 ] among
the churches of Christ.
[15:32] That I may come to you with joy [so that, in order that, I may come
unto you in joy].[ 179 ] In spite of difficulties along the way, Paul experienced joy
in faithfully serving Christ. When he finally got to Italy, the brethren met him.
He thoroughly enjoyed being with them (see Ac 28:14, 15).
By the will of God [by God's will, through the will of God][ 180 ] (see note on
And may be refreshed together with you [and be, and that I may be, and
may with you be, refreshed, refreshed with you, in your company, and
together with you find rest].[ 181 ] Paul got his refreshing rest in a Roman prison.
There he was permitted to dwell by himself. A soldier guarded him of course. At
least part of the time he had his own rented house (Ac 18:16, 30). Guests were
allowed to come and go to hear him preach (Ac 28:17-23)
THE GOD OF PEACE
1. The God of peace will crush Satan under your feet
shortly (Ro 16:20).
2. The God of love and peace will be with you
(2Co 13:11; compare Ro 5:1).
3. The things which you learned and received and
heard and saw in me, these do, and the God of
peace will be with you (Php 4:9).
4. Now may the God of peace Himself sanctify you
completely (1Th 5:23).
5. Now may the God of peace . . . make you complete
in every good work to do His will (Heb 13:20, 21).
15:33 Now the God of peace be with you all. Amen.
Now the God of peace [now, the, and the, God of peace].[ 182 ] "For God is
not the author of confusion but of peace" (1Co 14:33; see chart THE GOD OF
PEACE). He is the founder and promoter of peace (see note on verses 15, 13;
Be with you all.[ 183 ] Like the term "brethren," "you all" speaks of unity.
Amen.[ 184 ] The Holy Spirit attests to the truth of the Roman letter with
"Amen," it is so. The readers acknowledge its truth with "Amen," so be it (see
Ro 1:25; 9:5; 12:36; 16:20, 24).
[ 1 ]The basic text in this chapter is the NKJV. Scripture taken from the New King James Version.
Copyright 1979, 1980, 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved.
Alternate phrases in brackets are from ASV, Darby, ESB, KJV and RSV and occasionally another
version. Greek transliteration approximates the BibleSoft method.
[ 2 ]DE HEEMEIS HOI DUNATOI, so we the strong (Marshall 648); powerful, mighty; the "strong"
are those referred to in chapter 14, in contrast to "the weak in the faith," those who have scruples in
regard to eating meat and the observance of days (Vine 1097); those who are strong [in faith] (Arndt
208; firm in conviction and faith (Thayer 160); now the able (Lenski 856); us who are strong
[ 3 ]OPHEILOMEN BASTAZEIN, ought to bear (Marshall 648); OPHEILOMEN is first person
plural, present active indicative of OPHEILOO; BASTAZEIN is the present active infinitive of
BASTAZOO (Han 314); ought to bear a burden (Vine 92, 820); is obligated, one must, one ought [to]
bear patiently, put up with: weaknesses (Arndt 137, 598; to be under obligation, bound by duty or
necessity, to do something; it behooves one; one ought; used thus of a necessity imposed either by law
and duty or by reason, or by the times, or by the nature of the matter under consideration, denoting
obligation in its special and personal aspects (Thayer 469); under obligation are we to bear (Lenski
856); it is the duty to bear (Williams).
[ 4 ]TA ASTHENEEMATA, the weaknesses (Marshall 648; Williams); only here in the NT, plural,
infirmities, that is, those scruples which arise through weakness of faith. The strong must support the
infirmities of the weak [ADUNATOS] by submitting to self-restraint (Vine 587); weakness; plural, of
conscientious scruples caused by weakness of faith (Arndt 115); infirmity, used of error arising from
weakness of mind (Thayer 80).
[ 5 ]TON ADUNATOON, of the not strong (Marshall 648); literally, not powerful, of the infirmities
of those whose scruples arise through lack of faith (Vine 1216); of those weak in faith [opposite HOI
DUNATOI, the strong] (Arndt 19); without strength, impotent, figuratively of Christians whose faith
is not yet quite firm (Thayer 12); of the unable (Lenski 856); of those who are not strong (Williams).
[ 6 ]KAI MEE HEAUTOIS ARESKEIN, and not [our]selves to please (Marshall 648); ARESKEIN
is the present active infinitive of ARESKOO (Han 314); to endeavor to please, and so, [not] to render
service, doing so evilly in [our] own interests (Vine 861); [not] to strive to please, accommodate
[conduct, activity, often almost serve ourselves] (Arndt 105); [not] to please [ourselves] and therefore
to have an eye to [our] own interests (Thayer 72); and not [merely] to please our own selves (Lenski
856); and not merely to please ourselves (Williams).
[ 7 ]NU-Text and M-Text read you.
[ 8 ]HEKASTOS HEEMOON, each one of us (Marshall 648; Williams); each, every (Thayer 192;
Vine 339; Arndt 236); let each of us (Lenski 856).
[ 9 ]TOO PLEESION ARESKETOO, the (his) neighbor let him please (Marshall 648); ARESKETOO
is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of ARESKOO (Han 314); the neuter of the
adjective PLEESIOS [from PELAS, near] (Vine 779); strive to please, accommodate [his] fellow-Christian (Arndt 105, 672); please any other man irrespective of race or religion with whom we live
or whom we chance to meet (Thayer 72, 519); please his neighbor (Lenski 856); must practice pleasing
his neighbor (Williams); see note on verse 1.
[ 10 ]EIS TO AGATHON, for good (Marshall 648); good in character or constitution, beneficial in
its effect (Vine 493); for good, to advantage (Arndt 3; Thayer 2); for the Good (Lenski 856); for his
eternal [in EIS] (Williams).
[ 11 ]PROS OIKODOMEEN, to building [up] (Marshall 648); edification, the promotion of spiritual
growth [literally, the things of building up] (Vine 348); with conscious purpose for, for the purpose of,
on behalf of building up, for edification (Arndt 559, 710); in the NT metaphorically, edifying,
edification, that is, the act of one who promotes another's growth in Christian wisdom, piety, holiness,
happiness (Thayer 440); with a view to upbuilding (Lenski 856); to help in his immediate [in PROS]
[ 12 ]KAI GAR HO CHRISTOS OUCH HEAUTOO EERESEN, for even Christ not himself pleased
(Marshall 648); EERESEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of ARESKOO (Han
314); Christ did not render service evilly in his own interests (Vine 860); [did not] strive to please,
accommodate [himself] (Arndt 105); [did not] please [himself] and therefore [did not] have an eye to
[his] own interests (Thayer 72); GAR introduces a reason for pleasing a neighbor (Lard 432); Christ
certainly did not please Himself (Williams).
[ 13 ]ALLA KATHOOS GEGRAPTAI, but as it has been written (Marshall 648); GEGRAPTAI is
third person singular, perfect passive indicative of GRAPHOO (Han 314); of those things which stand
written in the sacred books [of the OT] (Thayer 121); as the Scripture says (Williams).
[ 14 ]HOI ONEIDISMOI, the reproaches of the [ones] (Marshall 648); reproaches, defamations (Vine
954); reproaches, insults, Arndt 570; reproaches (Thayer 446); the reproaches of those (Lenski 856;
[ 15 ]Deaver, Psalms 1.232.
[ 16 ]TOON ONEIDIZONTOON SE, of the [ones] reproaching thee (Marshall 648);
ONEIDIZONTOON is the present active participle, genitive plural masculine of ONEIDIZOO (Han
314); active voice, reproached, upbraided (Vine 954); reviled, of unjust reproaches (Thayer 446);
reproaching thee (Lenski 856); who reproach you (Williams).
[ 17 ]EPEPESAN EP' EME, fell on me (Marshall 648); EPEPESAN is third person plural, first aorist
active indicative of EPIPIPTOO (Han 314); figuratively, of extraordinary events, misfortunes, etc. come
upon; reproaches have fallen upon [me] (Arndt 297); of reproaches cast upon one (Thayer 241); have
fallen upon me (Williams).
[ 18 ]See E. M. Zerr 373.
[ 19 ]HOSA GAR [PANTA], for whatever things (Marshall 648); the whole, all, nearly equivalent
to the HOSA PROEGRAPHEE [whatever things were written before] (Thayer 491); for everything
[ 20 ]PROEGRAPHEE, were previously written (Marshall 648); third person singular, second aorist
passive indicative of PROGRAPHOO (Han 314); [were] written before (Vine 1252); written before [of
time] (Thayer 538); were written before (Lenski 856); that was written in the earlier times (Williams).
