The Letter to the Romans
Chapter 5
Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Lakeside, California

The main ideas taught by Paul in the previous chapter were (1) that the Gentiles and Jews without Christ are lost. (2) That God provided a way that He can forgive sins through the merits of Christ. (3) When one is saved by faith he has no grounds for boasting.

Chapter 5 presents[ 1 ] three main ideas: The peace and hope of those justified. The death of Christ provides reconciliation with God. Death was due to Adam. Life comes through Jesus Christ (see chart ROMANS 5 OUTLINE).


    1. Peace and hope for those justified (Ro 5:1-5). 2. Death of Christ provides reconciliation
    (Ro 5:6-11).
    3. Adam's din brought death; life through Christ
    (Ro 5:11-21).


5:1, 2 Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, 2 through whom also we have access by faith into this grace in which we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God.


    (Ro 5:1-11)

    1. Peace with God (verse 1).
    2. Access by faith into grace (verse 2).
    3. Rejoicing in hope of the glory of God (verse 2).
    4. Glorying in tribulations (verse 3).
    5. Love of God poured out in hearts (verse 5).
    6. Shall be saved by His life (verse 10).
    7. Reconciled (verses 10, 11).

Therefore, having been justified [since we are justified; being justified therefore].[ 2 ] A person is justified when God considers him righteous. The Greek aorist tense may denote a specific time when this happened. It occurs at the moment one is saved (Mk 16:16), when sins are remitted or forgiven (Ac 2:38) and washed away (Ac 22:16). Although justification occurs at the moment of conversion, its blessings are lasting. Some of its benefits are yet future and reach into eternity.

Paul pointed out to the Roman Christians the time when justification occurs. He said, "Being then made free from sin, we became the servants of righteousness" (Ro 6:18 KJV).[ 3 ] Some versions do not contain the exact words "Being then made free from sin" but Paul's implication is that one is justified from sin when he obeys from the heart "that form of doctrine" (Ro 6:17). There is little doubt that the moment of baptism is the time of justification intended (see Ro 6:3, 4).

By faith [of, on the principle of, faith].[ 4 ] "By faith" is man's response to the merits of the cross of Christ. Acts of faith such as repentance, confession and baptism in no manner pay for nor earn God's gracious forgiveness of an alien sinner. G. C. Brewer upheld the wonderful doctrine of God's grace when he wrote:

Our salvation does not depend upon perfect adherence to the requirements of law. By making our salvation dependent upon our own perfection, we make void the grace of God. And to make our perfection a matter of legal requirements fully met would make Christ's death useless (Ga 2:21; 3:21).[ 5 ]

In the above quotation, Brewer was alluding to the fact that the grace of God provides forgiveness for those in Christ. Whether the sins are of omission or commission, they will be forgiven. Forgiveness is promised through the avenue of repentance, confession of sin and prayer (see Ac 8:22; 1Jo 1:9). Continual cleansing from sin is anticipated (1Jo 1:7).

We have peace with God [we have peace towards God].[ 6 ] Many versions have the rendering, "We have peace." Notice, however, the footnotes in some Bibles: "Or let us have peace." The Greek imperative in this verse implies a command. The Greek present tense suggests that Christians are to continue to enjoy peace. One does not enjoy very much peace without putting forth some effort. Note how this is accomplished. The words of the prophet explain:

The work of righteousness will be peace, and the effect of righteousness, quietness and assurance forever (Isa 32:17).

It is interesting to note that Paul, in every letter he wrote, prayed for peace (see chart PAUL PRAYS FOR PEACE). In the comments above we have seen that justification is conditional. So is peace (see chart HOW TO RECEIVE PEACE).


    (Ro 5:1)

    1. Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ (Ro 1:7; 1Co 1:3; 2Co 1:2; Ga 1:3; Eph 1:2; Php 1:2; 2Th 1:2; Tit 1:4; Phm 3).
    2. Grace to you and peace from God our Father
    (Col 1:2).
    3. Grace to you and peace (1Th 1:1).
    4. Now may the God of peace Himself sanctify you entirely (1Th 5:23).
    5. May the Lord of peace Himself continually grant
    you peace in every circumstance (2Th 3:16).
    6. Grace, mercy and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord (1Ti 1:2; 2Ti 1:2).


    (Ro 5:1; Ga 5:22)

    1. Trust in God (Isa 26:3).
    2. Love for the Word (Ps 119:165).
    3. A peaceful disposition (Mt 5:9; Lu 10:6; Ro 12:18; Jas 3:17).
    4. Through teaching (Joh 14:27; 16:33; 16:7; 14:26; 6:45).
    5. Gospel obedience (Ro 1:5; 5:1).
    6. Prayer (Php 4:6, 7).
    7. Discipline (Heb 12:7, 11).
    8. Purity (Jas 3:17).

Man was/is separated from God because of sin (Isa 59:2). Reconciliation closes the gap. Forgiveness brings wonderful peace with God. A clear conscience is better than all worldly pleasures. Hope of eternal salvation is beyond price.

Through our Lord Jesus Christ.[ 7 ] Justification is through the merits and mediation of Christ Jesus. Peace comes only through Him. "The chastisement of our peace was upon Him" (Isa 53:5; compare Ac 10:36; Col 1:20). His peace is in the one body, the church (Col 3:15; compare 1:18; Eph 2:16; 4:4).


    (Ro 5:2)







Through whom also we have access by faith [through him, by whom, by whom also, we have also, obtained access by the faith].[ 8 ] Access is equivalent to entrance into God's grace "in which we stand." Paul speaks of the achievement of faith [not faith only] that is effective in obtaining grace (see chapter 4). Faith only does not provide access into anything (see Jas 2:17, 24, 26). Elsewhere, the false doctrine of salvation by faith only is countered (see Ro 6:3, 4, 17; 10:9, 10).


    (Ro 5:2)

    1. We have access by faith into this grace.
    2. In which we stand.
    3. Rejoice in hope of the glory of God.
    4. Glory in tribulations.

Into this grace [to this grace, unto this favor].[ 9 ] Faith provides access "into Christ" where grace is enjoyed. This is explained by Paul in Romans 6:3, 4, 17, 18; Galatians 3:26, 27.

In which we stand [wherein we stand].[ 10 ] People become partakers of grace by faith. They stand firm in Christ by it. "You stand by your faith" (Ro 11:20). They also stand by the power of God.

Who are you to judge another's servant? To his own master he stands or falls. Indeed, he will be made to stand, for God is able to make him stand (Ro 14:4).


    (Ro 5:2)

    1. Standing in the truth [Devil does not] Joh 8:44).
    2. In grace (Ro 5:2).
    3. In the gospel (1Co 15:1).
    4. By faith, in faith (Ro 11:20; 2Co 1:24).
    5. In freedom from bondage of the Law (Ga 5:1).
    6. In one spirit (Php 1:27).
    7. In the Lord, in willing subjection to His authority
    (Php 4:1; Vine 1084).
    8. In apostles' teaching (1Th 3:8; 2Th 2:15).

And rejoice [and we rejoice, boast].[ 11 ] As a Christian faithfully worships in private and/or in public, he continues [Greek present tense] to glory, exult and/or rejoice in the living hope he enjoys through Christ.

In hope [in the, our, hope].[ 12 ] In this metaphor, not as a slaves but as sons, Christians hope for the eternal inheritance.

Therefore you are no longer a slave but a son, and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ (Ga 4:7; compare Ro 8:17).

In another metaphor, Christians are bondservants of Christ. Regardless of the figure, the blessed hope is for all Christians.

And we desire that each one of you show the same diligence to the full assurance of hope until the end (Heb 6:11; compare Tit 2:13).

Of the glory of God [of sharing the glory of God].[ 13 ] The glory of God stands for his majesty, power and splendor. His glory was manifested by the resurrection of Christ. Our heavenly hope rests upon "the glory of the Father" (see note on Ro 6:4).


    (Ro 5:2)

    1. Hope of the resurrection of the dead (Ac 23:6).
    2. Hope of the promise made unto the fathers
    (Ac 26:6, 7).
    3. The Messiah, the hope of Israel (Ac 28:20).
    4. Hope of the glory of God (Ro 5:2).
    5. Hope of righteousness (Ga 5:5; Ro 8:23;
    1Co 1:7).


    (Ro 5:2)

    1. Hope of His calling (Eph 1:18; 4:4).
    2. Hope of the gospel (Col 1:5; 1:23).
    3. Hope of salvation (1Th 5:8).
    4. Hope of eternal life (Tit 1:2; 3:7).
    5. The blessed hope and appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ (Tit 2:13).


5:3, 4 And not only that, but we also glory in tribulations, knowing that tribulation produces perseverance; 4 and perseverance, character; and character, hope.

And not only that [more than that, and not only so, this].[ 14 ] "That" (a word supplied by translators) refers to the blessings mentioned in verses 1, 2. Every day, Christians enjoy justification, peace, grace and hope.

But we also glory [we also, but also we, rejoice, boast].[ 15 ] The phrase may be rendered, "Let us continue to rejoice" (compare the footnote on verse 1, "Let us have peace"). Christians have reason to continue to rejoice in tribulations. They receive special strength enabling them to rejoice in persecutions.

If you are reproached for the name of Christ, blessed are you, for the Spirit of glory and of God rests upon you. On their part He is blasphemed, but on your part He is glorified (1Pe 4:14).


    (Ro 5:3)

    1. Tribulation produces perseverance (Ro 5:3).
    2. Perseverance, character (verse 4).
    3. Character, hope (verse 4).
    4. Hope does not disappoint (verse 5).

In tribulations [in our sufferings, in tribulations also].[ 16 ] The idea of rejoicing in persecution and in tribulations was emphasized by Christ. It continued to be taught and practiced by the apostles (see chart REJOICING IN PERSECUTION A and B).


    (Ro 5:3)

    1. Blessed are you when they revile and persecute
    you, and say all kinds of evil against you falsely for My sake. Rejoice and be exceedingly glad, for great is your reward in heaven, for so they persecuted the prophets who were before you (Mt 5:11, 12).
    2. Rejoice in that day and leap for joy! For indeed your reward is great in heaven, for in like manner their fathers did to the prophets (Lu 6:23).
    3. So they departed from the presence of the council, rejoicing that they were counted worthy to suffer shame for His name (Ac 5:41).


    (Ro 5:3)

    1. And if children, then heirs-- heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ, if indeed we suffer with Him, that we may also be glorified together (Ro 8:17).
    2. That I may know Him and the power of His resurrection, and the fellowship of His sufferings, being conformed to His death (Php 3:10).
    3. If you are reproached for the name of Christ,
    blessed are you, for the Spirit of glory and of God rests upon you. On their part He is blasphemed, but on your part He is glorified. 15 But let none of you suffer as a murderer, a thief, an evildoer, or as a busybody in other people's matters. 16 Yet if anyone suffers as a Christian, let him not be ashamed, but let him glorify God in this matter
    (1Pe 4:14-16).


    (Ro 5:3)
    Tribulation (Sufferings)
    Perseverance (Endurance)
    Character (Experience)

Knowing that tribulation produces perseverance [knowing that suffering works, worketh, stedfastness, patience, endurance].[ 17 ] Tribulation [pressing burdens] can be an aid to faithfulness. Someone has estimated that about ninety-five percent of those who are persecuted remain faithful compared with five percent who become rich.

[5:4] And perseverance, character [and endurance, stedfastness, patience, shows, one to be able, produces, character, approvedness, experience,].[ 18 ]

And character, hope [and approvedness, being able, experience, produces, works, hope].[ 19 ] When a Christian has endured, he is assured that he is not one of those in "rocky ground" whom Jesus said would fall away.

But the ones on the rock are those who, when they hear, receive the word with joy; and these have no root, who believe for a while and in time of PIERASMOU temptation fall away (Lu 8:13).[ 20 ]

When a Christian endures trials he receives a greater assurance of heaven. Through troubles, hope shines brighter and heaven is more meaningful. One who has endured trying times is less interested in this present world. In this manner, hope enriches earthly life by strengthening character.

But if we hope for what we do not see, we eagerly wait for it with perseverance (Ro 8:25).


5:5 Now hope does not disappoint, because the love of God has been poured out in our hearts by the Holy Spirit who was given to us.

Now hope does not disappoint [and hope does not disappoint us, putteth not to shame, make, maketh not, ashamed].[ 21 ] "For we were saved in this hope" (Ro 8:24). Hope abides (1Co 13:13). The Christian hope is not a false hope. Those who put their trust in Christ will surely receive what they hope for. An example of hope not putting to shame is when a person in trouble cries out to God and is delivered.

