The Letter to the Romans
Chapter 8
Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Lakeside, California

In this chapter,[ 1 ] Paul discusses the wonderful life Christians enjoy. After giving the wonderful news that there is "now no condemnation," he says they are "free from the law of sin and of death." They "set their minds" on the things of the Spirit. "The Spirit of God dwells in" them. They are "led by the Spirit of God." "Children of God" suffer with Christ. They have been foreknown and foreordained. They are called and justified. They shall be glorified. Christ makes intercession for them. God's love for them is everlasting (see charts ROMANS 8 OUTLINE; CHRISTIANS NOW A and B).


    1. No condemnation in Christ (Ro 8:1-4).
    2. Carnal mind cannot please God (Ro 8:5-8).
    3. Spirit indwells (Ro 8:9-11).
    4. Spirit of sonship (Ro 8:12-15).
    5. Spirit bears witness (Ro 8:16, 17).
    6. Suffering and glory (Ro 8:18-25).
    7. Spirit helps in prayer (Ro 8:26, 27).
    8. All works together for good (Ro 8:28-30).
    9. God's eternal love (Ro 8:31-39).


    (Ro 8:1)

    1. For violating the Law (Ro 3:20, 23).
    2. For the judgment which came from one offense resulted in condemnation (Ro 5:16).
    3. Therefore, as through one man's offense judgment came to all men, resulting in condemnation
    (Ro 5:18).
    4. This body of death (Ro 7:24).


8:1 There is therefore now no condemnation to those who are in Christ Jesus,[ 2 ] who do not walk according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit.


    (Romans 8:1)

    1. No condemnation (Ro 8:1).
    2. Walk not according to flesh but the Spirit (Ro 8:4).
    3. Life and peace (Ro 8:6).
    4. Christ is in you . . . the Spirit is life because of righteousness (Ro 8:10).
    5. Spirit of adoption (Ro 8:15).
    6. Heirs (Ro 8:17).


    (Romans 8:1)

    1. Hope, patience (Ro 8:24, 25).
    2. Spirit helps in prayer (Ro 8:26, 27).
    3. All things work together for good (Ro 8:28).
    4. God is for us (Ro 8:31-33).
    5. Inseparable from love of Christ (Ro 8:35, 38, 39).
    6. Overwhelmingly conqueror (Ro 8:37).

There is therefore now no condemnation [there is then, so there is, now no

[ 3 ] "Therefore" refers back to chapter 7, and the fact that God set us free through Christ (see notes on Ro 7:25; 8:16). "No condemnation" is the corollary to forgiveness and justification (see note on verse 34). After the darkness of sin described in chapter 7, we enter the golden sunlight of salvation in Christ in chapter 8. With a glorious air of freedom, Paul lauds the wonderful forgiveness in Christ.

A similar plateau of rejoicing was realized in Romans 5:1, where Paul said we are justified by faith and have peace with God. Outside of Christ, all accountable adults are condemned. For the faithful in Him there is no condemnation!

Who condemns? There is a sense in which Christ does (see notes on Joh 5:22; 12:48; Ac 17:30, 31; Ro 8:34). However, the faithful in Christ have blessed assurance of God's love, forgiveness of sins, Christ's intercession and eternal life (Ro 6:23; 8:35; Heb 7:25).


    (Ro 8:1)

    1. Redemption in Christ Jesus (Ro 3:24).
    2. Baptized into Christ (Ro 6:3, 4).
    3. Alive to God in Christ Jesus (Ro 6:11).
    4. Eternal life in Christ Jesus (Ro 6:23).
    5. No condemnation in Christ Jesus (Ro 8:1).
    6. The love of God in Christ Jesus (Ro 8:39).
    7. Who will bring a charge against God's elect?
    (Ro 8:33).

To those who are in Christ Jesus [for those, to them, that are, which are, in Christ Jesus].[ 4 ] There are no unbaptized Christians. All Christians have been baptized into Christ, into His one body, the church (Ro 6:3; 1Co 12:13; Ga 3:27; Eph 1:22, 23; Col 1:18). What a joyous hope to be in Him! No philosophy, fraternity, pagan religion or even the Mosaic Law can come close to giving hope like He does.