[ 21 ]EIS TEEN HEEMETERAN DIDASKALIAN EGRAPHEE, for our teaching were written
(Marshall 648); EGRAPHEE is third person singular, second aorist passive indicative of GRAPHOO
(Han 314);teaching, instruction (Vine 654); scripture as a whole, the scriptures (Arndt 166); teaching,
instruction (Thayer 144); for our instruction were they written (Lenski 856); was written for our
[ 22 ]HINA DIA TEES HUPOMONEES, in order that through patience (Marshall 648); [HUPO
under, MENOO to abide] (Vine 839); patience, endurance, fortitude, steadfastness, perseverance,
especially as they are shown in the enduring of toil and suffering (Arndt 846); in the NT the
characteristic of a man who is unswerved from his deliberate purpose and his loyalty to faith and piety
by even the greatest trials and sufferings (Thayer 644); that through the perseverance (Lenski 856); so
that by our patient endurance (Williams).
[ 23 ]KAI DIA TEES PARAKLEESEOOS TOON GRAPHOON, and through the comfort of the
writings (Marshall 648); [PARA beside, KALEOO to call], either an exhortation or consolation,
comfort (Vine 199); the consolation that the scriptures give (Arndt 618); consolation, comfort, solace
afforded by the contents of the Scriptures (Thayer 483); scriptures is genitive of source, from the
scriptures (Lard 433); and through the admonition of the scriptures (Lenski 856); and through the
encouragement of the Scriptures (Williams).
[ 24 ]"Scriptures" is genitive of source (Moses E. Lard 433).
[ 25 ]TEEN ELPIDA ECHOOMEN, the hope we may have (Marshall 648); ECHOOMEN is first
person plural, present active subjunctive of ECHOO (Han 314); have as one's own, possess (Arndt
332); expectation of good, hope, in the Christian sense, joyful and confident expectation of eternal
salvation (Thayer 205, 206); retain hope (Lard 430); we may be having the hope (Lenski 856); we
might continuously cherish our hope (Williams).
[ 26 ]HO DE THEOS TEES HUPOMONEES, and the God of patience (Marshall 648); God is the
Source of patience and comfort (Vine 491; Arndt 846); [of] steadfastness, constancy, endurance (Thayer
644); now the God of this perseverance (Lenski 862); may God, who gives men patient endurance
[ 27 ]KAI TEES PARAKLEESEOOS, and of comfort (Marshall 648); God the author and bestower
of comfort (Thayer 483); and of this admonition [he who is the source of both (perseverance and
admonition) and makes his Scriptures the source, verse 4] (Lenski 862); and encouragement [objective
[ 28 ]DOOEE HUMIN, give to you (Marshall 648; Lenski 862); DOOEE is third person singular,
second aorist active optative of DIDOOMI (Han 314); optative has to do with the expression of a wish
or desire; aorist optative, third singular, Hellenist DOOEE for DOIEE (Arndt 192); give, optative third
person singular DOOEE for DOIEE (Thayer 145); grant you (Williams).
[ 29 ]TO AUTO PHRONEIN, the same to mind (Marshall 648); PHRONEIN is the present active
infinitive of PHRONEOO (Han 314); be of the same mind, literally, minding the same (Vine 742, 989);
be of the same mind, that is, agree together, cherish the same views, be harmonious (Thayer 658); to
be minding the same thing (Lenski 862); such harmony (Williams).
[ 30 ]EN ALLEELOIS, among one another (Marshall 648); each other, one another, mutually (Arndt
39, 258); with [from EN in], when its object is plural (as here), with, among, in the midst. Obviously
we are not "inside" one another. The same is true of Christ "among" us (Joh 1:14), and the Spirit "in
our midst" (1Co 3:16) (Littrell); among each other (Lenski 862); with one another (Williams).
[ 31 ]KATA CHRISTON 'IEESOUN, according to Christ Jesus (Marshall 648); to introduce the norm
that governs something . . . with the accusative of the person, according to whose will [Christ's],
pleasure, or manner something occurs (Arndt 407); agreeably to the will of, as it pleases [Christ Jesus]
(Thayer 328); in accord with Christ Jesus (Lenski 862); in accordance with the standard which Christ
Jesus sets (Williams).
[ 32 ]HINA HOMOTHUMADON, in order that with one accord (Marshall 648); with one mind or
one purpose (Arndt 566); with one mind, of one accord (Thayer 445); in order that in one accord
(Lenski 862); that with united hearts (Williams).
[ 33 ]EN HENI STOMATI DOXAZEETE, with one mouth ye may glorify (Marshall 648);
DOXAZEETE is second person plural, present active indicative of DOXAZOO (Han 314); by
metonymy, that which the mouth utters, with one voice, praise, honor, magnify [God] (Arndt 204,
770); with one mouth you may go on glorifying (Lenski 862); praise, extol, magnify, celebrate (Thayer
157). The word "celebrate" is used by Thayer in the sense of performing a solemn religious ceremony
or rite (see Webster); you may praise (Williams).
[ 34 ]TON THEON KAI PATERA TOU KURIOU HEEMOON 'IEESOU CHRISTOU, the God and
Father of the Lord of us Jesus Christ (Marshall 648); of the true God, the Father of Jesus Christ, in
the confession of Christians (Arndt 357, 636); the Father of Jesus Christ, as one whom God has united
to himself in the closest bond of love and intimacy, made acquainted with his purposes, appointed to
explain and carry out among men the plan of salvation, and [as appears from the teaching of John] made
to share also in his own divine nature (Thayer 495); the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ
[ 35 ]The Greek has one article: "the God and Father." This is its regular way of combining two
concepts into a unity; thus the genitive "of our Lord" belongs to this unity, to God as much as to
Father. When two or more concepts are not to be a unit, the article is repeated although even there,
if the sense permits, a following genitive may belong to all the nouns as is the case in verse 4 (Lenski
[ 36 ]M-Text reads others.
[ 37 ]DIO PROSLAMBANESTHE, wherefore receive ye (Marshall 648); PROSLAMBANESTHE is
second person plural, present middle imperative of PROSLAMBANOO (Han 314); receive or accept
in one's society, in[to] one's home or circle of acquaintances, of one Christian receiving another (Arndt
717); receive, that is, grant one access to one's heart; to take into friendship (Thayer 548); therefore,
in order that the divine purpose [verse 6] may be attained as far as you are concerned, be receiving
each other to yourselves (Lenski 865); therefore, practice receiving into full Christian fellowship
[ 38 ]ALLEELOUS, one another (Marshall 648; Williams); see notes and chart on Ro 14:19; 15:5.
[ 39 ]KATHOOS KAI HO CHRISTOS PROSELABETO HEEMAS, as also Christ received us
(Marshall 648); PROSELABETO is third person singular, second aorist middle indicative of
PROSLAMBANOO (Han 314); of Christ accepting the believer (Arndt 717); God and Christ are said
[to have received] those whom, formerly estranged from them, they have reunited to themselves by the
blessings of the gospel (Thayer 348); even as also Christ received you to himself (Lenski 865); just as
Christ has so received you to Himself (Williams).
[ 40 ]EIS DOXAN TOU THEOU, to [the] glory of God (Marshall 648, 649; Arndt 204); to honor
God, promote his glory [among men] (Thayer 155); for God's glory! (Lenski 865).
[ 41 ]LEGOO GAR, for I say (Marshall 649); maintain, declare, proclaim as teaching with direct
discourse following (Arndt 469); [I] asservate, affirm, aver, maintain (Thayer 374); for I mean (Lenski
865); yes, I mean (Williams).
[ 42 ]CHRISTON DIAKONON GEGENEESTHAI, Christ a minister to have become (Marshall 649;
Vine 699); GEGENEESTHAI is the perfect passive infinitive of GINOMAI (Han 314); of Christ, [a]
helper (Arndt 184); of Christ, who labored for the salvation of the circumcised, that is, the Jews
(Thayer 238); that Christ has become a minister (Lenski 865); that Christ has become a servant
[ 43 ]PERITOMEES, of [the] circumcision (Marshall 649); of those circumcised (Vincent 3.173); for
the circumcision=for the Jews (Arndt 184); of the circumcised, that is, the Jews (Thayer 238); by
metonymy, the abstract being put for the concrete, as with the application of the word to the Jews
generally (Vine 184); of circumcision (Lenski 865); to Israel (Williams).
[ 44 ]HUPER ALEETHEIAS THEOU, on behalf of [the] truth of God (Marshall 649); of God,
truthfulness, dependability, uprightness in thought and deed (Arndt 36); veracity [of God in keeping his
promises] (Thayer 26); to prove God's truthfulness [literally, for God's truth] (Williams).
[ 45 ]EIS TO BEBAIOOSAI, to confirm (Marshall 649); BEBAIOOSAI is the first aorist active
infinitive of BEBAIOOO (Han 315); prove the promises reliable, fulfill [them] (Arndt 138); make good
the promises by the event, that is, fulfill them (Thayer 99); to make valid (Williams).
[ 46 ]TAS EPANGELIAS TOON PATEROON, the promises of the fathers (Marshall 649); God's
promises, to denote the ones to whom the promises are intended (Arndt 280); the promises made to the
fathers (Thayer 227); (His promises to our forefathers (Williams).