They cried to You, and were delivered; they trusted in You, and were not ashamed (Ps 22:5).

During persecution one is vulnerable. In moments of weakness, he may not even muster enough moral strength to confess faith in Christ, let alone defend it. His prayer should be like David's:

Uphold me according to Your word, that I may live; and do not let me be ashamed of my hope (Ps 119:116).

Paul's earnest hope was that by him Christ would always be exalted:

According to my earnest expectation and hope that in nothing I shall be ashamed, but with all boldness, as always, so now also Christ will be magnified in my body, whether by life or by death (Php 1:20).

In Christ, by trials, through His word and prayer, Christians are greatly encouraged.

That by two immutable things, in which it is impossible for God to lie, we might have strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold of the hope set before us (Heb 6:18).

Peter knew well what it was like to deny His Lord under pressure. He wrote to those under persecution,

But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts, and always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you, with meekness and fear (1Pe 3:15).

The story has been told of a high school senior in a well-to-do family who expected a new car for graduation. In fact, he and his father went shopping and picked out the exact model and color. On graduation day, instead of getting the keys to the car, his father handed him a brand new Bible. He was disappointed, to put it mildly. His hope was dashed to the ground (a hope disappointed is a hope put to shame). He was so angry he slammed the Bible down on the floor. He walked out never to return--that is, he never came home until he received word that his father died. He then found his gift Bible. When he thumbed through its pages, he found a check for the exact amount of the car he had selected. The check was dated on his graduation day. He had thought his father deceived him. He had ascribed to his father all kinds of deceit and blame. In reality, his own pride got in the way of accepting what his father offered him.


    (Ro 5:5)

    1. In providing a gospel of salvation by faith, forgiving sins (Ro 5:1, 2).
    2. In the marvelous redemptive work of Calvary
    (Ro 5:6-8).
    3. In providentially working things together for good to those who love Him (Ro 8:28).
    4. By granting eternal salvation to those who obey Him (Heb 5:8, 9).

Because the love of God [because God's love]. [ 22 ] The love of God is God's love for His own. However, His love for them gives rise to their own love for Him and their love for others. His love causes their love to blossom and grow (1Jo 4:19; see also 3:16; 4:8, 11).

Has been poured out [has been poured, is shed, hath been shed, abroad, bestowed liberally].[ 23 ] In Greek, the action of a perfect tense verb begins at a certain point in time and continues in the present. God's love was poured out in a moment of past time. Christians claimed it at conversion. It continues through life.

In our hearts [into our hearts].[ 24 ] When the good news is accepted by faith, the newborn child of God rejoices in his salvation (see Ac 8:39). The love of God for him never ends. He experiences it again and again. Weekly observance of the Lord's Supper is a sacred reminder of God's great love.

By the Holy Spirit [through the Holy Ghost].[ 25 ]. Those who hold to the personal indwelling theory of the Holy Spirit usually cite Acts 2:38 and say the Spirit begins to literally and actually indwell Christians at baptism.[ 26 ] They generally insist that the love of God is shed abroad in the heart from the moment of the reception of the Spirit.

Those who insist on a literal and personal indwelling of Deity in each Christian would do well to consider the consequences of their view. First, Deity indwelt the physical body of Jesus. It made Him an object of worship. If Deity personally indwells Christians, why would it not do likewise? Again, one cannot even see God and live. Are men so naive to think that Deity can literally and bodily indwell a human being without serious consequences?

Others say that the Holy Spirit dwells in Christians indirectly, being active through the instrumentality of the word.[ 27 ] According to both views stated above, the love of God is poured out in the heart by the Holy Spirit. Regardless of the view held, the wonderful results are the same. The Christian's appreciation for salvation is measureless.

Who was given to us [which is, which has been, given us, unto us].[ 28 ] Still another view of the Holy Spirit demands consideration. Paul may be referring to the miraculous power of the Spirit given to "us" the apostles (Ac 2:1-4; 5:32). Revelation and inspiration by the agency of the Holy Spirit were Paul's by a miraculous outpouring (see Tit 3:5). The twelve Jewish apostles received a like outpouring on Pentecost (Ac 2:1-4). Some Gentiles received the like gift (Ac 10:44; 11:15-17; 15:8). The latter outpouring on the household of Cornelius proved to the Jews that God had also granted to the Gentiles "repentance to life" (Ac 11:18; see Ro 8:16; 1Co 3:16; 6:19; 2Co 6:16). In addition, many enjoyed miraculous gifts by the laying on of apostles' hands (Ac 8:18; 1Ti 4:14; 2Ti 1:6). Bear in mind that acceptance of this view does not necessarily imply that Christians today can speak in unlearned tongues or perform miraculous signs.

Some hold a moderate view of the matter. They speak of an abundant reception of the word of God beginning at conversion that continues to abide with faithful Christians. They speak of the word dwelling within a Christian "richly" and cite Colossians 3:16. They point out that Paul implied the rich indwelling of the word is equivalent to being filled with the Spirit (Eph 5:19). R. C. H. Lenski and others have expressed this in such a way that it sounds plausible.[ 29 ]


    (Ro 5:6)

    1. Still without strength, weak, dying, no way to be saved (verse 6).
    2. Ungodly, destitute of reverence and devotion to God (verse 6).
    3. Sinners (verse 8).
    4. Enemies, hostile to God (verse 10).
    5. In due time, Christ died for the ungodly (verse 6).


5:6 For when we were still without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly.

For when we were still without strength [while, for while, we were, for we being, helpless, still, yet, weak].[ 30 ] Without Christ, all people are helpless and lost. None is unable to save himself. The word "yet" suggests that there was a time in the lives of Paul and the Roman Christians when helplessness and weakness came to an end. Through Christ, they were no longer helpless or powerless (see Joh 1:12). Through Jesus Christ, they became able to obtain eternal salvation.

In due time [in the due season, at the appropriate, right, time].[ 31 ] The crucifixion was accomplished according to God's timetable (see Ac 2:23).

Christ died [Christ has died].[ 32 ] Christ died on behalf of sinners. The idea that He died instead of sinners is not taught in this particular verse.

For the ungodly [for the ungodly].[ 33 ] The ungodly are the irreligious, irreverent and impious people, including us. Those ungodly ones once stood in opposition to God's commands. Christ died for them. He died for sinners (verse 8) and for His enemies (verse 10) while they were still in that situation.


5:7 For scarcely for a righteous man will one die; yet perhaps for a good man someone would even dare to die.

For scarcely for a righteous man [why, for a just man, in behalf of a righteous person, the just man].[ 34 ] Paul uses the terms "scarcely" and "peradventure" (see notes below) in order to magnify the exceeding wonder and rarity of the death any one for sinners. This makes the death of Christ so much more marvelous.

Will one die [one will, would, be willing to, hardly, die].[ 35 ] Some think Paul uses the term "righteous" to mean one who acts "on the cold principle of justice."[ 36 ] A just or righteous man is one who is innocent, blameless and upright. "There is none DIKAIOS righteous no, not one" (Ro 3:10; compare Ps 14:1; 53:1).

Yet perhaps [though, for, peradventure].[ 37 ] The word "perhaps" implies a slight probability that someone would die for a good man.

For a good man [for the good man, good person].[ 38 ] Compared with "the good man," a "just man" may seem a little formal and detached. The definite article "the" before "good man" may indicate an ideal or hypothetical man who is kind and generous with no faults whatsoever. He would have charisma to charm. All would like him. He would win admiration and affection. He would capture hearts (compare Ps 37:23; 112:5; Pr 12:2; 13:22; 14:14).

The good man "does as much as ever he can, and proves his moral quality by promoting the well-being of him with whom he has to do."[ 39 ]

Someone would even dare to die [one will dare even, might even, might also, dare to die].[ 40 ] If such a "good man" ever lived, one might dare to die for him (see note above; compare Joh 15:13).


5:8 But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us.

But God demonstrates [but God shows, commends, commendeth, displays].[ 41 ] God has presented and exhibited to the whole world His compassion for mankind by the giving of His Son to suffer and die (Joh 3:16). "The commending is done by the Spirit by means of the gospel."[ 42 ]

His own love toward us [his love for us, to us].[ 43 ] God's love is such that He was willing to suffer in the person of Christ for our salvation. The love of Christ for man is shown in His many deeds and words but, especially, in the crucifixion.


    (Ro 5:8)

    1. Having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them to the end (Joh 13:1).
    2. Greater love has no one than this, than to lay down one's life for his friends (Joh 15:13).
    3. Who shall separate us from the love of Christ?
    (Ro 8:35).
    4. For the love of Christ compels us (2Co 5:14).


    (Ro 5:8)

    1. The life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave Himself for me (Ga 2:20).
    2. And walk in love, as Christ also has loved us and given Himself for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling aroma (Eph 5:2).
    3. By this we know love, because He laid down His life for us. And we also ought to lay down our lives for the brethren (1Jo 3:16).

In that while we were still sinners [in that while we being yet sinners].[ 44 ] Contrast the word "sinners" with the "righteous man" (verse 7). Before conversion, Christians were sinners, weak and ungodly (verse 6). They were enemies (verse 10) and deserved God's wrath (Col 3:6; 1Th 1:10; 2:16).

Christ died for us [Christ died in our behalf].[ 45 ] Instead of God dooming everyone to eternal wrath, He showed His love by Christ's redemptive death on man's behalf. He loves and saves sinners by His Son Jesus Christ.


5:9 Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him.

Much more then [much rather, since, therefore].[ 46 ] God has not forgotten His children. He loved them while they were sinners. Surely He loves them now. After doing so much to redeem them, His great love continues to guide, preserve and protect His saved ones. He continues to care for them as they journey toward heaven.

Having now been justified by His blood [we are now, being now, having been now, now that we are, made righteous in, in the power of, his blood].[ 47 ] The "now" Scriptures make an interesting study (see verse 11).[ 48 ] Christians are "now" forgiven, saved, pardoned and made righteous by the merits of Christ's blood (see note on Ro 3:23). Justification took place in the past, at the time of washing (Ac 22:16; 1Co 6:11). It continues in the present. That is, Christians continue in a state of grace (see note on Ro 5:2).

We shall be saved [shall we be saved].[ 49 ] Because of His priceless investment in our salvation, Christ surely intends to secure our future. Christians are assured that eternal salvation shall be theirs at last, providing they do not "draw back to perdition" (Heb 10:39).

From wrath [from the wrath, the wrath of God].[ 50 ] Sinners deserve hell (see notes on Indignation, Wrath, Tribulation and Anguish at Ro 2:8, 9; also 2Th 1:9).

Through Him [by him].[ 51 ] God, through Christ, saves the faithful from the awful prospect of His wrath (see 1Th 5:9).


5:10 For if when we were enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son, much more, having been reconciled, we shall be saved by His life.

For if when we were enemies [for if while we were, being, enemies].[ 52 ] Because of sin, men became separated from God (Isa 59:1, 2). Separation from Him is equivalent to spiritual death. Those who are away from Christ are "children of wrath" (Eph 2:3). They are "alienated and enemies" (Col 1:21).

We were reconciled to God [we have been reconciled to God].[ 53 ] Reconciliation implies a new and much improved relationship between God and man. No longer are men and women enemies because of their sins. They are friends in close fellowship. Those reconciled are now continuously cleansed by the blood of Christ (see notes on Ro 3:26, 27; 1Jo 1:3, 7).

Man went away from his heavenly Father through sin. It was man who needed to be reconciled to God, not the other way around. All passages on the subject are in perfect agreement with this idea. For example:

That is, that God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself, not imputing their trespasses to them, and has committed to us the word of reconciliation (2Co 5:19).

In the story of the prodigal son, the father never went away. Neither does God forsake His faithful people (but see Isa 59:1, 2). He does not need to come back home or to be reconciled to man.[ 54 ] Nevertheless, He provided a way through Christ for man to return to Him (see note on 2Co 5:20).

Through the death of His Son [by the death of his Son].[ 55 ] God moved in compassion to reconcile man by giving His only begotten Son to die for him. His meritorious death effects reconciliation. Appropriately, in response to God's love and instruction in the gospel, man moves toward God in faith as he yields in submission to the truth. His obedience is a faith-response and is cannot be considered meritorious. However, one's obedience to the gospel corresponds perfectly with the meritorious benefits of Christ's death (see notes on Ro 1:5; 6:3, 4, 17, 18; 10:16; 16:26).