[ 47 ]TA DE ETHNEE, and the nations (Marshall 649); and for the heathen peoples (Williams); see
note on verse 10.
[ 48 ]DOXASAI TON THEON, to glorify God (Marshall 649); DOXASAI is the first aorist active
infinitive of DOXAZOO (Han 314); praise, honor, magnify God (Arndt 204); praise, extol, magnify,
celebrate [God] (Thayer 157); to praise God (Williams).
[ 49 ]HUPER ELEOUS, on behalf of mercy (Marshall 649); mercy shown by God in Christ to men
(Arndt 250); the mercy and clemency of God in providing and offering to men salvation by Christ
[ 50 ]KATHOOS GEGRAPTAI, as it has been written (Marshall 649); GEGRAPTAI is third
person singular, perfect passive indicative of GRAPHOO (Han 315); according as,
just as, even as [it is] written in the sacred books [of the OT] (Thayer 121).
[ 51 ]DIA TOUTO, therefore (Marshall 649); for this cause, for this reason, therefore, on this
account, since this is so (Thayer 134); for this (Lenski 870; Williams).
[ 52 ]EXOMOLOGEESOMAI SOI, I will confess to thee (Marshall 649); EXOMOLOGEESOMAI
is first person singular, future middle indicative of EXOMOLOGEOO (Han 315); give praise unto you;
from the meaning confess there arose the more general sense praise, of praise directed toward God
(Arndt 277, 759); celebrate, give praise to (Thayer 224); will I confess thee (Lenski 870); I will give
thanks to you (Williams).
[ 53 ]EN ETHNESIN, among nations (Marshall 649); among Gentiles (Lenski 870); among the
[ 54 ]2Sa 22:1-50 is the same as Psalm 18.
[ 55 ]KAI TOO ONOMATI SOU PSALOO, and to the name of thee I will sing praise (Marshall 649);
PSALLOO in the NT to sing a hymn, sing praise; in Ephesians 5:19, "making melody" [for the
preceding word ADOO, see Sing]. Elsewhere it is rendered "sing" [Ro 15:9; 1Co 14:15; in Jas 5:13,
RV, "let him sing praise" (AV let sing psalms")] (Vine 730); because stringed instruments were
commonly used both by believers and heathen in singing praises to their respective gods, it meant to
sing, sing praises or psalms to God whether with or without instruments [Ro 15:9; 1Co 14:15; Eph
5:19; Jas 5:13; Septuagint Jg 5:3; 2Sa 22:60; Ps 9:2; 18:49; 30:4; 47:6] (Zodhiates 1491); in the
Septuagint PSALLOO frequently means "sing", whether to the accompaniment of a harp or [as usually]
not [Ps 7:18; 9:12; 107:4 and others]. This process continued until PSALLOO in modern Greek means
"sing" exclusively; compare PSALTEES=singer, chanter, with no reference to instrumental
accompaniment. Although the NT does not voice opposition to instrumental music, in view of Christian
resistance to mystery cults, as well as Pharisaic aversion to musical instruments in worship . . . it is
likely that some sense such as make melody is best here. Those who favor "play" (for example L-S-J;
A Souter, Pocket Lexicon, '20; J Moffatt, translation '13) may be relying too much on the earliest
meaning of PSALLOO (Arndt 891); in the NT to sing a hymn, to celebrate the praises of God in song,
in honor of God (Thayer 674); later, to sing to a harp, sing, NT (Liddell & Scott 899); and will sing
and play psalms to thy name (Lenski 870); and will sing praises to your name (Williams).
[ 56 ]KAI PALIN LEGEI, and again he says Marshall 649); LEGEI is third person singular, present
active indicative of LEGOO (Han 315); furthermore, thereupon, connecting things that are similar, a
quotation follows (Arndt 606, 607); [he] speaks, our it is said, again, that is, further, moreover,
especially where to OT passages already quoted others are added (Thayer 374, 475).
[ 57 ]EUPHRANTHEETE, be glad (Marshall 649); second person plural, first aorist passive
imperative of EUPHRAINOO (Han 315); frequently in the NT of merry-making (Vincent 3.173); be
gladdened by something=rejoice (Arndt 327); be glad, be merry, rejoice (Thayer 263); be happy
(Lenski 870); rejoice! (Williams).
[ 58 ]ETHNEE, nations (Marshall 649); heathens, pagans, Gentiles (Arndt 218); in plain
contradistinction to the Jews (Thayer 168); you heathen peoples (Williams).
[ 59 ]META TOU LAOU AUTOU, with the people of him (Marshall 649); the people of God, the
people of Israel (Arndt 466, 467); people, tribe, nation, all those who are of the same stock and
language, distinguished from TOIS ETHNESIN [the Gentiles] (Thayer 372); together with his people!
(Lenski 870); with His people (Williams).
[ 60 ]KAI PALIN, and again (Marshall 649); furthermore, thereupon, connecting things that are
similar (Arndt 606); [and] again, that is, further, moreover, especially where to OT passages already
quoted others are added (Thayer 475).
[ 61 ]AINEITE TON KURION, praise the Lord (Marshall 649; Williams); AINEITE is second person
plural, present active imperative of AINEOO (Han 315); in our literature, only of the praise of God
(Arndt 23); praise, extol [the Lord] (Thayer 16); be praising the Lord (Lenski 870).
[ 62 ]In Romans 15:11, "praise" is Greek durative present tense.
[ 63 ]KAI EPAINESATOOSAN AUTON PANTES HOI LAOI, and let praise him all the peoples
(Marshall 649); EPAINESATOOSAN is third person plural, first aorist active imperative of
EPAINEOO (Han 315); praise God (Arndt 281); [let] peoples, tribes, nations, any people, approve,
praise [him] (Thayer 372); and let all the peoples heap praise on him! (Lenski 870); yea, let all peoples
sing His praise (Williams).
[ 64 ]KAI PALIN, and again (Marshall 649); furthermore, thereupon, connecting things that are
similar (Arndt 606); [and] again, that is, further, moreover, especially where to OT passages already
quoted others are added (Thayer 475).
[ 65 ]'EESAIAS LEGEI, Esaias says (Marshall 649); LEGEI is third person singular, present active
indicative of LEGOO (Han 315); in quotation from scripture (Arndt 468); Isaiah, which is the book of
the prophecies of Isaiah, one is said to speak, LEGEIN, not only when he uses language orally, but also
when he expresses himself in writing, so of the OT writers (Thayer 281, 374).
[ 66 ]ESTAI HEE RHIZA TOU 'IESSAI, there shall be the root of Jesse (Marshall 649); ESTAI is
third person singular, future middle indicative of EIMI (Han 315); a sprout from the root (Vincent
3.173); a shoot or scion growing from the root, symbolically descendant, of the Messiah, the Scion
from Jesse (Arndt 736); after the use of the Hebrew SHORESH, that which like a root springs from
a root, a sprout, shoot; metaphorically, offspring, progeny (Thayer 563); there shall be a root-sprout
of Jesse (Lenski 870); the noted Son [literally, the [well-known] Root of Jesse will come (Williams).
[ 67 ]KAI HO ANISTAMENOS, and the [one] rising up (Marshall 649); ANISTAMENOS is the
present middle participle, nominative singular masculine of ANISTEEMI (Han 315); literally from the
Septuagint, that ariseth to reign; a paraphrase of the Hebrew stands as banner (Vincent 3.173); with
infinitive following to show purpose, rise, stand up (Arndt 70); middle voice, arises, appears, stands
forth (Thayer 47); and the One rising up (Lenski 870); even He who rises (Williams).
[ 68 ]ARCHEIN ETHNOON, to rule nations (Marshall 649); ARCHEIN is the present active
infinitive of ARCHOO (Han 315); active voice, rule, with genitive over [the Gentiles] (Arndt 113); [to
be] chief, leader, ruler (Thayer 78); to rule Gentiles (Lenski 870); to rule the heathen (Williams).
[ 69 ]EP' AUTOO ETHNEE ELPIOUSIN, on him nations will hope (Marshall 649); ELPIOUSIN is
third person plural, future active indicative of ELPIZOO (Han 315); so Septuagint, which is a free
rendering of the Hebrew seek or resort to (Vincent 3.173); [EPI on]. "On Him shall the Gentiles hope"
. . . the ground upon which hope rests (Vine 563); with indication of the person or thing on whom
[which] the hope is based, put one's hope in someone or something (Arndt 252); build hope on [him],
as on a foundation (Thayer 205); on him Gentiles shall hope (Lenski 870); on Him the heathen will set
their hope (Williams).
[ 70 ]HO DE THEOS TEES ELPIDOS, now the God of hope (Marshall 649); the God of hope; [God]
is the author, not the subject of [hope] (Vine 563) with genitive of what God brings about, in
accordance with his nature, the God from whom hope comes (Arndt 357); God, the author of hope
(Thayer 206); now the God of this hope (Lenski 874); may the hope-inspiring God [objective or
descriptive genitive] (Williams).
[ 71 ]PLEEROOSAI HUMAS PASEES CHARAS, fill you of (with) all joy (Marshall 649);
PLEEROOSAI is third person singular, first aorist active optative of PLEEROOO (Han 315); fill [you]
with joy (Arndt 671, 875); fill, diffuse throughout [your] soul, [with all] joy, gladness (Thayer 517,
664); so fill you with perfect joy (Williams).
[ 72 ]KAI EIREENEES, and peace (Marshall 649; Williams); nearly synonymous with Messianic
salvation (Arndt 227); [and] peace, used of those who, assured of salvation, tranquilly await the return
of Christ and the transformation of all things which will accompany that event (Thayer 182).
[ 73 ]EN TOO PISTEUEIN, in to believe (believing) (Marshall 649); PISTEUEIN is the present active
infinitive of PISTEUOO (Han 315); believing [in], trusting, with the object not expressed at all (Arndt
661); conviction, full of joyful trust, that Jesus is the Messiah . . . of those who acknowledge Jesus as
the Savior and devote themselves to him (Thayer 512); through your continuing faith (Williams).
[ 74 ]EIS TO PERISSEUEIN HUMAS EN TEE ELPIDI, for to abound you in hope (Marshall 649);
PERISSEUEIN is the present active infinitive of PERISSEUOO (Han 315); of the Christian hope (Arndt
253; Vine 9); be pre-eminent, excel [in] joyful and confident expectation of eternal salvation (Thayer
205, 505); so that you may abound in this hope (Lenski 874); that you may bubble over with hope
[ 75 ]EN DUNAMEI PNEUMATOS HAGIOU, by [the] power of [the] Spirit Holy (Marshall 649);
power of the Holy Spirit (Arndt 207); by the power and influence of the Holy Spirit (Thayer 159); by
the power of the Holy Spirit (Williams).
[ 76 ]PEPEISMAI DE, ADELPHOI MOU, KAI AUTOS EGOO PERI HUMOON, but I have been
persuaded, brothers of me, even [my]self I concerning you (Marshall 649); [and] I myself (Arndt 122);
PEPEISMAI is first person singular, perfect passive indicative of PEITHOO (Han 315); passive voice,
am persuaded (Vine 851); perfect passive, [am] convinced, certain (Arndt 639, 640); [am] persuaded,
induced to believe (Thayer 497); now I am convinced, my brethren, also on my own part concerning
you (Lenski 876); as far as I am concerned about you, my brothers, I am convinced (Williams).
[ 77 ]HOTI KAI AUTOI MESTOI ESTE AGATHOOSUNEES, that also [your]selves full ye are of
goodness (Marshall 649); ESTE is second person plural, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 315);
goodness, signifies having full measure, metaphorically, of thoughts and feelings exercised in virtues,
goodness, that moral quality which is described by the adjective AGATHOS [good in character,
beneficial], used [here] of regenerate persons (Vine 467, 495); filled with goodness, uprightness (Arndt
3, 508); tropically in reference to persons, whose minds are as it were filled with [good] thoughts and
emotions, full [of] uprightness of heart and life (Thayer 3, 402); that also you on your part are full of
goodness (Lenski 876); that you especially are abounding in the highest goodness (Williams).
[ 78 ]PEPLEEROMENOI PASEES TEES GNOOSEOOS, having been filled of (with) all knowledge
(Marshall 649); PEPLEEROMENOI is the perfect passive participle, nominative plural masculine of
PLEEROOO (Han 315); filled with all knowledge, perfect participle, denotes completed action. Like
the perfect indicative it may have reference to past action and resulting state, or only to the resulting
state (Nunn 266); in a state of being filled with [knowledge] (Harrison 578); have been filled, be full,
with genitive of the thing [knowledge] (Arndt 163, 671); [all of] the general knowledge of the Christian
religion, filled, diffused through [your] souls (Thayer 119, 517); richly supplied with perfect knowledge
[ 79 ]DUNAMENOI KAI NOUTHETEIN, being able also to admonish (Marshall 649, 650);
DUNAMENOI is the present middle participle, nominative plural masculine of DUNAMAI;
NOUTHETEIN is the present active infinitive of NOUTHETEOO (Han 315); able, have power to put
in mind, admonish (Vine 4, 22); admonish, warn, instruct (Arndt 544); [able to] admonish, warn,
exhort (Thayer 429); able to put in mind also (Lenski 876); and competent to counsel (Williams).
[ 80 ]ALLEELOUS, one another (Marshall 650; Williams); each other (Lenski 876).
[ 81 ]DE EGRAPHA, I wrote (Marshall 650); EGRAPHA is first person singular, first aorist active
indicative of GRAPHOO (Han 315); the epistolary aorist, I write (Vincent 3.173; Vine 1252); [I] write
to [you] (Arndt 167); by writing [in a written epistle] to give information, directions (Thayer 122).
[ 82 ]TOLMEEROTEROOS DE HUMIN, and more daringly to you (Marshall 650); not too boldly,
but the more boldly because you are full of goodness (Vincent 3.173); rather boldly, very boldly (Arndt
506, 822); more boldly (Thayer 628); and somewhat boldly (Lenski 876); and yet, I have written you
rather freely (Williams).
[ 83 ]APO MEROUS, in part (Marshall 650; Lenski 876); qualifying I write, and referring to some
passage in which he had spoken with especial plainness (Vincent 3.174); on some points (Arndt 506);
here and there (Thayer 401); on some details (Williams).
[ 84 ]HOOS EPANAMIMNEESKOON HUMAS, as reminding you (Marshall 650);
EPANAMIMNEESKOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of
EPANAMIMNEESKOO (Han 315); reminding [you] of something again (Arndt 282); recalling to
[your] mind again, reminding [you] (Thayer 228); as bringing [things] back to your remembrance
(Lenski 876); to refresh your memories (Williams).
[ 85 ]TEEN DOTHEISAN MOI APO TOU THEOU, given to me from God (Marshall 650);
DOTHEISAN is the first aorist passive participle, accusative singular feminine of DIDOOMI (Han
315); DOTHEISAN is the first aorist passive participle accusative singular feminine of DIDOOMI [to
give] (Thayer 714); [and this I did] because of the grace given to me from God (Lenski 876); shown
me by God (Williams).
[ 86 ]EIS TO EINAI ME LEITOURGON CHRISTOU 'IEESOU, for the to be me=that I should be
a minister of Christ Jesus (Marshall 650); EINAI is the present active infinitive of EIMI (Han 315);
a servant of Christ Jesus for the Gentiles (Arndt 471); a minister, servant, of Paul likening himself to
a priest (Thayer 376); see note on Ro 13:6; the same Greek word for minister is applied to civil rulers
(Ro 13:6); servant [from LEITOURGOS a minister], servant performing religious service (Littrell); so
that I am a public servant of Christ Jesus (Lenski 876); in making me a minister of christ Jesus
[ 87 ]EIS TA ETHNEE, to the nations (Marshall 650); for the Gentiles (Arndt 471); to the heathen
peoples (Williams); see notes on verses 9-12.
[ 88 ]HIEROURGOUNTA, sacrificing (Marshall 650); the present active participle, accusative singular
masculine of HIEROURGEOO (Han 315); [from HIEROURGOS, and this from HIEROS a priest, and
ERGOO to work]; only here in the NT, ministering as a priest (Vincent 3,164, 3.174); serve the gospel
as a priest, perhaps with the emphasis upon sacrifice (Arndt 373); of the preaching of the gospel
(Thayer 300); ministering [from HIEROURGEOO officiate as a priest, perform a sacred rite], in the
NT to minister in a divine commission, as preaching (Littrell); engaged in serving in a priestly manner
(Lenski 876); to have me act as a sacrificing minister (Williams).
[ 89 ]Sacerdotal=priestly.
[ 90 ]TO EUANGELION TOU THEOU, the gospel of God (Marshall 650; Lenski 876); the gospel
[good news] about Christ (Arndt 318); with genitive of the author, of the author of the subject-matter
or facts on which the glad tidings of man's salvation rest, and who wished these glad tidings to be
conveyed to men (Thayer 257); of the good news (Williams).
[ 91 ]HINA HE PROSPHORA TOON ETHNOON, in order that the offering of the nations (Marshall
650); literally, the bringing to, that is, to the altar (Vincent 3.174); the offering that consists of the
Gentiles [who have become Christian] (Arndt 720); the sacrifice which I offer in turning the Gentiles
to God (Thayer 550); in order to bring about the offering of the Gentiles (Lenski 876);in order that my
offering of the heathen peoples to God (Williams).