Much more, having been reconciled [much rather, being, now that we are, reconciled].[ 56 ] Since the price of redemption has been paid, Christians have taken on a tremendous value in God's eyes. Much more looks forward to their eternal salvation.

We shall be saved by His life [shall we be saved in, in the power of, his life].[ 57 ]

For though He was crucified in weakness, yet He lives by the power of God. For we also are weak in Him, but we shall live with Him by the power of God toward you (2Co 13:4).

In His weakness, He suffered and died. We see His power to save in His resurrection. We believe that God raised Him (Ro 10:10). We, therefore, trust His living intercession (Heb 7:25). Because He lives, we have confidence in our own future resurrection. We are saved eternally by His eternal life.

When Christ who is our life appears, then you also will appear with Him in glory (Col 3:4; see notes on Ro 4:25; 1Jo 3:2).


5:11 And not only that, but we also rejoice in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation.

And not only that [not only so, this].[ 58 ] The expressions, "much more" (verse 10) and "not only that" (verse 11) are opposites of the negative comparisons, "scarcely," "hardly," "perhaps" or "peradventure" (verse 7). The work of God is neither doubtful nor unexpected. However, His salvation plan is very much better than what man could have ever formulated. If man had devised it, he might have justified only the most righteous or the "good" but God saves sinners [us]! (see notes on verse 7).

But we also rejoice in God [but we are making our boast, joy, in God].[ 59 ] The saved on Pentecost praised God (Ac 2:47). The baptized eunuch "went on his way rejoicing" (Acts 8:39). The thought Paul expresses is: "And not only that [we shall be saved] but we also rejoice in God" (see chart WE REJOICE, JOY).


    (Ro 5:11)

    1. Rejoice in hope of the glory of God (Ro 5:2).
    2. Also glory in tribulations (Ro 5:3).
    3. Also rejoice in God (Ro 5:11).
    4. Rejoice in Christ Jesus (Php 3:3).
    5. Let the lowly glory in his exaltation (Jas 1:9).

Through our Lord Jesus Christ.[ 60 ] Valid rejoicing and glorying is only possible through the Lord Jesus Christ. This is because of justification and peace (verse 1), grace and hope (verse 2), love and the Holy Spirit (verse 5), because He died for us (verse 6), justified us (verse 9) and we received reconciliation (verses 10, 11). Fully realizing where the real merit of salvation lay, Paul wrote,

But God forbid that I should boast except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world (Ga 6:14).

Through whom we have now received the reconciliation [by whom now we have received our atonement].[ 61 ] The Greek article "the" refers back to the reconciliation discussed in verse 10. Reconciliation (both in English and Greek) means to make friends again or to make peace again. For example, when an estranged wife returns and re-establishes marriage relations with her spouse, she is said to "be reconciled to her husband" (1Co 7:11). In Christ, we receive reconciliation which is the result of the atonement. When the KJV was translated, atonement meant "at-one-ment." With respect to the KJV with its 1611 English, "atonement" may have been a satisfactory rendering then but, due to the change in meanings of words, it is now a less than satisfactory choice of words. For today's readers, "atonement" carries the idea of satisfaction. "Reconciliation: is a much better translation of KATALLAGEEN than atonement.[ 62 ]

Some say man is not active in reconciliation.[ 63 ] They should say man is not active in the atonement. Is not man commanded to "be reconciled to God" (2Co 5:20)? He is reconciled to God when he makes his peace with God by faith into His grace (see Ro 5:1, 2). This of course is done because of the atonement which God provided "through the blood of the cross" (Col 2:20).


5:12, 13 Therefore, just as through one man sin entered the world, and death through sin, and thus death spread to all men, because all sinned-- 13 (For until the law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law.

Therefore [wherefore, for this cause].[ 64 ] In verses 1-11, Paul described the blessings of justification by faith. He now begins to show that justification applies to the pathetic condition of mankind that began with sinful Adam.

Just as through one man [as through, as by, even as by, one person].[ 65 ] Sin entered the world through one man (Adam), but he was not the only one who sinned because "they are all under sin" (see Ro 3:9, 19, 23; 11:32; 1Jo 5:19).


    (Ro 5:12)

    1. One man Adam.
    One Man Christ (Ro 5:12, 15).
    2. One transgression.
    One great act of obedience (Ro 5:12, 14, 17, 18).
    3. Death spread to all.
    The gift of grace by Christ abounded to the many (Ro 5:12, 15).
    4. Many offenses.
    Many made righteous (Ro 5:16, 19).
    5. Ultimate effect of Adam's sin, condemnation.
    Grace reigns through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord (Ro 5:18, 21).


    (Ro 5:12)

    1. It came into the world (Ro 5:12).
    2. It reigns (Ro 5:21; 6:14).
    3. It pays wages (Ro 6:23; 5:12).
    4. It revives (Ro 7:9).
    5. It has a law (Ro 7:23).


    (Ro 5:12)

    1. Adam's sin brought death.
    Christ's sacrifice brings life.
    2. Death passed to man because of one sin.
    Christ saves from many sins.
    3. The result of Adam's sin affected both Jew and
    Gentile. Christ saves both Jew and Gentile.
    4. Sin reigned (for that all sinned).
    Grace reigns through Christ for those who obey the gospel.

Sin entered the world [sin came into the world].[ 66 ] Sin entered the world when Adam disobeyed God's plain command.[ 67 ] It became the world's ruling power (see note on Ro 3:9). Along with sin came heartaches, not the least of which was death.

And death through sin [and death by sin, and by, through, sin death, sin death entered].[ 68 ] Adam's sin deprived mankind, including babies, of eternal life on earth. Some teach that sinners alone are subject to death.[ 69 ] Animals may die but this does not make them guilty of sin nor the heirs of Adamic sin. Do all babies deserve to be aborted because they are tainted with original sin? Not at all. The fact that some babies and imbeciles die does not prove they have sinned. The fact that the innocent sometimes die furnishes no proof whatever of the doctrine of original sin (see Mt 18:3).

And thus [and so, even in this manner].[ 70 ] Paul explains death passing to all men and adds the important phrase "because all sinned" (see notes below; compare Eze 43:27).


    (Ro 5:12)

    1. Sin entered the world by one man (Ro 5:12).
    2. Death spread to all men (Ro 5:12-14).

Death spread to all men [death passed unto, upon, all people].[ 71 ] Perhaps we should not be overly bitter against Adam. If he had not sinned, someone else, perhaps one of us, probably would have done so and brought death into the world.

Even one sin is disastrous. Death passed or spread to all because of one sin! Regardless of how difficult this is to believe, the fact speaks. We all understand that the sins of an abusive father may affect his children. A drunken driver may destroy a bus load of pupils. One adulterous affair may destroy a family.

Some think that because of the phrase "for that all sinned" that death, in this verse, means spiritual death. Does physical death come upon people today because of their own sins? Because of the sin of Adam? Or both? Does spiritual death pass upon those who are not guilty of any trespass whatsoever? It does not (see Eze 18:20). These and other difficulties should be cleared up as one reads the following notes.

Because all sinned [because all men, for that all have, sinned].[ 72 ] Some think this means that all sinned "representatively" in Adam. They argue that everyone does not have commit sin personally in order to die spiritually. The idea of "representative sin" is foreign to the Bible. Paul does teach that all accountable beings have committed sin (see Ro 3:9, 19, 23; 11:32). However, it is not possible for any or all to become guilty because of Adam's sin since "the son shall not bear the guilt of the father" (Eze 18:20)?

For until the law [before law, the law, was given].[ 73 ] The Greek has no article before "law," yet the NASB properly indicates the Law of Moses by capitalization of "Law." Apparently, those translators wisely looked ahead to verse 14.

Sin was in the world [sin indeed was continuing in the world].[ 74 ] How could sin be in the world if there was no law? The answer is there was law (see notes on Ro 2:14, 15) but for many years there was no Mosaic Law. When people violated whatever law they had they were sinners. However, before God gave the law of circumcision, the Passover laws and the Sabbath (see Ne 9:14), no one was counted guilty of violation of these particular commands. Perhaps Paul had in mind there was no specific law like the Edenic command to not eat of the tree in the midst of the garden (see verse 14). Except in Eden, the pre-Mosaic race had no such law. They were sinners because they transgressed other commandments.

But sin is not imputed [but sin is not put to account, counted, charged].[ 75 ] There was no penalty imposed upon anyone to whom God's will did not apply. Apparently, God overlooked many indiscretions of the heathen (Ac 17:30). Sin is not counted against infants. They are incapable of sinning. They are "alive without the Law" (Ro 7:9). They cannot be "saved" because they are already "safe."

When there is no law [where law does not exist].[ 76 ] Law is for human beings. For example, animals are not convicted and sentenced for kidnapping or theft. Law is only for accountable persons. Babies and imbeciles are not counted as violators. Children and certain others are "alive without the Law."

Others heard the words of a prophet but all of them at least had the law "written in their heart" and were accountable for that (Ro 2:15; 1:32). God counted sin against Cain (Jude 11), against those who rejected Noah's preaching (Jude 14, 15), against the Amorites (Ge 15:16), against Pharaoh (Ex 9:34; 10:16), against Balaam (Nu 22:34) and against the Ninevites (Jonah 1:2). He holds up Sodom and Gomorrah as examples of sin's consequences (Jude 7). The ancients who had received direct revelation were accountable for that.


5:14 Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those who had not sinned according to the likeness of the transgression of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come.


    (Ro 5:14)

    1. Sin was in the world.
    2. Mosaic Law not yet given.
    3. Adam, Noah, Abraham and others were under a "patriarchal covenant" [of grace].
    4. Eden with its tree was closed. Adam's posterity
    did not sin "according to the likeness of Adam's transgression."
    5. Nevertheless, death reigned from Adam to Moses.

Nevertheless death reigned [yet, but, death ruled].[ 77 ] Some take "death" in this verse as "the separation of man from God."[ 78 ] Some call this original sin and claim that everyone inherits it. I deny this. Death, in this verse, I think, refers to physical death. It is written of the descendants of Adam, "and he died" (see Ge 5:5-31). If death refers to separation from God, then it reigned because all committed it.

From Adam to Moses [from Adam until Moses][ 79 ] (see chart DEATH REIGNED FROM ADAM TO MOSES).

Even over those who had not sinned [even upon them that did not sin, whose sins were not].[ 80 ] Paul has just stated that sin was in the world (verse 13). Therefore, he does not mean that men and women in general had not sinned.

According to the likeness of the transgression of Adam [like, in, after, the similitude of Adam's transgression].[ 81 ] Eden was off-limits to post-Adamic man. Even though no one sinned exactly like Adam, surely each was a sinner (Ro 3:23). The descendants of Adam transgressed in ways not exactly like his. Their offenses were unlike his. From Romans 2:14, 15, we understand that they violated moral law. No doubt, there were unrecorded commands revealed to them. For example, rules about sacrifices must have been specified (compare De 29:29; Ro 10:17; Heb 1:1; 11:4). Did Melchizedek receive any revelation governing his priesthood?

Paul's point is that death reigned over people not guilty of Adam's particular sin. They were not guilty of a transgression identical to his but they were sinners just the same.

Who is a type of Him who was to come [who was the figure of the One to, that was to, come].[ 82 ] Adam is a type of Christ (see charts ADAM AND CHRIST; ADAM A TYPE OF CHRIST, both at verse 12).


5:15 But the free gift is not like the offense. For if by the one man's offense many died, much more the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ, abounded to many.

But the free gift [for, but so also is, the free gift, but shall not the act of favor?].[ 83 ] God's gift of grace is free to mankind because Christ paid for it. Sinners may receive it without money and without price but none merit it (compare Isa 55:1).


    (Ro 5:14)

    1. The sin of Adam affects all mankind.
    The obedience of Christ affects all mankind.
    2. Adam's sin was far-reaching.
    Christ's work much more than Adam's sin.
    3. Death spread to all men because of Adam's sin.
    In Christ all shall be made alive (1Co 15:22).
    4. By man [Adam] came death.
    By Man [Christ] also came the resurrection of the
    dead (1Co 15:21).
    5. Judgment came from one disobedience resulting in condemnation.
    Through one Man's righteous act, the free gift came to all men, resulting in justification of life (Ro 5:18).



    (Ro 5:14)

    1. Adam brought death. Christ brings life.
    2. Adam brought physical death to all. Christ brings physical resurrection to all (Joh 5;28, 29).
    3. Adam brought condemnation to all who follow him (by sinning). Christ brings eternal salvation to all who obey Him (Heb 5:8, 9).