[ 92 ]GENEETAI EUPROSDEKTOS, may be acceptable (Marshall 650; Williams); GENEETAI is
third person singular, second aorist middle subjunctive of GINOMAI (Han 315); [might be made]
acceptable, pleasant, welcome, of offerings (Arndt 324); well-received, accepted, acceptable (Thayer
261); as acceptable (Lenski 876).
[ 93 ]HEEGIASMENEE EN PNEUMATI HAGIOO, having been sanctified by [the] Spirit Holy
(Marshall 650); HEEGIASMENEE is the perfect passive participle, nominative singular masculine of
HAGIAZOO (Han 315); consecrated, dedicated, sanctified, of Gentile Christians; the meaning purified
is also possible (Arndt 9); imbued with the Holy Spirit, the divine source of holiness (Thayer 6);
sanctified in a holy spirit; see Titus 3:5 where it is shown that when one experiences the "washing of
the new birth" (immersion that he/she is saved and made holy in spirit (Littrell); as having been
sanctified in connection with the Holy Spirit (Lenski 876); consecrated by the Holy Spirit (Williams).
[ 94 ]In all of the Bible there is no example of any person ever being saved by a direct operation of
the Holy Spirit upon his heart.
[ 95 ]ECHOO OUN TEEN KAUCHEESIN EN CHRISTOO 'IEESOU, I have therefore the boasting
in Christ Jesus (Marshall 650); my glorying, denoting the act (Vincent 3.174); I may boast; the formula
is especially common with verbs that denote a conviction, hope, etc. [my glorying] in Christ (Arndt
259, 426); the glorying which I have I ascribe to Christ, or I owe it to Christ that I am permitted to
glory; since such union with Christ is the basis on which actions and virtues rest, the expression is
equivalent in meaning to by virtue of spiritual fellowship or union with Christ (Thayer 211; 342); I can
boast, I am enabled to boast (Lard 441); I do have my glorying (Lenski 882); so, as a Christian I am
proud [literally, I am boasting in Christ] (Williams).
[ 96 ]TA PROS TON THEON, the things with God (Marshall 650); a technical phrase in Jewish
liturgical language to denote the functions of worship (Vincent 3.174); accusative of respect: with
respect to one's relation to God or the things pertaining to God, in God's cause, of my relation to God
(Arndt 357, 426); things respecting, pertaining to, God--contextually which are the sacrificial business
of the priest (Thayer 288); of the things that I have done for God (Williams).
[ 97 ]OU GAR TOLMEESOO, not for I will dare (Marshall 650); TOLMEESOO is first person
singular, future active indicative of TOLMAOO (Han 315); GAR is adversative, yet I will not dare,
Macknight, Pickering (Lard 441); [not] dare, in the sense of dreading or shunning through fear (Vine
259); [not] bring myself, presume (Arndt 821); dread or shun through fear (Thayer 627); for I will not
make bold (Lenski 882); for I would venture (Williams); for GAR as an adversative see Luke 22:2.
[ 98 ]TI LALEIN HOON, anything to speak of [the] things which (Marshall 650); LALEIN is the
present active infinitive of LALEOO (Han 315); to use words in order to declare [my] mind and
disclose [my] thoughts; to speak; HOON is a relative pronoun who, which, what; the accusative of the
relative pronoun depending on a transitive verb is changed by attraction into the oblique case of its
antecedent (Thayer 368, 454; Arndt 584); to tell anything of the things which (Lenski 882); to mention
only of what (Williams).
[ 99 ]OU KATEIRGASATO CHRISTOS DI EMOU, not did work out Christ through me (Marshall
650); KATEIRGASATO is third person singular, first aorist middle indicative of KATERGAZOMAI
(Han 315); worked out, achieved, effected by toil (Vine 1244); of anything except what Christ has
accomplished through me (Arndt 421); performed, accomplished, achieved (Thayer 338); which Christ
did not accomplish through me (Lenski 882); Christ has accomplished through me (Williams).
[ 100 ]Litotes is a figure of speech in which an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed
by the negative of the contrary. An example is, "She is not bad looking."
[ 101 ]LOGOO KAI ERGOO, in word and work (Marshall 650); in word and deed (Arndt 307, 477);
the act of speaking [and] an act, deed, thing done (Thayer 248); by word and work (Lenski 882); by
word and work (Williams).
[ 102 ]EIS HUPAKOEEN ETHNOON, for obedience of [the] nations (Marshall 650); of men's
obedience to the will of God as expressed in the gospel (Arndt 837); with a subjective genitive,
obedience, compliance, submission (Thayer 637); "for (producing) obedience (on the part) of Gentiles"
(subjective genitive) means the obedience of faith, faith renders obedience (Lenski 47, 883); for [the]
obedience of Gentiles (Lenski 882); in bringing the heathen peoples to obedience (Williams).
[ 103 ]EN DUNAMEI SEEMEIOON, by power of signs (Marshall 650; Williams); power, might,
strength, force [of] miracles of divine origin, performed by men of God (Arndt 207, 748); through the
power I exerted upon their souls by performing miracles, prodigies, portents (Thayer 159, 574); in
connection with power of signs (Lenski 882).
[ 104 ]KAI TERATOON, and wonders (Marshall 650; Williams); always in plural in our literature,
prodigies, portents, omens, wonders (Arndt 812); a sign appeals to the understanding, a wonder appeals
to the imagination, a power [DUNAMIS] indicates its source as supernatural (Vine 123); something so
strange as to cause it to be "watched" or "observed" (Thayer 620).
[ 105 ]EN DUNAMEI PNEUMATOS [HAGIOU], by power of [the] Spirit (Marshall 650; Williams);
power of the Holy Spirit (Arndt 207); by the power which, under the influence of the Holy Spirit, I
exerted upon their souls (Thayer 159); in connection with the Holy Spirit's power (Lenski 882).
[ 106 ]HOOSTE ME APO 'IEROUSALEEM, so as from Jerusalem (Marshall 650); basic meaning,
separation from, to denote the point from which something begins, of place from, out from, with limits
defined, forward and backward (Arndt 86, 87; Thayer 299); so that from Jerusalem (Lenski 882); so
all the way from Jerusalem (Williams).
[ 107 ]KAI KUKLOO, and around (Marshall 650); not, in a circuitous track to Illyricum, but
Jerusalem and the regions round it (Vincent 3.174); either [beginning] from Jerusalem and its environs,
or probably better beginning from Jerusalem and traveling around [describing a circle]. This avoids
giving the impression that Paul travelled in a straight line, and agrees better with the comprehensive
nature of his activity (Arndt 457); and in the region around (Thayer 364); in a circle (Lenski 882, 883);
[ 108 ]MECHRI TOU 'ILLURIKOU, unto Illyricum (Marshall 650); lying between Italy, Germany,
Macedonia and Thrace, bounded by the Adriatic and the Danube. The name gradually disappeared and
the country was divided between the states of Bosnia, Croatia, Servia, Rascia and Dalmatia (Vincent
3.174, 175); a district across the Adriatic Sea from Italy, in official usage Dalmatia [Illyris Superior]
and Pannonia [Illyris Inferior] (Arndt 376; Thayer 301, 302); up to Illyricum (Lenski 883).
[ 109 ]PEPLEEROOKENAI, to have fulfilled (Marshall 650); the perfective active infinitive of
PLEEROOO (Han 315); literally, fulfilled (Vincent 3.175); brought [the preaching of] the gospel to
completion by proclaiming it in the most remote areas (Arndt 671); caused to be everywhere known,
acknowledged, embraced (Thayer 518); I have fulfilled (Lenski 883); have completed the telling
[ 110 ]TO EUANGELION TOU CHRISTOU, the gospel of Christ (Marshall 650); the gospel [good
news] about Christ (Arndt 318); with genitive of the object, the gospel concerning [Christ] (Thayer
257); of the good news of Christ (Williams).
[ 111 ]HOUTOS DE PHILOTIMOUMENON, and so eagerly striving (Marshall 650);
PHILOTIMOUMENON is the present middle participle, accusative singular masculine of
PHILOTIMEOMAI (Han 315); the verb means originally to be fond of honor, and hence, from a love
of honor, to strive, be ambitious. The correct sense is to prosecute as a point of honor (Vincent 3.175);
having as [my] ambition, considering it an honor, aspiring (Arndt 861); to be ambitious (Thayer 655);
in this matter it has ever been my ambition (Williams).
[ 112 ]EUANGELIZESTHAI, to evangelize (Marshall 650); the present middle infinitive of
EUANGELIZOO (Han 315); the gospel [[good news] about Christ (Arndt 318); to proclaim glad
tidings; specifically to instruct [men] concerning the things that pertain to Christian salvation (Thayer
256); to tell the good news (Williams).
[ 113 ]OUCH HOPOU OONOMASTHEE CHRISTOS, not where was named Christ (Marshall 650);
OONOMASTHEE is third person singular, first aorist passive indicative of ONOMAZOO (Han 315);
not where Christ is already known (Arndt 574, 576); [not to] the lands into which the knowledge of
Christ has been carried (Thayer 448); where Christ had not [yet] been named (Lenski 886); where
Christ's name had never been mentioned (Williams).
[ 114 ]HINA MEE OIKODOMOO, in order that not I should build (Marshall 650); OIKODOMOO
is first person singular, present active indicative or subjunctive of OIKODOMEOO (Han 315); Paul
refers to missionary work where another Christian has begun activities as building upon another man's
foundation (Arndt 558); carry on instruction begun by others (Thayer 440); so as not to build
[ 115 ]EP' ALLOTRION THEMELION, on belonging to another a foundation (Marshall 650);
figurative, of the elementary beginnings of a thing; of the founding of a congregation (Arndt 356); a
course of instruction begun by a teacher, belonging to another (Thayer 29, 287); upon foundations laid
by other men (Williams).
[ 116 ]ALLA KATHOOS GEGRAPTAI, but as it has been written (Marshall 650); GEGRAPTAI is
third person singular, perfect passive indicative of GRAPHOO (Han 315); a formula for introducing
quotations from the OT (Arndt 166); according as, just as, even as [it is] written in the sacred books
[of the OT] (Thayer 121); but as Scripture says (Williams).
[ 117 ]Sprinkle=startle (ASV). The Septuagint has "so will many nations marvel at Him."
[ 118 ]HOIS OUK ANEENGELEE PERI AUTOU, to whom it was not announced concerning him
(Marshall 650, 651); ANEENGELEE is third person singular, second aorist passive indicative of
ANANGELLOO (Han 315); [not] disclosed, proclaimed, taught (Arndt 51); [no] formal proclamation
of the Christian religion [came] (Thayer 36); who were never told of Him (Williams).
[ 119 ]OPSONTAI, they shall see (Marshall 650); third person plural, future middle indicative of
ORAOO (Han 315); [mentally] look at or upon; they who have never been told of him [=Christ] shall
look upon him (Arndt 578; see with the mind, perceive, know (Thayer 451); they will see (Williams).
[ 120 ]KAI HOI OUK AKEEKOASIN, and [those] who have not heard (Marshall 651);
AKEEKOASIN is third person plural, second perfect active indicative Attic of AKOUOO (Han 315);
[not] learned or have been informed (Arndt 32); [have not gotten] by hearing, learned [from the mouth
of the teacher or narrator] (Thayer 23); and they who have not heard (Williams).
[ 121 ]SUNEESOUSIN, will understand (Marshall 651; Williams); third person plural, future active
indicative of SUNIEEMI (Han 315); [shall] perceive, understand, uniting [SUN], so to speak, the
perception with what is perceived (Vine 1180); understand with regard to, gain an insight [into] (Arndt
790); put [as it were] the perception with the thing perceived; set or join together in the mind, that is,
understand (Thayer 605).
[ 122 ]NU-Text omits I shall come to you (and joins Spain with the next sentence.
[ 123 ]DIO KAI, wherefore also (Marshall 651); therefore . . . also, denoting that the inference is self-evident (Arndt 198; Thayer 152); therefore also (Lenski 887); this is the reason why (Williams).
[ 124 ]ENEKOPTOMEEN TA POLLA TOU ELTHEIN PROS HUMAS, I was hindered many (much)
to come to you (Marshall 651); ENEKOPTOMEEN is first person singular, imperfect passive indicative
of ENKOPTOO; ELTHEIN is the second aorist active infinitive of ERCHOMAI (Han 315); [EN in,
KOPTOO to cut], of hindrances in the way of reaching others (Vine 551); imperfect tense, denoting
continuousness, and implying a succession of hindrances. ASV was hindered. Hence these many times
(Vincent 3.175); the infinitive with TOU is used normally in its proper genitive sense (Nunn 178, 179);
I have so often been prevented (Arndt 216); cut into, [my] course impeded by cutting off [my] way,
hindered (Thayer 166); I continued to be cut off in many ways from coming to you (Lenski 887); I have
so often been prevented from coming to see you (Williams).
[ 125 ]NUNI DE, now but (Marshall 651); with the present tense, but now, of time (Arndt 171, 546);
but now, at this very moment (Thayer 125, 430).
[ 126 ]MEEKETI TOPON ECHOON, no longer place having (Marshall 651); ECHOON is the present
active participle, nominative singular masculine of ECHOO (Han 315); [no more] scope, opportunity
(Vincent 3.175); having [no more] opportunity [to do the work of an apostle] (Arndt 823); [having] no
longer, no more, not hereafter, opportunity, power, occasion for acting (Thayer 412, 628); no longer
having room (Lenski 888); as there are no more places for me to occupy (Williams); for usage of the
Greek term, see the case of Esau at Hebrews 12:17.
[ 127 ]EN TOIS KLIMASI TOUTOIS, in regions these (Marshall 651); inclinations, slopes (Vine
940); in these regions (Arndt 436); tracts of land, regions (Thayer 350); in these regions (Lenski
888); in this part of the world (Williams).
[ 128 ]DE ECHOON APO HIKANOON ETOON, having from several years (Marshall 651);
ECHOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of ECHOO (Han 315); the
primary meaning is sufficient, and hence comes to be applied to number and quantity; many, enough
. . . here the sense might be expressed by for years enough (Vincent 3.175); for many years (Arndt
374); these many years (Thayer 300); and as I have for many years (Williams).
[ 129 ]In population the city of Rome probably passed the million mark at the beginning of the
Christian era, and during the first century may have risen somewhat above this figure (Zondervan 731).
[ 130 ]Zondervan 165 gives the date for Paul's conversion as AD 34 or 35 and the writing of Romans
[ 131 ]EPIPOTHEIAN TOU ELTHEIN PROS HUMAS, and a desire to come to you (Marshall 651);
ELTHEIN is the second aorist active infinitive of ERCHOMAI (Han 315); a longing (Vine 683);
longing, desire, having a desire to come (Arndt 298); longing (Thayer 242); having a longing to come
to you (Lenski 888); been longing to come to see you (Williams).
[ 132 ]HOOS AN POREUOOMAI EIS TEEN SPANIAN, whenever I journey to Spain (Marshall
651); POREUOOMAI is first person singular, present active middle subjunctive of POREUOMAI (Han
315); [from POROS a passage, a ford, English pore], middle voice, [whenever I] go, proceed, go on
[my way], as I make my journey (Vine 486, 607); I am going, about to go [to] Spain, the journey
planned by Paul (Arndt 692, 760); go, depart to; in the apostolic age, the whole peninsula south of the
Pyrenees (Thayer 531, 582); the usual Greek name [for Spain] is IBERIA. Paul adopts a modification
of the Roman name, HISPANIA (Vincent 3.175); when I make my trip to Spain (Williams).
[ 133 ]NU-Text omits I shall come to you (and joins Spain with the next sentence.
[ 134 ]ELPIZOO GAR THEASASTHAI HUMAS, for I hope to behold you (Marshall 651); ELPIZOO
is first person singular, present active indicative of ELPIZOO (Han 315); [I] trust, hope, to view
attentively, to see with admiration, desire, or regard, stresses more especially the action of the person
beholding . . . translated to see (Vine 563, 1009); see, in the sense come to see, visit (Arndt 353);
hope with an infinitive following to view, take view of, in the sense of visiting, meeting with [them]
(Thayer 205, 285); I, indeed, hope to behold you (Lenski 888); I certainly hope to see you (Williams).
[ 135 ]DIAPOREUOMENOS, journeying through (Marshall 651); the present middle participle,
nominative singular masculine of DIAPOREUOMAI (Han 315); literally journeying through, or as I
pass through (Vincent, 3.175); on the way, in passing (Arndt 187); to travel through (Thayer 141); on
going through (Lenski 888); on my way there (Williams).
[ 136 ]KAI HUPH' HUMOON PROPEMPHTHEENAI EKEI, and by you to be set forward there
(Marshall 651); PROPEMPHTHEENAI is the first aorist passive infinitive of PROPEMPOO (Han 315);
escorted (Vincent 3.175); help on [my] journey with food, money, by arranging for companions, means
of travel, etc., send on [my] way, with the destination [Spain] given (Arndt 709); send forward, bring
on the way, accompany or escort (Thayer 541); and by you to be sent forward there (Lenski 888); and
to be helped forward by you (Williams).
[ 137 ]EAN HUMOON PROOTON if of (with) you firstly (Marshall 651); when first (Lenski 888);
after I have (Williams).
[ 138 ]EMPLEESTHOO, I may be filled (Marshall 651); first person singular, first aorist passive
subjunctive of EMPIPLEEMI (Han 315); literally filled full, satiated (Vincent 3.175); have [my] fill
of your company, enjoy [your] company (Arndt 256, 506); metaphorically, of taking one's fill of the
company of others (Vine 992); take [my] fill of, glut [my] desire for: passive with genitive of person,
one's intercourse and companionship (Thayer 208); I get my fill of you (Lenski 888); have enjoyed
being with you awhile (Williams).