Is not like the offense [not as be [not] as, the trespass, the transgression].[ 84 ] The transgression or trespass of Adam was the occasion of his fall.[ 85 ] The grace of Christ and Adam's sin are not parallel. They are opposites (see chart DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ADAM AND CHRIST).

For if by the one man's offense [for if through one man's trespass, trespass of the one, the offence of one, for in the one transgression].[ 86 ]

Many died [the many died, have died, many be dead].[ 87 ] "Many" or "the many" includes all mankind who have physically died.[ 88 ] In Scripture, "many" sometimes means all. Jesus shed his blood PERI POLLOON for many (Mt 26:28). That is, He died for all (2Co 5:14, 15).

But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, for the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, that He, by the grace of God, might taste death for everyone (Heb 2:9)

Much more the grace of God [much rather have, has, did, the grace of God].[ 89 ] Is Christ's work broader in scope than Adam's? Does it embrace more people? Is it more powerful? Is it more certain and dependable?[ 90 ] Does "much more" indicate the greater inclination of God to save than to punish? The answers to these and other questions should appear as one reads the following several paragraphs.

I wonder if God would have allowed the human race to multiply and fill the earth if He had not known that Christ would come to redeem man. Would He have destroyed the whole population? If the answer is yes, His grace includes many more people than would have been affected by Adam's sin. But there is another sense in which the work of Christ is greater. Adam brought physical death upon man by his sin. Only indirectly did he bring spiritual death. This resulted when each person sinned. Like the sin that separated Adam from Divine fellowship in Eden, each man's personal sin separates between him and God (Isa 59:2). The work of Christ forgives man and brings him back into fellowship with God. It also provides a future reward in heaven. The gain through Christ is much more than the loss through Adam. In this way, the work of Christ is "much more" than Adam's.

And the gift by the grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ [and the free gift in grace, in the grace, by grace, of the One, of that one man, which is by one man, Jesus Christ].[ 91 ] Paul speaks of "the grace of God" and the "gift by the grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ." The gift of God is eternal life (Ro 6:23). That wonderful gift of God that comes by grace through Christ. When one acknowledges that grace comes from both God and Christ, has he not accepted the deity of Christ (compare 2Th 1:12)?

Abounded to many [abound, hath abounded, for, unto, the many].[ 92 ] The abundant riches of salvation are available to everyone in Christ Jesus through the gospel.

For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ all shall be made alive (1Co 15:22).


5:16 And the gift is not like that which came through the one who sinned. For the judgment which came from one offense resulted in condemnation, but the free gift which came from many offenses resulted in justification.

And the gift [and, and so is, the free gift, and shall not [be] the gift?].[ 93 ] Thus far in Romans, Paul has contrasted the results of Adam's sin with Christ's gift of grace. The gift of Christ brings the remedy to many more than the one man Adam alone. Some take "the gift" to be the bodily resurrection that all will receive unconditionally. I understand it to be whatever grace provides, mainly eternal salvation. We may be sure that the gift brings eternal happiness to all who respond to the gospel in obedient faith.

Is not like that which came through the one who sinned [as by, it was by, and not as the effect of, that, the, one that has sinned, one man's sin].[ 94 ] One sin is all it took for Adam to be punished. That sin resulted in untold loss. Christ's righteous act results in uncountable blessing.

For the judgment which came [for judgment following, came, was, resulted].[ 95 ] Adam's sin and Christ's obedience differ in results. Adam was expelled from Eden for one offense, one transgression, that resulted in condemnation. Judgment because of his sin came upon the whole human race in the form of condemnation to physical death (see Ge 3:15-19).

From one offense resulted in condemnation [one trespass brought condemnation, by, of, from the sin of, one, to, unto, condemnation].[ 96 ] From one [Adam] "who sinned" (verse 16) who committed "one man's offense,"
"transgression" or "trespass" (verse 17) is the condemnation.[ 97 ] In a totally different sense, condemnation of sin is said to be of God (see note on Ro 8:3).

But the free gift which came [but the gift, the act of favor, came, developed].[ 98 ] Salvation is a gift of grace. It is free inasmuch as it has been totally paid for by Christ.

From many offenses [of, out of, is of, following, transgressions trespasses].[ 99 ] God's grace is far more comprehensive than merely the atoning for Adam's one sin. By faith, it covers everyone in Christ. "The many" comprise all mankind (see note on verse 15). In the present context, "many offenses" or "many trespasses" means "all trespasses."

Resulted in justification [to, unto, brings, justification].[ 100 ] Christ's obedience results in righteousness. It is called "the gift of righteousness" (verse 17). Righteousness, in this context, is the same as having faith counted as righteousness (see note on Ro 4:9). When God counts men righteous He saves them by His grace. Sinners are counted righteous when they are forgiven, acquitted and judged free from sin so they may be saved eternally.


5:17 For if by the one man's offense death reigned through the one, much more those who receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ.)

For if [if].[ 101 ] Paul has stated the facts about Adam's transgression and the gift of grace through Christ in verses 12-16. Here he makes an argument based upon those facts. In this verse "if" means "since." It does not convey doubt.

By the one man's offense [through the, because of, one man's trespass, transgression, offence of, of the, one].[ 102 ] How awful are the results of the one sin of Adam. In God's sight, any and all sin is dreadful, disastrous and deadly. An individual dies spiritually when he chooses to reject Christ and go into sin.

Death reigned [death ruled].[ 103 ] Until Christ came, nothing stopped the relentless, just and cruel victory march of death through the world (see Ge 2:17; 3:6, 19). Death reigned! All their lives people lived in fear of it (Heb 2:14, 15). But now, through Christ they say:

O Death, where is your sting? O Hades, where is your victory? (1Co 15:55).

Christ brings more than a bodily resurrection. He provides "the gift of righteousness" or spiritual life.

Through the one [through that one man, by one].[ 104 ] Spiritual death reigned through Adam, that is, it began its reign through myriads of people "because all sinned" (verse 12; see Ro 3:23). The bodily resurrection is a major part of what awaits the saved.

Much more those who receive [much rather they, shall they, shall those, which, that receive].[ 105 ]


    (Ro 5:17)

    1. Justified freely by His grace (Ro 3:24).
    2. To demonstrate His righteousness (Ro 3:25, 26).
    3. Abundance of grace (Ro 5:17).
    4. The gift of righteousness (Ro 5:17).
    5. Abundance of joy (2Co 8:2).
    6. For so an entrance will be supplied to you abundantly into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ (2Pe 1:11; Jude 24).

Abundance of grace [the abundance of grace][ 106 ] (see chart ABUNDANCE OF GRACE).


    (Ro 5:15-17)

    1. The plowman shall overtake the reaper (Am 9:13;
    Le 26:5; Mal 3:10-12).
    2. I have come that they may have life, and that they may have it more abundantly (Joh 10:10; Ro 2:4).
    3. Able to do exceedingly abundantly above all that we ask or think (Eph 3:20).
    4. Shall supply all your need according to His riches in glory by Christ Jesus (Php 4:19; 1Ti 6:17).
    5. Much more the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ, abounded to many (Ro 5:15, 17; 2Co 9:8; 2Pe 1:11; Jude 24).

And of the gift of righteousness [and the gift, free gift, of righteousness].[ 107 ] Look again at verse 16. The gift of righteousness is salvation. A gift is something one is free to accept or reject. Salvation may be accepted or rejected. Thus it may rightly be called a gift. If something is earned, it is not a gift. No one earns salvation.


    (Ro 5:17)

    1. Those who receive the abundance of grace.
    2. Those who receive the gift of righteousness.
    3. They "will reign" --implying dignity, liberty, blessedness (Thayer 98).
    4. The activity of life in fellowship with Christ in His Sovereign Power reaching its fullness hereafter (Vine 940).
    5. In Your presence is fullness of joy; at Your right hand are pleasures forevermore (Ps 16:11).

Will reign in life [rule, reign, shall reign, in life, live and reign].[ 108 ] In earthly life, even without Christ, there are meaningful events and joyful times. Even though death reigned, life before Christ was not totally wretched and miserable. But for the Christian, life is a joy and, in a sense, eternal (Joh 3:36; but compare Tit 1:2). The future of Christians is much more than just the ending of death's reign. Through forgiveness and heaven, every tear will vanish and fullness of joy will overwhelm every soul (Re 21:4).

Through the One, Jesus Christ [by one, by the one, through the one man, even Jesus Christ].[ 109 ]


5:18 Therefore, as through one man's offense judgment came to all men, resulting in condemnation, even so through one Man's righteous act the free gift came to all men, resulting in justification of life.

Therefore [then, so then].[ 110 ] At this juncture in Paul's discussion he reaches a point where he is able to draw thoughts from what has so far been written.

As through one man's offense [as, as it was, by, of, from the sin of one, because of, one man's, transgression, one trespass, offence, the offence of one].[ 111 ] From one [Adam] "who sinned" (verse 16) who committed "one man's offense," "transgression" or "trespass" (verse 17) is the condemnation.[ 112 ] In a totally different sense, condemnation of sin is said to be of God (see note on Ro 8:3).

Judgment came to all men resulting in condemnation [led, the judgment came for, to, unto, upon, towards, all men to condemnation, brought condemnation, condemnation resulted for all people].[ 113 ] Physical death was the unconditional condemnation because of Adam's sin (see Heb 9:27). Spiritual death was the conditional condemnation because of each person's sin. Likewise, sinners are conditionally made alive in Christ (see verse 21; 2Co 5:17; 1Jo 5:11).

Even so through one Man's righteous act [so by one, the one, act of righteousness, the righteous act, of One].[ 114 ] Paul contrasts one act with another. Adam's one transgression or trespass is placed in view along side Christ's one act of righteousness [His atoning death]. Christ's act of righteousness was an act of obedience. Paul calls it "one Man's obedience" (verse 19).

And being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself and became obedient to the point of death, even the death of the cross (Php 2:8).

Though He was a Son, yet He learned obedience by the things which He suffered (Heb 5:8).

The free gift came to all men [for, towards, the free gift came unto, upon, all people].[ 115 ] Some translators have appropriately supplied "the free gift came" from verse 16. All die physically because of Adam. All will be raised bodily through Christ. Conditionally, all die spiritually through Adam when they sin. Conditionally, all are made alive spiritually in Christ when they obey the gospel.

Resulting in justification of life [for, to, unto, leads to, resulted in, acquittal and life, the justification of life].[ 116 ] Adam and Eve did not receive sudden and instant physical death. There was a probationary period during which Eve bore children in sorrow. During this period, Adam earned his bread by toil among thorns (Ge 3:16-19).


5:19 For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so also by one Man's obedience many will be made righteous.

For as by one man's disobedience [for as through, for just as through, for as indeed by, the one man's disobedience, the disobedience of one person, of the one man].[ 117 ] In the present verse, Paul further explains the thought he expressed in verse 18, where he spoke act of Adam's sin and of the act of Christ's righteousness. The word "disobedience" implies a refusal to hear or at least a careless attitude toward God's will.

They have turned back to the iniquities of their forefathers who refused to hear My words, and they have gone after other gods to serve them; the house of Israel and the house of Judah have broken My covenant which I made with their fathers (Jer 11:10).

Therefore thus says the LORD God of hosts, the God of Israel: "Behold, I will bring on Judah and on all the inhabitants of Jerusalem all the doom that I have pronounced against them; because I have spoken to them but they have not heard, and I have called to them but they have not answered" (Jer 35:17; compare Ac 7:51).

In our day there are many who neglect to hear and obey the gospel (see Heb 2:3). Others carelessly live an unfaithful life.

Many were made sinners [the many were, have been, constituted sinners].[ 118 ] Were the many made sinners by inheriting sin? No (see Eze 18:4, 20). "All sinned" (Ro 5:12).

So also by one Man's obedience [so, even so, through the obedience of One, the one].[ 119 ] The obedience of the One refers to Christ's atoning death (see notes on verse 18; Php 2:8; Heb 5:8).

Then I said, "Behold, I have come-- in the volume of the book it is written of Me-- to do Your will, O God" (Heb 10:7).

Many will be made righteous [shall many, the many, shall be, constituted righteous].[ 120 ] Just as condemnation is conditional, so is righteousness. Men and women are made righteous by Christ through the gospel (Ro 1:16, 17).