[ 139 ]APO MEROUS, in part (Marshall 651); in some measure (Vine 724; Lenski 888); in part, for
a while (Arndt 506); in a measure, in some degree, in part (Thayer 59, 401).
[ 140 ]NUNI DE, but now (Marshall 651); with the present tense, of time, but now (Arndt 171, 546);
but now, at this very moment (Thayer 125, 430).
[ 141 ]POREUOMAI EIS 'IEROUSALEEM, I am going to Jerusalem (Marshall 651); POREUOMAI
is first person singular, present middle subjunctive of POREUOMAI (Han 315); going on [my] way,
proceeding from one place to another (Vine 486); I am going, am about to go to the city [of Jerusalem]
itself (Arndt 373, 692); go, depart to [Jerusalem] (Thayer 531); I am on my way to Jerusalem
[ 142 ]DIAKONOON, ministering (Marshall 651); the present active participle, nominative singular
masculine of DIAKONEOO (Han 315); helping, supporting (Arndt 184); ministering, that is, supplying
food and the necessaries of life [for example, by collecting alms] (Thayer 137); [for the purpose of]
ministering (Lenski 890); to help (Williams).
[ 143 ]TOIS HAGIOIS, to the saints (Marshall 651; Lenski 890); the saints, Christians consecrated
to God (Arndt 184); God's people (Williams).
[ 144 ]EEUDOKEESAN, thought it good (Marshall 651); third person plural, first aorist active
indicative of EUDOKEOO (Han 315); with infinitive, wish, rather prefer (Arndt 319); it seemed good
to, has been the good pleasure, thought it good, chose, determined, decided (Thayer 258); resolved
(Lenski 891); were delighted (Williams).
[ 145 ]GAR MAKEDONIA, Macedonia (Marshall 651); a Roman province since 146 BC, active in
the collection for Jerusalem (Arndt 487); bounded on the south by Thessaly and Epirus, on the east by
Thrace and the Aegean Sea, on the west by Illyria, and on the north by Dardania and Moesia (Thayer
[ 146 ]KAI 'ACHAIA, and Achaia (Marshall 651); Roman province created 146 BC, including the
most important parts of Greece, that is, Attica, Boeotia [perhaps Epirus] and the Peloponnesus; the
country for its inhabitants, especially the Christians living in it (Arndt 128); a Roman province
embracing all Greece except Thessaly. So in the NT (Thayer 90); and Greece (Williams).
[ 147 ]KOINOONIAN TINA POIEESASTHAI, contribution some to make (Marshall 651);
POIEESASTHAI is the first aorist middle infinitive of POIEOO (Han 315); abstract for concrete, sign
of fellowship, proof of brotherly unity, even gift, contribution (Arndt 439); make a contribution (Thayer
352); to exercise a fellowship (Lenski 891); to make a contribution (Williams).
[ 148 ]EIS TOUS PTOOCHOUS TOON HAGIOON, for the poor of the saints (Marshall 651); more
literally, and better, the poor of the saints (Vincent 3.176); originally begging, dependent on others for
support, but also simply poor, quite literally (Arndt 728); poor, needy (Thayer 557); with the poor of
the saints (Lenski 891); to the poor among God's people (Williams).
[ 149 ]TOON EN 'IEROUSALEEM, in Jerusalem (Marshall 651); the city itself (Arndt 373).
[ 150 ]EEUDOKEESAN GAR, for they thought it good (Marshall 651); EEUDOKEESAN is third
person plural, first aorist active indicative of EUDOKEOO (Han 315); [EU well, DOKEOO to seem
good to], good pleasure (Vine 860); wish, rather prefer (Arndt 319); it seemed good to, has been the
good pleasure, thought it good, chose, determined, decided (Thayer 258); so they resolved (Lenski
891); they certainly were delighted to do it (Williams).
[ 151 ]KAI OPHEILETAI EISIN AUTOON, and debtors they are of them (Marshall 651); EISIN is
third person plural, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 315); of persons having an obligation, of
Gentile believers, to assist afflicted Jewish believers (vine 270); are obligated, must, ought (Arndt 598,
599); under obligations of gratitude for favors received (Thayer 469); and they really are under
obligation to them (Williams).
[ 152 ]EI GAR TA ETHNEE, for if the nations (Marshall 651); for [if] the Gentiles (Arndt 471);
Gentile Christians (Thayer 168); for if the Gentiles (Lenski 891); for if the heathen peoples (Williams).
[ 153 ]EKOINOONEESAN, shared (Marshall 651); third person plural, first aorist active indicative
of KOINOONEOO (Han 315); passive voice, [made] partakers (Vine 834); share, have a share (Arndt
438); have come into communion or fellowship, have become sharers, made partners (Thayer 351);
fellowlshipped (Lenski 891); have shared (Williams).
[ 154 ]TOIS PNEUMATIKOIS AUTOON, the spiritual things of them (Marshall 651); the blessings
that accrue to regenerate men at this present time are called "spiritualities" (Vine 1076); spiritual things
or matters [in contrast to TA SARKIKA earthly things], in spiritual blessings (Arndt 438, 679); the
spiritual or heavenly blessings of the gospel (Thayer 523); in their spiritual things (Lenski 891); in their
spiritual blessings (Williams).
[ 155 ]OPHEILOUSIN KAI, they ought also (Marshall 651); OPHEILOUSIN is third person plural,
present active indicative of OPHEILOO (Han 316); they [Gentile converts] owe it (Vine 826); are
obligated, must, ought (Arndt 598, 599); are under obligation, bound by duty or necessity, [it]
behooves, [they] ought (Thayer 469); they are indebted (Lenski 891); they ought (Williams).
[ 156 ]LEITOURGEESAI AUTOIS, to minister to them (Marshall 651); LEITOURGEESAI is the first
aorist active infinitive of LEITOURGEOO (Han 316); by using this word for priestly service, Paul puts
the ministry of almsgiving on the footing of a sacrificial service. It expresses the worship of giving
(Vincent 3.176); of the duty of churches of the Gentiles to minister in "carnal things" to poor Jewish
saints at Jerusalem, in view of the fact that the former had "been made partakers" of the "spiritual
things" of the latter (Vine 745; serve, do a service (Arndt 470); of those who aid others with their
resources, and relieve their poverty (Thayer 375); to render public service to them (Lenski 891); to
serve them (Williams).
[ 157 ]KAI EN TOIS SARKIKOIS, also in the fleshly things (Marshall 651); pertaining to the flesh
[that is, the body] (Vine 161; in material things (Arndt 470; Lenski 891); things needed for the
sustenance of the body (Thayer 569); in material blessings (Williams).
[ 158 ]TOUTO OUN, this therefore (Marshall 651; Arndt 597; Thayer 464); so (Williams).
[ 159 ]EPITELESAS, having completed (Marshall 651); the first aorist active participle, nominative
singular masculine of EPITELEOO (Han 315); accomplish, the fuller meaning is to accomplish
perfectly (Vine 14); end, brought to an end, finished (Arndt 302); brought to an end, accomplished,
perfected, executed, completed [this] (Thayer 244); finished this (Lenski 891); after I have finished this
[ 160 ]KAI SPHRAGISAMENOS AUTOIS, and having sealed to them (Marshall 651; Lenski 891);
SPHRAGISAMENOS is the first aorist middle participle, nominative singular masculine of
SPHRAGIZOO (Han 316); secured to them the product of the contribution (Vincent 3.176); the formal
ratification of the ministry of the churches of the Gentiles in Greece and Galatia to needy saints in
Judea, by Paul's faithful delivery of the gifts to them; the metaphor stresses the sacred formalities of
the transaction (Vine 1002); perhaps to be understood from the practice of sealing sacks of grain. But
the figure is perhaps rather hard to maintain, since the "fruit" must not only be sealed, but also
forwarded to Jerusalem and delivered there. In any case the sense of the expression is easier to
understand in some such wording as this: when I have placed the sum that was collected safely [sealed]
in their hands (Arndt 796); when I shall have confirmed [sealed] to them this fruit [of love], meaning
apparently, when I shall have given authoritative assurance that this money was collected for their use
(Thayer 609); and made sure of the results (Williams).
[ 161 ]TON KARPON TOUTON, this fruit (Marshall 651; Lenski 891); [the] material help was the
fruit of his spiritual ministry to the Gentiles, who on their part were bringing forth the fruit of their
having shared with them in spiritual things (Vine 463, 1002); of the proceeds of the collection (Arndt
405); work, act, deed, of Christian charity, that is, benefit (Thayer 326); of this contribution [literally,
made sure this fruit to them] for them (Williams).
[ 162 ]APELEUSOMAI DI HUMOON, I will go away through you (Marshall 651); APELEUSOMAI
is first person singular, future middle indicative of APERCHOMAI (Han 316); I will go with indication
of place, through your city on the way (Arndt 84, 179); go, with accusative of place, through your city
(Thayer 55, 132); I will proceed from [them] through you [your city] (Lenski 891); I shall come by you
[ 163 ]EIS SPANIAN, to Spain (Marshall 651); Spain, the journey planned by Paul (Arndt 760); in
the apostolic age, the whole peninsula south of the Pyrenees (Thayer 582); on my way to Spain
[ 164 ]OIDA DE HOTI ERCHOMENOS PROS HUMAS, and I know that coming to you (Marshall
651); OIDA is first person singular, perfect active indicative of OIDA; ERCHOMENOS is the present
middle participle, nominative singular masculine of ERCHOMA (Han 316); the most frequent verb
denoting either come or go (Vine 195); ;and I know that when I come to you (Lenski 891); and I feel
sure that when I do come to you (Williams).
[ 165 ]ELEUSOMAI EN PLEEROOMATI, I will come in [the] fullness (Marshall 651); first person
singular, future middle indicative of ERCHOMAI (Han 316); of that which one either leads or brings
with him, or with which he is furnished or equipped; especially after verbs of coming, [EN of
accompaniment], where we often say with (Thayer 210); the fullness (Arndt 672); future of
ERCHOMAI (Arndt 310; Thayer 714); with the dative of the thing with which one comes, also to
denote the state of being with which one comes (Arndt 310); fullness, that of which a thing is full, "the
blessing of Christ" (Vine 467); I shall come in the fullness (Lenski 891); I shall come with abundant
[ 166 ]EULOGIAS CHRISTOU, of [the] blessing of Christ (Marshall 651); gospel in the Received Text
is genitive of the object, the gospel concerning [Christ], of the blessings of Christianity (Thayer 257,
260); omit gospel and read blessing of Christ (Vincent 3.176); a blessing, a benefit bestowed (Vine
125); of Christ's blessing (Arndt 672); of Christ's blessing (Lenski 891); Christ's blessing [literally,
in fullness of Christ's blessing] on me (Williams).
[ 167 ]PARAKALOO DE HUMAS, I beseech now you (Marshall 651, 652); PARAKALOO is first
person singular, present active indicative of PARAKALEOO (Han 316); appeal to, urge, exhort (Arndt
617); admonish, exhort (Thayer 482); now I admonish you (Lenski 894); now I beg you (Williams).
[ 168 ][ADELPHOI], brothers (Marshall 652); brethren (Lenski 894); plural, brothers [can also mean
brothers and sisters].
[ 169 ]DIA TOU KURIOU HEEMOON 'IEESOU CHRISTOU, through the Lord of us Jesus Christ
(Marshall 652); by means of, through, with, in urgent request, by the [Lord Jesus Christ] (Arndt 180);
by an allusion to, by reminding you [of our Lord Jesus Christ] (Thayer 134); for the sake of our Lord
Jesus Christ (Williams).
[ 170 ]KAI DIA TEES AGAPEES TOU PNEUMATOS, and through the love of the Spirit (Marshall
652; Lenski 894); the Spirit (Arndt 677); love enkindled by the Holy Spirit (Thayer 4); and by the love
that the Spirit inspires (Williams).
[ 171 ]SUNAGOONISASTHAI MOI, to strive with me (Marshall 652); SUNAGOONISASTHAI is
the first aorist middle infinitive of SUNAGOONIZOMAI (Han 316); the simple verb is used of
contending in the games, and implies strenuous effort. Here earnest prayer (Vincent 3.176); strive
together with (Vine 1097); fight or contend along with, assist [me], Arndt 783; strive together with [me]
(Thayer 600); literally, to agonize (Lenski 895); to wrestle with me (Williams).
[ 172 ]EN TAIS PROSEUCHAIS HUPER EMOU PROS TON THEON, in prayers on behalf of me
to (Marshall 652); intercessions to God on behalf of [me] (Arndt 713); in prayers, that is, to offer
intense prayers with one (Thayer 600); in your prayers in my behalf (Lenski 894); in prayers to God
on my behalf (Williams).
[ 173 ]HINA RHUSTHOO, in order that I may be delivered (Marshall 652); RHUSTHOO is first
person singular, first aorist passive subjunctive of RHUOMAI (Han 316); rescued, saved, delivered,
or preserved (Arndt 737); the verb is used with APO away from (Vine 282); first aorist passive, drawn
to one's self, rescued, delivered (Thayer 564); that I may be rescued (Lenski 894); that I may be
[ 174 ]APO TOON APEITHOUNTOON EN TEE 'IOUDAIA, from the [ones] disobeying in Judea
(Marshall 652); APEITHOUNTOON is the present active participle, genitive plural masculine of
APEITHEOO (Han 316); them that are disobedient (Vincent 3.176); were disobedient (Vine 311, 312);
disobedient, of the Jews; since, in the view of the early Christians, the supreme disobedience was a
refusal to believe their gospel, APEITHEOO may be restricted in some passages to the meaning
disbelieve, be an unbeliever. This sense, though greatly disputed [it is not found outside our literature],
seems most probable in Joh 3:36; Ac 14:2; 19:9; Ro 15:31 (Arndt 82, 379); not to allow one's self to
be persuaded; not to comply with; to refuse or withhold belief [in Christ, in the gospel; opposite to
PISTEUOO believe] . . . of those who reject the gospel; properly the southern part of Palestine in
contrast to Samaria, Galilee, Perea and Idumea (Thayer 55, 305); from those who are disobedient in
Judea (Lenski 894); from those in Judea who are disobedient (Williams).
[ 175 ]KAI HEE DIAKONIA MOU, and the ministry of me (Marshall 652); [my] aid, support,
distribution, the contribution meant for Jerusalem (Arndt 184); service (Vine 1021); my ministration
in bringing the money collected by me, a ministration intended for Jerusalem (Fritzsche, in Thayer
138); and that my ministration (Lenski 894); and that the help which I am taking (Williams).
[ 176 ]HEE EIS 'IEROUSALEEM, to Jerusalem (Marshall 652); Jerusalem, the city itself (Arndt 373).
[ 177 ]EUPROSDEKTOS TOIS HAGIOS GENEETAI, acceptable to the saints may be (Marshall 652);
GENEETAI is third person singular, second aorist middle subjunctive of GINOMAI (Han 316); [EU
well, PROS towards, DEKTOS one regarded favorably], a very favorable acceptance (Vine 12); [may
be] acceptable, pleasant, welcome, of offerings (Arndt 324); [may be] well-received, accepted,
acceptable (Thayer 260); may be acceptable to the saints (Lenski 894); may be well received by God's
people there (Williams).
[ 178 ]The "factions" consisted of a possible division between Jewish Christians and Gentile Christians.
[ 179 ]HINA EN CHARA ELTHOON PROS HUMAS, in order that in joy coming to you (Marshall
652); ELTHOON is the second aorist active participle, nominative singular masculine of ERCHOMAI
(Han 316); the state of being in which one comes, joyfully (Arndt 261, 310); in joy, joyful (Thayer
210); having come to you in joy (Lenski 894); so that I may come with a happy heart [literally, in joy]
to see you (Williams).
[ 180 ]DIA THELEEMATOS THEOU, through [the] will of God (Marshall 652); if God is willing
(Arndt 180); if God will (Thayer 285); through God's will (Lenski 894); if it is God's will (Williams).
[ 181 ]SUNANAPAUSOOMAI HUMIN, I may rest with you (Marshall 652); SUNANAPAUSOOMAI
is first person singular, first aorist middle subjunctive of SUNANAPAUOMAI (Han 316); rest or find
rest [with] someone, in someone's company (Arndt 784); take rest together with, metaphorically, rest
or refresh one's spirit with one [that is, give and get refreshment by mutual intercourse] (Thayer 601);
I may find rest with you (Lenski 894); and have a refreshing rest while with you (Williams).
[ 182 ]HO DE THEOS TEES EIREENEES, and the God of peace (Marshall 652); peace (Arndt 227);
the peace-giving God (Williams).
[ 183 ]META PANTOON HUMOON, [be] with all you (Marshall 652); used with personal pronoun,
[you] all (Arndt 632); masculine and feminine, every one, any one (Thayer 492); be with you all!
[ 184 ]AMEEN, Amen (Marshall 652); so let it be, truly, amen, liturgical formula at the end of a
doxology (Arndt 45); so it is, so be it, may it be fulfilled (Thayer 32).
Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Lakeside, California,
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It may not be distributed or published in any form whatever
without the copyright
owner's written permission.
This copyright notice must be included on all copies
The basic text, and all quotations not designated otherwise,
are from the New King James Version, copyrighted ©1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc.
All rights reserved. Used by permission. Bracketed alternatives are drawn from various
sources such as the ASV, Darby, KJV and RSV.
Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.
Published in The Old Paths Archive
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