Paul now ends his discussion about Adam and Christ. He resumes his consideration of the Law that he left off in verse 13. There is a logical transition from information about Adam and Christ. For example, in the discussion about Adam and Christ as well as that of the Law, he mentions the reign of death by sin (see verses 12, 14, 17).


5:20, 21 Moreover the law entered that the offense might abound. But where sin abounded, grace abounded much more, 21 so that as sin reigned in death, even so grace might reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.

Moreover the law entered [law, but law, and the Law, came in, came in besides].[ 121 ] Some understand this to mean the law written on the heart.[ 122 ] But was not the law written in the hearts of Adam and Eve before sin entered the world? I think, therefore, Paul refers to the Law of Moses. Sin already existed. The Law "entered," or "came in beside" sin. It "joined forces with it and thus greatly added to its extent and power.[ 123 ]

That the offense might abound [to increase the trespass, in order that the trespass might abound, to reveal the increase of transgression].[ 124 ] Sinners can easily rationalize, justify and minimize their evil thoughts and conduct (see chart DECEIT OF SIN at Ro 7:11). The Law clearly exposed those with rebellious hearts. It showed sin in such a way as to be fully recognizable. It brought out added consciousness of sin (see Ro 7:7, 11). It made sin more evident and expressed its penalty.


    (Ro 5:20)

    1. Hypocrisy (Mt 23:1-33).
    2. Making void God's law by tradition (Mt 15:6).
    3. Idolatry (Ex 32:4; Nu 25:2; 1Ki 9:8, 9; 12:32; 16:31; 2Ki 17:12; 21:21).
    4. Violation of Law (Ro 7:7).

But where sin abounded [but where sin increased].[ 125 ] (see chart SIN ABOUNDED).

Grace abounded much more [grace abound, did abound, has overabounded, increased, more, all the more exceedingly].[ 126 ]

And the grace of our Lord was exceedingly abundant, with faith and love which are in Christ Jesus (1Ti 1:14).


    (Ro 5:21)

    1. Sin reigned in death (Ro 5:21):
    a. For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord (Ro 6:23).
    2. Reign of grace through righteousness:
    a. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God to salvation for everyone who believes, for the Jew first and also for the Greek. 17 For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith; as it is written, "The just shall live by faith" (Ro 1:16, 17).
    b. Even the righteousness of God, through faith in Jesus Christ, to all and on all who believe. For there is no difference (Ro 3:22).

So that as sin reigned in death [that, in order that, even as, sin has reigned, hath reigned, had ruled, unto, in the power of, death].[ 127 ] Sin caused death. EN in is probably used instrumentally and should be translated "by" (see the context, especially verses 14, 17). The NEB is acceptable with, "Sin established its reign by means of death."

For sin shall not have dominion over you, for you are not under law but under grace (Ro 6:14).

The sting of death is sin, and the strength of sin is the law (1Co 15:56).

Even so grace might reign through righteousness [grace also, so also grace, might rule through righteousness][ 128 ] (see chart THE GOSPEL REIGN).

To eternal life [unto eternal life].[ 129 ] Grace brings the free gift of eternal life (Ro 6:23). The only way eternal life for sinful man is possible is through the grace of God.

Through Jesus Christ our Lord [by Jesus Christ our Lord].[ 130 ]

This is the "stone which was rejected by you builders, which has become the chief cornerstone." Nor is there salvation in any other, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved (Ac 4:11, 12).


[ 1 ]The basic text in this chapter is the NKJV. Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright 1979, 1980, 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. Alternate phrases in brackets are from ASV, Darby, ESB, KJV and RSV and occasionally another version. Greek transliteration approximates the BibleSoft method.
[ 2 ]DIKAIOOTHENTES OUN, having been justified therefore (Marshall 616), DIKAIOOTHENTES is the first aorist passive participle, nominative plural masculine of DIKAIOOO (Han 302); having been justified then, aorist point tense, indicating the definite time at which each person, upon the exercise of faith was justified (Vine 615); so, therefore, consequently, accordingly then, in a declarative sentence, acquitted, pronounced and treated righteous (Arndt 197, 593); having been declared righteous (Lenski 331); since we have been given right standing with God (Williams).
[ 3 ]Some other translations of the phrase from Romans 6:17 follow: "Having been set free from sin" (NKJV), "Being freed from sin" (NASB), "And since you have been freed from sin" (Williams).
[ 4 ]EK PISTEOOS, by faith (Marshall 6160; by faith; by means of faith, Thayer 150); out of faith (Lenski 331); through faith (Williams).
[ 5 ]G. C. Brewer 115, cited by Allen 124.
[ 6 ]EIREENEEN ECHOMEN TROS TON THEON, peace we have with God (Marshall 616); ECHOMEN is first person plural, present active indicative of ECHOO (Han 302); present imperative, the correct reading is [with a long O], let us have (Vincent 3.57); holding or having, so enjoying (Williams 337); of advantages, benefits, or comforts, which one enjoys, have [peace] (Arndt 333); peace let us go on having (Lenski 331); let us continue enjoying [literally, holding or having, so enjoying] peace with God (Williams).
[ 7 ]DIA TOU KURIOU HEMOON 'IEESOU CHRISTOU, through the Lord of us Jesus Christ (Marshall 616); by the merit, aid, favor of [our Lord Jesus Christ] (Thayer 133); through our Lord Jesus Christ (Lenski 331).
[ 8 ]DI' HOU KAI TEEN PROSAGOOGEEN ESCHEEKAMEN [TEE PISTEI], through whom also the access we have had (Marshall 616); ESCHEEKAMEN is first person plural, perfect active indicative of ECHOO (Han 302); literally, the act of bringing to. Therefore some insist on the transitive sense introduction (Vincent 3.58); denotes access, with which is associated the thought of freedom to enter through the assistance or favor of another (Vine 13); intransitive, approach, access (Arndt 711); access, approach (Thayer 544); through whom also we have had the entrance (Lenski 331); by whom we have an introduction through faith (Williams).
[ 9 ]EIS TEEN CHARIN TAUTEEN, into this grace (Marshall 616; Lenski 331); grace is conceived as a field into which we are brought (Vincent 3.58); this state of grace (Arndt 878); [into] the spiritual condition of one governed by the power of divine grace, what the theologians call the "status gratiae" (Thayer 666); into this state of God's favor (Williams).
[ 10 ]EN HEE HESTEEKAMEN, in which we stand (Marshall 616; Lenski 331); HESTEEKAMEN is first person plural, perfect active indicative of HISTEEMI (Han 302); metaphorically, to stand firm in the truth (Vine 1083, 1084); in which we stand, or be in grace (Arndt 382, 878); persist, continue, persevere (Thayer 308); in which we safely stand [perfect implies this] (Williams).
[ 11 ]KAI KAUCHOOMETHA, and boast (Marshall 616); KAUCHOOMETHA is first person plural, present middle indicative of KAUCHAOMAI (Han 302); present tense, [and we] boast, glory, of valid glorying (Vine 484, 943); see verses 3, 11; Let us boast (glory) in the hope (Harrison 523); and let us go on boasting (Lenski 331); and let us continue exulting (Williams).
[ 12 ]EP' ELPIDI, on hope (Marshall 616); literally, on the ground of hope (Vincent 3.58); with objective genitive which designates the object of the hope (Arndt 253); [in] joyful and confident expectation of eternal salvation (Thayer 205); on the basis of hope (Lenski 331); in the hope (Williams).
[ 13 ]TEES DOXEES TOU THEOU, of the glory of God (Marshall 616; Lenski 331); honor or glory with God (Arndt 204); the glorious condition of blessedness into which it is appointed and promised that true Christians shall enter after their Savior's return from heaven . . . [glory] which God bestows (Thayer 156); of enjoying the glorious presence of God (Williams).
[ 14 ]OU MONON DE, and not only [so] (Marshall 616); and not that alone (Lenski 331); and not only that (Williams).
[ 15 ]ALLA KAI KAUCHOOMETHA, but also we boast (Marshall 616); KAUCHOOMETHA is first person plural, present middle indicative of KAUCHAOMAI (Han 302); boast, glory, of valid glorying (Vine 484); boast, glory, pride [ourselves] (Arndt 425); let us continue exulting (Williams); but also let us go on boasting (Lenski 331); but this too: let us continue exulting (Williams).
[ 16 ]EN TAIS THLIPESIN, in afflictions (Marshall 616); present tense, tribulations has the article, the tribulations, attaching to the condition of believers, Vincent 3.58;in [our] pressing pressure, anything that burdens the spirit (Vine 31, 943); Lenski (337) argues strongly from manuscript evidence that the correct reading is according to that suggested by Harrison (523); in our sufferings (Williams); in the afflictions (Lenski 331); in our sufferings [literally pressing burdens] (Williams); see verses 2, 11; James 1:2-4.
[ 17 ]EIDOTES HOTI HEE THLUPSIS HUPOMONEEN KATERGAZETAI, knowing that affliction patience works (Marshall 616); EIDOTES is the perfect active participle, nominative plural masculine of OIDA; KATERGAZETAI is third person singular, present middle indicative of KATERGAZOMAI (Han 302); [tribulation] works out, achieves, effects by toil, patience (Arndt 846; Vine 1244); the connotation is brave, manly courage without discouragement or weakening (Lenski 337); having come to know that the affliction produces perseverance (Lenski 331); for we know that suffering produces endurance (Williams); see note on Romans 2:7.
[ 18 ]KAI HUPOMONEE DOKIMEEN, and patience proof (Marshall 616); shows one to be able [from DOKIMEE the state or disposition of that which has been tried and approved] (Littrell); and the perseverance tried condition (Lenski 331); and endurance, tested character (Williams).
[ 19 ]HEE DE DOKIMEE ELPIDA, and proof hope (Marshall 616); and proof, hope, of the Christian hope, Arndt 253; full proof (Clarke 6.66); and the tried condition hope (Lenski 331); and tested character, hope (Williams).
[ 20 ]An interesting study is to compare temptation PIERASMOU with tribulation (THLIPSEOOS) and persecution (DIOOGMOU). The latter two words are used in Matthew 13:21 and Mark 4:17.
[ 21 ]HEE DE ELPIS OU KATAISCHUNEI, and hope does not put to shame (Marshall 616); KATAISCHUNEI is third person singular, present active indicative of KATAISCHUNOO (Han 302); [does not] disgrace or dishonor (Vincent 3.59); active voice, puts [not] to shame (Vine 69); hope does not disappoint (Arndt 410); by a Hebrew usage, one is said to be put to shame who suffers a repulse, or whom some hope has deceived; hence does not disappoint (Thayer 331); and this hope does not put to shame (Lenski 331, 332); and hope never disappoints [Greek puts to shame] us (Williams).
[ 22 ]HOTI HEE AGAPEE TOU THEOU, because the love of God (Marshall 616); the love of God [to men] (Arndt 5); because the love of God; subjective genitive, God's love for us (Lenski 332, 340); for God's love (Williams).
[ 23 ]ENKECHUTAI, has been poured out (Marshall 616; Lenski 332); third person singular, perfect passive indicative of EKCHEOO (Han 302); literally, poured out, perfect tense, hath been shed abroad (Vincent 3.59); the perfect tense [of hath been shed abroad] implying that [His love] is now in our hearts; the perfect tense reaches back to the moment referred to in the aorist participle DIKAIOOTHENTES [have been justified] in verse 1, the instant when God declared us righteous (Lenski 340); of the love of God in the hearts of believers through the Holy Spirit (Vine 1031); poured out, figuratively, the Holy Spirit has perhaps brought the idea of outpouring into Ro 5:5 . . . but generally whatever comes from above is connected with this verb [Isa 44:3; Ho 5:10; compare De 7:7, 8] (Arndt 247); the Holy Spirit gives our souls a rich sense of the greatness of God's love for us (Thayer 201); has flooded [literally, poured out into] (Williams).
[ 24 ]EN TAIS KARDIAS HEEMOON, in the hearts of us (Marshall 616); into our hearts (Lenski 332); our hearts (Williams).
[ 25 ]DIA PNEUMATOS HAGIOU, through Spirit Holy (Marshall 616; Lenski 332); with genitive of person, denoting the personal agent or intermediary, through [by the agency of] by . . . the Holy Spirit (Arndt 180); through the Holy Spirit (Williams); see Romans 8:15, 16; Galatians 4:6.
[ 26 ]Mac Deaver, Roy H. Lanier, Sr., Richard Rogers and others have affirmed that the Holy Spirit literally and actually indwells Christians.
[ 27 ]The indirect indwelling of the Spirit has been taught by E. R. Harper, Marion Fox, Foy E. Wallace, Jr., Guy N. Woods and others.
[ 28 ]TOU DOTHENTOS HEEMIN, given to us (Marshall 616; Lenski 332); DOTHENTOS is the first aorist passive participle, genitive singular neuter of DIDOOMI (Han 302); aorist participle (Lenski 340); which was given, that is, when we first believed (Ellicott 223); that has been given us (Williams).
[ 29 ]Lenski (340) observed: "In the moment of justification we receive the Spirit as a gift. But he enters our hearts by means of the Word which includes the sacrament, the power of which is also the Word. He does not enter into our heart at will. We realize his presence by the power he exerts in our hearts by means of the Word. The more we hear and absorb that Word, letting it fill and control us, the more the Spirit fills us."
[ 30 ]ONTOON HEEMOON ASTHENOON, being us weak=when we were weak (Marshall 616); ONTOON is the present active participle, genitive plural masculine or neuter of EIMI (Han 302); literally strengthless, of the inability of man to accomplish his salvation (Vine 1216); sluggish in doing right (Thayer 80); morally weak (Arndt 115); when we were weak (Lenski 342); for when we were still helpless (Williams).
[ 31 ]ETI KATA KAIRON, yet according to time (Marshall 616); primarily due measure, fitness, proportion, used in the NT to signify a season, a time, a period possessed of certain characteristics (Vine 1004, 1005); at the [divinely] appointed time (Thayer 318); more naturally construed with APETHANEN [death] than with ASEBOON [ungodly] (Arndt 395); at the proper time (Williams); still as to point of time (Lenski 342); see Galatians 4:4.
[ 32 ]EI GE CHRISTOS . . . APETHANEN, indeed Christ . . . died (Marshall 616); APETHANEN is third person singular, second aorist active indicative of APOTHNEESKOO (Han 302); Christ died (Lenski 342; Williams).
[ 33 ]HUPER ASEBOON, on behalf of impious ones (Marshall 616); for the benefit of, not instead of (Ellicott 224); for; it is disputed whether HUPER on behalf of, is ever equivalent to ANTI instead of . . . . Christ died in behalf of--leaving the peculiar sense of in behalf of undetermined, and to be settled by other passages. The meaning instead of may be included in it, but only inferentially; the radical idea of the word is want of reverence or piety (Vincent 3.59, 60); of Christ dying to procure salvation for his own (Thayer 639); impious, ungodly, without reverence for God, not merely irreligious, but acting in contravention of God's demands (Vine 1182); in behalf of ungodly ones (Lenski 342); for us ungodly men (Williams); destitute of reverential awe towards God, contemning God, impious (Thayer 79). Contemning means to treat with scorn and contempt.
[ 34 ]MOLIS GAR HUPER DIKAIOU, for hardly on behalf of a just man (Marshall 616); [from MOLOS toil], with difficulty, hardly, scarcely (Vine 302); not easily, that is, scarcely, very rarely; upright, righteous, virtuous, keeping the commands of God (Thayer 148, 417); no article, right or just; doing all the law or justice requires (Vincent 3.60); now scarcely in behalf of one righteous (Lenski 342); for an upright person (Williams).
[ 35 ]TIS APOTHANEITAI, anyone will die (Marshall 616); APOTHANEITAI is third person singular, future middle indicative of APOTHNEESKOO (Han 302); will someone die (Lenski 342);
now a man will scarcely ever give his life (Williams).

[ 36 ]Whiteside 118.
[ 37 ]TACHA, perhaps (Marshall 616; Lenski 342); [from TACHU quick], signifies "peradventure" (Vine 844); perhaps, peradventure (Thayer 616); though once in a while (Williams).
[ 38 ]HUPER GAR TOU AGATHOU, for on behalf of the good man (Marshall 616); note the article [the] benevolent, kind, generous [man] (Vincent 3.60); the meaning is, Hardly for an innocent man does one encounter death; for even if he dares hazard his life for another, he does so for a benefactor [one from whom he has received favors] (Thayer 3; Arndt 3); for in behalf of the good man (Lenski 342); for a generous friend [Greek a good man, but qualities of unselfish generosity included] (Williams).
[ 39 ]Vincent 3.60.
[ 40 ]TIS KAI TOLMA APOTHANEIN, someone even dares to die (Marshall 616); TOLMA is third person singular, present active indicative or subjunctive of TOLMAOO APOTHANEIN is the second aorist active infinitive of APOTHNEESKOO (Han 302); someone even has courage [enough] to die (Lenski 342); a man is brave enough to die (Williams).
[ 41 ]SUNISTEESIN DE . . . HO THEOS, commends . . . but God (Marshall 616); literally places together . . . introduces one to another (Vine 203); God continuously establishes His love in that the death of Christ remains as its most striking manifestation (Vincent 3.60); demonstrates, shows, brings out (Arndt 790); [God] puts together by way of composition of combination, teaches by combining or comparing, hence shows, proves, establishes, exhibits (Thayer 605); but God commends (Lenski 342); but God proves (Williams); see note on Romans 3:5.
[ 42 ]Lenski 347.
[ 43 ]TEEN HEAUTOU AGAPEEN EIS HEEMAS, the of himself love to us (Marshall 616); more literally, His own [love] (Vincent 3.60); of the love of God, Arndt 5; of the love of God towards men (Thayer 4); his own love to us (Lenski 342); His love for us (Williams).
[ 44 ]HOTI ETI HAMARTOOLOON ONTOON HEEMOON, that yet sinners being us=while we were yet sinners (Marshall 616); ONTOON is the present active participle, genitive plural masculine or neuter of EIMI (Han 302); the most usual term to describe the fallen condition of men; it is applicable to all men (Vine 1048); of the state of the man who is not yet reconciled (Arndt 44); not free from sin (Thayer 31); in that, while we were still sinners (Lenski 342; Williams).
[ 45 ]CHRISTOS HUPER HEEMOON APETHANEN, Christ on behalf of us died (Marshall 616); APETHANEN is third person singular, second aorist active indicative of APOTHNEESKOO (Han 302); by the fact that Christ died for us (Williams).
[ 46 ]POLLOO OUN MALLON, by much therefore rather (Marshall 616); in the dative of degree of difference, how much more, [surely, certainly] (Arndt 489, 688); that which occurs more easily than something else, and may be rendered sooner, thus POLLOO MALLON, in arguing from the less to the greater (Thayer 388); so it is much more certain (Williams).
[ 47 ]DIKAIOOTHENTES NUN EN TOO HAIMATI AUTOU, having been justified now by the blood of him (Marshall 616); DIKAIOOTHENTES is the first aorist passive participle, nominative plural masculine of DIKAIOOO (Han 302); acquitted, pronounced and treated as righteous and thereby become DIKAIOS [righteous], receive the divine gift of DIKAIOSUNEE [righteousness], as a theological technical term [being] justified (Arndt 197); [the blood of Christ] [as the meritorious cause of their acceptance, as the old theologians say, faith being the apprehending or subjecting cause] (Thayer 150); having now been declared righteous in connection with his blood (Lenski 342); if we have already been brought into right standing with God by Christ's death (Williams); the Greek is HAIMATI blood, not death. Why does the NIV depart from good translation in rendering it, "by his sacrificial death"?
[ 48 ]Some additional "now Scriptures are Romans 3:21; 6:22; 7:6; 8:1; 11:30; Ephesians 2:13; 3:10; Colossians 1:21, 26; Hebrews 8:6; 1 Peter 2:10; 3:21).
[ 49 ]SOOTHEESOMETHA, we shall be saved (Marshall 616; Williams); first person plural, future passive indicative of SOOZOO (Han 302); passive voice, be saved, attain salvation (Arndt 798); saved in the technical biblical sense (Thayer 610); of the future deliverance of believers at the second coming of Christ for his saints, being deliverance from the wrath of God to be executed upon the ungodly at the close of the age and from eternal doom (Vine 993); shall we be saved (Lenski 342).
[ 50 ]APO TEES ORGEES, from the wrath (Marshall 617; Lenski 342); note the article, the wrath of God; of God's future judgment (Arndt 579); from the punitive wrath of God at the judgment of the last day (Thayer 610); from God's wrath (Williams).
[ 51 ]DI' AUTOU, through him (Marshall 617; Lenski 342); by Him (Williams).
[ 52 ]EI GAR ECHTHROI ONTES, for if enemies being (Marshall 617); ONTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of EIMI (Han 303); either active hating God, or passive hated of God. The context favors the latter sense; not, however with the conventional meaning of hatred, denoting the revengeful, passionate feeling of human enmity, but simply the essential antagonism of the divine nature to sin (Vincent 3.60, 3.61); [akin to ECHTHOS hate], hated or hateful, of the unregenerate in their attitude toward God (Vine 360); for if, while being enemies (Lenski 351); for if while we were God's enemies (Williams); see Romans 11:28.
[ 53 ]KATEELLAGEEMEN TOO THEOO, we were reconciled to God (Marshall 617; Lenski 351); KATEELLAGEEMEN is first person plural, second aorist passive indicative of KATALLASSOO (Han 303); primarily to exchange; and hence to change the relation of hostile parties into a relation of peace; to reconcile (Vincent 3.61); we were reconciled to Him (Williams).
[ 54 ]Human creeds, including the Methodist Discipline, have the reconciliation bringing God to man rather than man to God as the Scriptures teach. In a long, complicated sentence, the "Articles of Religion" of the Episcopal Church says this very thing. "The Son, which is the Word of the Father, begotten from everlasting of the Father, the very and eternal God, and of one substance with the Father, took Man's nature in the womb of the blessed Virgin, of her substance: so that two whole and perfect Natures, that is to say, the Godhead and Manhood, were joined together in one Person, never to be divided, whereof is one Christ, very God, and very Man; who suffered, was crucified, dead, and buried, to reconcile his Father to us, and to be a sacrifice, not only for original guilt, but also for actual sins of men." Notice please the words I underlined in the quotation from The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and Other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church According to the Use of The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, New York Bible and Common Prayer Book Society, Oxford University Press, New York, 1935, page 603 (emphasis supplied).
[ 55 ]DIA TOU THANATOU TOU HUIOU AUTOU, through the death of the Son of him (Marshall 617); through the death of His Son (Lenski 351; Williams).
[ 56 ]POLLOO MALLON KATALLAGENTES, by much rather having been reconciled (Marshall 617); KATALLAGENTES is the second aorist passive participle, nominative plural masculine of KATALLASSOO (Han 303); [being] restored to the favor of God, recover God's favor (Thayer 333); much more, as having been reconciled (Lenski 351); it is much more certain that since we have been reconciled (Williams).
[ 57 ]SOOTHEESOMETHA EN TEE ZOOEE AUTOU, we shall be saved by the life of him (Marshall 617); SOOTHEESOMETHA is first person plural, future passive indicative of SOOZOO (Han 303); we shall be saved in connection with his life (Lenski 351); we shall finally [context shows it is our final salvation at the resurrection] be saved (Williams).
[ 58 ]OU MONON DE, and not only [so] (Marshall 617); and not only that (Lenski 351; Williams); see note on verse 3.
[ 59 ]ALLA KAI KAUCHOOMENOI EN TOO THEOO, but also boasting in God (Marshall 617; Lenski 351); KAUCHOOMENOI is the present middle participle, nominative plural masculine of KAUCHAOMAI (Han 303); literally but also glorying. The participle corresponds with that in verse 10, being reconciled. We shall be saved, not only as being reconciled, but as also rejoicing (Vincent 3.61); present tense, glory continually (Lenski 356); we shall continue exulting in God (Williams).
[ 60 ]DIA TOU KURIOU HEEMOON 'IEESOU [CHRISTOU], through the Lord of us, Jesus Christ (Marshall 617); through our Lord Jesus Christ (Lenski 351; Williams); see Romans 1:1, 4.
[ 61 ]DI' HOU NUN TEEN KATALLAGEEN ELABOMEN, through whom now the reconciliation e received (Marshall 617); ELABOMEN is first person plural, second aorist active indicative of LAMBANOO (Han 303); now in contrast with future glory. The KJV rendering "atonement" is incorrect. Atonement is the offering itself of Christ under Divine judgment upon sin. We do not receive atonement. What we do receive is the result, namely, "reconciliation" (Vine 932); a change on the part of one party induced by an action on the part of another; in the NT, the reconciliation of man to God by His grace and love in Christ (Vine 934); we received the blessing of the recovered favor of God (Thayer 333); through whom now we did receive the reconciliation (Lenski 351); through whom we have obtained our reconciliation (Williams).
[ 62 ]Vincent 3.61, 3.62.
[ 63 ]I reluctantly take issue with Arndt and Ginrich who say: "Reconciliation . . . which, according to Paul, is brought about by God alone; he `reconciles men to himself'. . . . Since men are not active in this dispensation from God, they are said . . . to receive reconciliation" (Arndt 414). Of course, humans receive reconciliation but men and women are active in that they believe, repent, confess faith in Christ, are baptized and live faithfully.
[ 64 ]DIA TOUTO, therefore (Marshall 617); for this cause, on this account, since this is so (Thayer 134); because of this (Lenski 358); so (Williams).
[ 65 ]HOOSPER DI HENOS ANTHROOPOU, as through one man (Marshall 617; Lenski 358); as begins the first member of a comparison (Vincent 3.62); here is the comparison: [literally, just as] as through one man (Williams).
[ 66 ]HEE HAMARTIA EIS TON KOSMON EISEELTHEN, sin into the world entered (Marshall 617); EISEELTHEN is third person singular, second aorist active indicative of EISERCHOMAI (Han 303); sin entered . . . sin came into the world (Arndt 43); sin came into the world (Lenski 351; Williams).
[ 67 ]It might be observed that angels sinned (2Pe 2:4; Jude 6). No doubt, Satan was guilty of sin (see Joh 8:44; 1Ti 3:6; 1Jo 3:8). Eve also sinned when she ate of the forbidden fruit (compare 1Jo 3:4).
[ 68 ]KAI DIA TEES HAMARTIAS HO THANATOS, and through sin death (Marshall 617); [and] all the miseries arising from sin, as well physical death as the loss of a life consecrated to God and blessed in him on earth . . . followed by wretchedness in the lower world [opposite to ZOOEE AIOONIOS, life eternal]: THANATOS seems to be so used in Ro 5:12; 6:16, 21; 7:24; 8:2, 6; [through sin], equivalent to TO HAMARTANEIN a sinning, whether it occurs by omission or commission, in thought and feeling or in speech and action (Thayer 30, 283); and through the sin death (Lenski 351); and death as a consequence of sin (Williams).
[ 69 ]W. E. Vine (268) taught that always in Scripture, [death is] viewed as the penal consequence of sin, and that sinners, alone, are subject to death. I disagree.
[ 70 ]KAI HOUTOOS, also so (Marshall 617); even so (Lenski 351); and (Williams).
[ 71 ]EIS PANTOS ANTHROOPOUS HO THANATOS DIEELTHEN, unto all men death passed (Marshall 617); DIEELTHEN is third person singular, second aorist active indicative of DIERCHOMAI (Han 303); literally came throughout upon. The preposition DIA denotes spreading, propagation, as EIS into denotes entrance (Vincent 3.62); passed through unto all men, so that no one could escape its power (Thayer 147); simply came, go . . . of death: to all men (Arndt 194); the death went through to all men (Lenski 358); death spread to all men (Williams).
[ 72 ]EPH' HOO PANTES HEEMARTON, inasmuch as all sinned (Marshall 617); HEEMARTON is first person singular or third person plural, second aorist active indicative of HAMARTANOO (Han 303); because all have sinned (Macknight 82); on the ground of [the fact that all sinned] (Vincent 3.62); since all did sin (Lenski 358); because all men sinned (Williams).
[ 73 ]ARCHI GAR NOMOU, until for law (Marshall 617); referring to the period between Adam's trespass and the giving of the Law (Vine 643); for until law (Lenski 362); before the law was given (Williams).
[ 74 ]HAMARTIA EEN EN KOSMOO, sin was in [the] world (Marshall 617); EEN is third person singular, imperfect active indicative of EIMI (Han 303); sin as a principle or source of action, or an inward element producing acts (Vine 1045); sin was in the world (Lenski 362; Williams).
[ 75 ]HAMARTIA DE OUK ELLOGEITAI, sin but is not reckoned (Marshall 617); ELLOGEITAI is third person singular, present passive indicative of ELLOGEOO (Han 303); [LOGOS an account or reckoning], put to account so as to bring penalty; see the only other use of this word in Phm 18. "This principle is [here] applied to the fact that between Adam's transgression and the giving of the Law at Sinai, sin, though it was in the world, did not partake of the character of transgression; for there was no law. The law of conscience existed, but that is not in view in the passage which deals with the fact of external commandments given by God" (Vine 583); although sin is not charged up (Lenski 362); but it is not charged to men's account (Williams).
[ 76 ]MEE ONTOS NOMOU, not being law=where there is no law (Marshall 617); when there is no law [transgressed] (Macknight 82); while there is no law (Lenski 362); where there is no law (Williams).
[ 77 ]ALLA EBASILEUSEN HO THANATOS, but reigned death (Marshall 617); EBASILEUSEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of BASILEUOO (Han 303); nevertheless, the death reigned (Lenski 362); and yet death reigned (Williams).
[ 78 ]Vine 268.
[ 79 ]APO 'ADAM MECHRI MOUSEOOS, from Adam until Moses (Marshall 617; Lenski 262); from Adam to Moses (Williams).
[ 80 ]KAI EPI TOUS ME HAMARTEESANTAS, even over the [ones] not sinning (Marshall 617); HAMARTEESANTAS is the first aorist active participle, accusative plural masculine of HAMARTANOO (Han 303); even over those who did not sin (Lenski 362); even over those who had not sinned (Williams).
[ 81 ]EPI TOO HOMOIOOMATI TEES PARABASEOOS 'ADAM, on the likeness of the transgression of Adam (Marshall 617); after the similitude of the transgression of Adam (Lenski 362); in the way Adam had, against a positive command [Greek, in the likeness of Adam's transgression] (Williams).
[ 82 ]HOS ESTIN TUPOS TOU MELLONTES, who is a type of the [one] coming (Marshall 617); ESTIN is third person singular, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 303); who is a type, figure, pattern of the Adam to come [that is, The Messiah, the Christ] (Vine 425; Thayer 397; Arndt 830); he who is type of the One to come (Lenski 362); for Adam was a figure of Him who was to come (Williams).
[ 83 ]'ALL' HOUTOOS [KAI] TO CHARISMA, but also the free gift (Marshall 617); of [God's free bestowment upon sinners] (Vine 477); the economy of divine grace, by which the pardon of sin and eternal salvation is appointed to sinners in consideration of the merits of Christ laid hold of by faith (Thayer 667); the generous gift of redemption (Arndt 879); but thus, too, the gracious gift (Lenski 366); but God's free gift (Williams).
[ 84 ]OUCH HOOS TO PARAPTOOMA, not as the offense (Marshall 617); [but not as the] trespass [of Adam, in contrast to the free gift of righteousness] (Vine 1166); sin against God, of Adam's one transgression; the root meaning of PARAPTOOMA is a false step, a blunder [akin to PARAPITOO to fall away] (Arndt 621); not as the fall (Lenski 366); is not at all to be compared to the offense (Williams).
[ 85 ]See the same Greek word for "transgression" or "offense" in verse 18 translated "trespass" in some versions.
[ 86 ]EI GAR TOO TOU HENOS PARAPTOOMATI, for if by the of the one [man] offence (Marshall 617); the one--Adam (Vincent 3.62); the trespass of Adam, Vine 1166; tropically, a lapse or deviation from truth and uprightness, a sin, misdeed (Thayer 485); for if by the fall of the one (Lenski 366); for if by one man's offense (Williams).
[ 87 ]HOI POLLOI APETHANON, the many died (Marshall 617; Lenski 366); APETHANON is third person plural, second aorist active indicative of APOTHNEESKOO (Han 303); the many, opposite HO HEIS [the one] (Arndt 688); with the article prefixed, those contrasted with HO HEIS the one, according to the context equivalent to the rest of mankind (Thayer 529); the whole race of men have died [Greek the many have died] (Williams).
[ 88 ]There were exceptions such as Enoch and Elijah to the general rule that men die.
[ 89 ]POLLOO MALLON HEE CHARIS TOU THEOU, by much rather the grace of God (Marshall 617); much, by far [the underlying thought is, the measure of salvation] which we are indebted to Christ is far greater than that of the ruin which came from Adam; for the difference between the consequences traceable to Adam and to Christ is not only one of great quality, but of quantity also (Thayer 388); much more did the grace of God (Lenski 366); to a much greater degree God's favor (Williams).
[ 90 ]See Chrysostom, Meyer, Godet.
[ 91 ]KAI HEE DOOREA EN CHARITI TEE TOU HENOS ANTHROOPOU 'IEESOU CHRISTOU, and the gift in grace of the one man Jesus Christ (Marshall 617, 618); DOOREA denotes a free gift, stressing its gratuitous character; it is always used in the NT of a spiritual or supernatural gift (Vine 477); a gift (Thayer 161); and the gift in connection with the grace of the one man Jesus Christ (Lenski 366); and His gift imparted by His favor through the one man Jesus Christ (Williams).
[ 92 ]EIS TOUS POLLOUS EPERISSEUSEN, to the many abounded (Marshall 618); EPERISSEUSEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of PERISSEUOO (Han 303); of what comes or falls to the lot of a person, large measure, as of the grace of God and the gift by the grace of Christ (Vine 9); comes in abundance, or overflows, unto one; something falls to the lot of one in large measure (Thayer 505); the many . . . those contrasted with HO HEIS the one [that is, both with Adam and with Christ], according to the context equivalent to the rest of mankind (Thayer 529); comes or is available to [the many] in great abundance (Arndt 650); abound for the many (Lenski 366); has overflowed for the whole race of men (Williams).
[ 93 ]KAI TO DOREEMA, and the gift (Marshall 618; Williams); the thing given (Vine 133); the gift [of grace] is not like the effects of one man's sin (Arndt 210); a gift, bounty, benefaction (Thayer 161); and [so the gift (Lenski 366).
[ 94 ]OUCH HOOS DI HENOS HAMARTEESANTOS, not as through one [man] sinning (Marshall 618); HAMARTEESANTOS is the first aorist active participle, genitive singular masculine of HAMARTANOO (Han 303); [some manuscripts have HAMARTEEMATOS transgression] (Vincent 1.63); sinned against God; [twice] the present tense indicates the condition resulting from an act, "unto death" signifying "tending towards death" (Vine 1046); sinned, transgressed (Arndt 42); wandered from the law of God, violated God's law, sinned (Thayer 30); and not as through one having done a sin (Lenski 366); is not at all to be compared with the results of that one man's sin (Williams).
[ 95 ]TO MEN GAR KRIMA, the on one hand for judgment (Marshall 618); judicial sentence (Vincent 3.63); the verdict came as the result of one transgression, and led to punishment (Arndt 450); judgment . . . issued in condemnation, that is, was condemnation to all who sinned and, therefore, paid the penalty of death (Thayer 360); for the judgment from one (Lenski 366); for that sentence (Williams); see note on Romans 2:2.
[ 96 ]EX HENOS EIS KATAKRIMA, [is] of one [offence] to condemnation (Marshall 618); a condemnatory sentence (Vincent 3.63); condemnation with a suggestion of the punishment following (Vine 214); to punishment or doom for all men (Arndt 412); damnatory sentence, condemnation (Thayer 332); for one [offence] to condemnation [to death] (Macknight 83); a verdict of condemnation (Lenski 366); resulted from the offense of one man, and it meant condemnation (Williams).
[ 97 ]Compare a similar Greek word KATAKRITHEESETAI condemned in Mark 16:16.
[ 98 ]TO DE CHARISMA, on the other the free gift [is] (Marshall 618); a gift of grace, a gift involving grace [CHARIS] on the part of God, as the Donor, of his free bestowment upon sinners (Vine 477); the gracious gift of redemption (Arndt 879); but the gracious gift (Lenski 366); but the free gift (Williams); see note on verse 15.
[ 99 ]EK POLLOON PARAPTOOMATOON, of many offenses (Marshall 618); expresses a contrast of quantity; the condemnation resulted from one trespass, the free gift is "of [EK, expressing the origin, and throwing stress upon God's justifying grace in Christ] many trespasses" (Vine 1166); plural, sins against God (Arndt 621); lapses or deviations from truth and uprightness, sins, misdeeds (Thayer 485); from many falls (Lenski 366); resulted from the offenses of many (Williams).
[ 100 ]EIS DIKAIOOMA, to justification (Marshall 618); a judicial sentence . . . the favorable judgment by which he acquits men and declares them acceptable to him (Thayer 151). a sentence of acquittal, by which God acquits men of his guilt on the conditions of His grace in Christ (Vine 614); equivalent in meaning to DIKAIOOSIS [expressing the result of an action]; may stand for DIKAIOSUNEE [righteous] . . . but the text is corrupt (Arndt 198); of justification (Lenski 366); and it meant right standing (Williams). In my opinion, there is no need to change the normal meaning of DIKAIOOMA as do several translators along with Arndt and Ginrich.
[ 101 ]EI GAR, for if (Marshall 618; Lenski 366; Williams); not infrequently, when a conclusion is drawn from something that is quite certain, EI with the indicative is used argumentatively so as to be equivalent in sense to EPEI [when, since] (Thayer 169).
[ 102 ]TOO TOU HENOS PARAPTOOMATI, by the one [man] offence (Marshall 618); some manuscripts such as the Clermont have HENI PARAPTOOMATI, by the one offence; by the fall of one man (Macknight 83); transgression, sin, of Adam's one transgression (Arndt 621); introducing a contrast between legal effects and those of Divine grace (Vine 1166); by the fall of the one (Lenski 366); by one man's offense (Williams); see notes on verses 15, 16.
[ 103 ]HO THANATOS EBASILEUSEN, death reigned (Marshall 618; Williams); EBASILEUSEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of BASILEUOO (Han 303); the emphatic point of the comparison (Vincent 3.63); death, in this sense, is personified [and] exercised the highest influence, control (Thayer 98, 283); death thought of a person was king, ruler (Arndt 136, 351); the death reigned (Lenski 366). Some say "death" is ingressive. Ingressive has to do with entrance. That is, sin began or established its own reign. Because of the contrast Paul makes, they "infer" that it is spiritual death that reigned. He contrasts death with the gift of righteousness, which he considers to be spiritual life (see Whiteside 124).
[ 104 ]DIA TOU HENOS, through the one [man] (Marshall 618); through the one (Lenski 366); through that one (Williams).
[ 105 ]POLLOO MALLON HOI . . . LAMBANONTES, by much rather the ones . . . receiving (Marshall 618); LAMBANONTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of LAMBANOO (Han 303); the measure of salvation is far greater than that of ruin that came from Adam; much more, to a greater degree; in the dative of degree or difference; receive, get, obtain (Arndt 465, 688); see note on verse 15. not believingly accept, but simply the recipients (Vincent 3.63); how much more shall those receiving (Lenski 366); to a much greater degree will those who continue to receive (Williams).
[ 106 ]TEEN PERISSEIAN TEES CHARITOS, the abundance of the grace (Marshall 618; Lenski 366); note the articles, the abundance of the grace (Vincent 3.63); abundance of good-will, loving kindness (Thayer 505, 666); surplus, abundance of grace (Arndt 650, 878); an exceeding measure, something above the ordinary (Vine 9); the overflow of His unmerited favor (Williams); see note on Romans 3:24.
[ 107 ]KAI TEES DOOREAS TEES DIKAIOSUNEES, and of the gift of righteousness (Marshall 618); with an epexegetical genitive of the thing given (Thayer 161); the gift of righteousness, the righteousness bestowed by God (Arndt 197, 210); the gift of righteousness (Vine 477); and of the gift of the righteousness (Lenski 366); and His gift of right standing with Himself (Williams); see note on verse 15.
[ 108 ]EN ZOOEE BASILEUSOUSIN, in life will reign (Marshall 618); BASILEUSOUSIN is third person plural, future active indicative of BASILEUOO (Han 303); the effect of the second Adam cannot fall behind that of the first; if death reigned, there must be a reign of life (Vincent 3.63); Paul transfers the word to denote the supreme moral dignity, liberty, blessedness, which will be enjoyed by Christ's redeemed ones (Thayer 98); saints, who have been called to rule with God (Arndt 136); metaphorically of believers, the activity of life in fellowship with Christ in His Sovereign Power, reaching its fullness hereafter (Vine 940, 941); reign in life (Lenski 366); reign in real life (Williams).
[ 109 ]DIA TOU HENOS 'IEESOU CHRISTOU, through the one [man] Jesus Christ (Marshall 618); by the merit, aid, favor of [Jesus Christ] (Thayer 133); with genitive of the person [Christ], of the originator of an action (Arndt 180); through the One, Jesus Christ (Lenski 366); through One, Jesus Christ (Williams).
[ 110 ]ARA OUN, so therefore (Marshall 618); accordingly then (Lenski 377); so (Williams); so then; ARA expresses the inference and OUN the transition (Arndt 104); ARA is an illative, OUN continuative (Thayer 71). An illative is a word such as therefore or consequently that introduces an inference.
[ 111 ]HOOS DI' HENOS PARAPTOOMATOS, as through one offence (Marshall 618; Williams); [as through] one trespass (Vincent 3.63); primarily [one] false step, blunder, trespass, deviation, from uprightness and truth (Vine 1166); as through one's fall (Lenski 377); singular, of Adam's transgression (Arndt 621; Thayer 485); see notes on verses 15, 16, 17.
[ 112 ]Compare a similar Greek word KATAKRITHEESETAI condemned in Mark 16:16.
[ 113 ]EIS PANTAS ANTHROOPOUS EIS KATAKRIMA, unto all men to condemnation (Marshall 618); unto condemnation, the sentence pronounced [led] to punishment or doom for all men (Arndt 412); damnatory sentence, condemnation (Thayer 332); a condemnatory sentence (Vincent 3.63); for all men a verdict of condemnation (Lenski 377); condemnation with a suggestion of the punishment following (Vine 214); for one [offence] to condemnation [to death] (Macknight 83); their resulted condemnation for all men (Williams); a verdict of condemnation (Lenski 366); resulted from the offense of one man, and it meant condemnation (Williams); see note on verse 16; translators supplied the judgment from that verse.
[ 114 ]HOUTOS KAI DI' HENOS DIKAIOOMATOS, so also through one righteous act (Marshall 618); literally, one righteousness, [through] one act of righteousness (Vincent 3.63); [through one] righteous deed (Arndt 198); a righteous act, [through one] act of righteousness, not the act of justification, nor the righteous character of Christ; DIKAIOOMA does not signify character, as does DIKAIOSUNEE righteousness, but the Death of Christ, as an act accomplished consistently with God's character and counsels; this is clear as being in antithesis to the "one trespass" in the preceding statement (Vine 615, 616); so also through One's verdict of justification (Lenski 377); just so through one act of uprightness (Williams); see note on verse 16.
[ 115 ]EIS PANTAS ANTHROOPOUS, to all men (Marshall 618); unto all human beings all or any that are of the class indicated by the noun [men] (Thayer 491); for all men (Lenski 377; Williams).
[ 116 ]EIS DIKAIOOSIN ZOOEES, to justification of life (Marshall 618); [unto] acquittal that brings life (Arndt 198); unto acquittal, which brings with it the bestowment of life (Thayer 151); a declaring righteous to life (Lenski 377); their resulted right standing involving life for all men (Williams).
[ 117 ]HOOSPER GAR DIA TEES PARAKOEES TOU HENOS ANTHROOPOU, for as through the disobedience of the one man (Marshall 618); [PARA aside, AKOUOO to hear], primarily a failing to hear or hearing amiss (Vincent 3.64); a refusal to hear; hence, an act of disobedience (Vine 311); for through the disobedience of the one man (Lenski 377); for just as by that man's disobedience (Williams); only other NT uses of the word are in 2 Corinthians 10:6; Hebrews 2:2.
[ 118 ]HAMARTOOLOI KATESTATHEESAN HOI POLLOI, [Received Text] sinners were constituted the many (Marshall 618); KATESTATHEESAN is third person plural, first aorist passive indicative of KATHISTEEMI (Han 303); sinners were constituted the many; the primary meaning being to set down . . . to declare or show to be; or to constitute, make to be (Vincent 3.64); set down, set in order, appointed (Vine 701); many were constituted sinners (Lenski 377); the whole race of men were constituted sinners (Williams).
[ 119 ]HOUTOS KAI DIA TEES HUPAKOEES TOU HENOS, so also through the obedience of the one [man] (Marshall 618); [HUPO beneath, AKOUOO to hear], of Christ's obedience (Vine 796); thus also through the obedience of the One (Lenski 377); so by this One's obedience (Williams).
[ 120 ]DIKAIOI KATASTATHEESONTAI HOI POLLOI, righteous will be constituted the many (Marshall 618); KATASTATHEESONTAI is third person plural, future passive indicative of KATHISTEEMI (Han 303); shall be set down, set in order, approved [righteous] (Vine 702); passive, set down as, constituted, declared, shown to be [righteous] (Thayer 314); the many shall be constituted righteous (Lenski 377); the whole race of men may be brought into right standing with God (Williams).
[ 121 ]NOMOS DE PAREISEELTHEN, but law entered (Marshall 618); PAREISEELTHEN is third person singular, second aorist active indicative of PAREISERCHOMAI (Han 303); literally, came in beside, giving the force of PARA beside; in the literal sense, of the coming in of the Law in addition to sin (Vine 195); entered in addition, came in besides (Thayer 487); now law came in besides (Lenski 383); then law crept in (Williams).
[ 122 ]Macknight 84.
[ 123 ]Compare Ellicott 4.226.
[ 124 ]HINA PLEONASEE TO PARAPTOOMA, in order that might abound the offence (Marshall 618); PLEONASEE is third person singular, first aorist active subjunctive of PLEONAZOO (Han 303); not primarily of the greater consciousness and acknowledgement of sin, but of the increase of actual transgression. The Law does not make men sinners, but makes them transgressors (Vine 1161); differing from HAMARTEEMA [sin] in figure, not in force (Thayer 485); so that the fall increased (Lenski 384); to multiply the offense (Williams).
[ 125 ]HOU DE EPLEONASEN HEE HAMARTIA, but where abounded sin (Marshall 618); EPLEONASEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of PLEONAZOO (Han 303); intransitively, [sin] superabounded (Vine 10); increased, [was] augmented (Thayer 516); but where sin increased (Lenski 384); though sin has multiplied (Williams).
[ 126 ]HUPEREPERISSEUSEN HEE CHARIS, more abounded grace (Marshall 618); HUPEREPERISSEUSEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of HUPERPERISSEUOO (Han 303); literally abounded over and above (Vincent 3.65); [the operation of grace] abounded exceedingly (Vine 10); abounded beyond measure, abound exceedingly (Thayer 641); the grace superabounded (Lenski 384); God's favor has surpassed it and overflowed (Williams); see the word "filled" or "overflow" at 2 Corinthians 7:4.
[ 127 ]HINA HOOSPER EBASILEUSEN HEE HAMARTIA EN TOO THANATOO, in order that as reigned sin by death (Marshall 618); EBASILEUSEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of BASILEUOO (Han 303); not unto death, but in death (Vincent 3.65); reigned, metaphorically, of sin (Vine 940, 941); metaphorically, exercise the highest influence, control (Thayer 98); so that, as the sin in the death did reign (Lenski 384); so that just as sin had reigned by death (Williams).
[ 128 ]HOUTOOS KAI HEE CHARIS BASILEUSEE DIA DIKAIOSUNEES, so also grace might reign through righteousness (Marshall 618); BASILEUSEE is third person singular, first aorist active subjunctive of BASILEUOO (Han 303); [might] reign, metaphorically of Divine grace (Vine 940, 941); so also the grace did reign through righteousness (Lenski 384); so His favor too might reign in right standing with God (Williams); see Romans 3:22; 4:11; 9:30-32.
[ 129 ]EIS ZOOEEN AIOONION, to life eternal (Marshall 619); life without end in the kingdom of God (Arndt 28); unto the attainment of life eternal (Thayer 274); to life eternal (Lenski 384); which issues in eternal life (Williams); see John 12:25; 1 Timothy 1:16; Jude 21.
[ 130 ]DIA 'IEESOU CHRISTOU TOU KURIOU HEEMOON, through Jesus Christ the Lord of us (Marshall 619); of the originator of an action (Arndt 180); of one who is the author of the action as well as its instrument, by the merit, aid, favor of [Jesus Christ] (Thayer 133); through Jesus Christ our Lord (Lenski 384; Williams).

Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Lakeside, California, U.S.A.
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The basic text, and all quotations not designated otherwise, are from the New King James Version, copyrighted ©1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. All rights reserved. Used by permission. Bracketed alternatives are drawn from various sources such as the ASV, Darby, KJV and RSV. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.

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