In order to remain in the love of God which is in Christ Jesus, a person must be in Him. One is baptized (immersed) into Christ (see Ro 6:3, 4; Ga 3:26, 27). After one becomes God's child he must walk in the light of His word. He must abide in the doctrine of Christ to continue to have God (1Jo 1:7; 2Jo 9). One may separate himself from God when he goes away from the doctrine of Christ, not abiding in it (2Jo 9).[ 5 ]

Who do not walk according to the flesh [ to those who walk not after the flesh] (see charts WHY A HOLY LIFE A and B).

But according to the Spirit [but after the Spirit, according to the spirit].[ 6 ] This good phrase does not appear in some of the older manuscripts and is carried by most modern versions. It may have been a gloss, something like a footnote or marginal comment that, in the region of Syria, was eventually copied into the text.[ 7 ] Nonetheless, the truth carried in these words in the KJV and NKJV is expressed in verse 4.


    (Ro 8:1)

    1. No condemnation in Christ (Ro 8:1).
    2. Free from the law of sin and death (Ro 8:2).
    3. Those in the flesh cannot please God (Ro 8:8, 13).
    4. Spirit of Christ indwells Christians (Ro 8:10, 11).


    (Ro 8:1)

    1. Children of God; fellow-heirs with Christ (Ro 8:17).
    2. All things work together for good [for salvation]
    (Ro 8:18-30).
    3. Nothing can separate us from the love of God
    in Christ (Ro 8:37-39).


8:2 For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has made me free from the law of sin and death.

For the law of the Spirit of life.[ 8 ] "The law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus" has provided something wonderful. Paul says it "has made me free from the law of sin and death." James calls the law of the Spirit "the law of liberty" (Jas 1:25; 2:12). This is a beautiful way of saying Christ influences, directs, constrains and incites Christians to faithfully serve Him. The law of the Spirit of life offers men and women the power of God to salvation (Ro 1:16). Paul called the same law the "law of faith" (Ro 3:27). It is the doctrine of Christ (2Jo 9). It is the faith (Jude 3). It is the law of God in the church age (1Co 9:21). Christ does not force or coerce men to serve Him. They are no longer under a Law, a fundamental purpose of which was to point out sin. Its violation brought death. Of course, violation of the law of Christ is sin too (1Jo 3:4) but there is absolute forgiveness available through it by the merits of Christ's atoning sacrifice.

In Christ Jesus [through Christ Jesus].[ 9 ] Sinners who are baptized into Christ are freed from the Mosaic Law (see notes on Ro 6:3, 4; 7:6). Not only is freedom accomplished EN in Him but also DIA through Him (see notes on Ro 7:25; Eph 1:3).


Has made me free [has set, hath made, me free, has freed me].[ 10 ] Solomon observed that sinners are imprisoned by their own sins.

His own iniquities entrap the wicked man, and he is caught in the cords of his sin (Pr 5:22).

Christ came set sin's prisoners free. Prisoners of sin are made free by the truth of Christ (Lu 4:18; Joh 8:32). They are be free indeed (Joh 8:36). In Him, people are "free from sin" (Ro 6:18, 22). There is "liberty" in Christ Jesus (Ga 2:4).

I, the LORD, have called You in righteousness, and will hold Your hand; I will keep You and give You as a covenant to the people, as a light to the Gentiles, To open blind eyes, to bring out prisoners from the prison, those who sit in darkness from the prison house (Isa 42:6-7; see Isa 61:1; Lu 4:18).


    (Ro 8:3)

    1. Weak through the flesh; none kept the Law perfectly (Ro 8:3).
    2. Its priesthood mortal, temporal (Heb 7:23).
    3. Contained types and shadows, not reality
    (Heb 8:5; 10:1).
    4. No permanent remission of sins (Heb 10:2-4).

From the law of sin and death [from the law of sin and of death].[ 11 ] Jesus said, "Most assuredly, I say to you, whoever commits sin is a slave of sin" (Joh 8:34; see also Ac 8:23; Ro 6:16; 7:14; 2Ti 2:26; 2Pe 2:19).

Paul spoke of "the law of sin" that is served by the flesh (Ro 7:25). The Law of Moses emphasized the tragic results that resulted because of man's sins (see note verse 3). It was weak because of man sins. It was weak because it provided no means of absolute pardon. Instead, it brought death (see chart WEAKNESSES OF THE LAW OF MOSES). Christ delivered from the power of sin, from the curse of death and from the Law (Ro 7:6).


8:3, 4 For what the law could not do in that it was weak through the flesh, God did by sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, on account of sin: He condemned sin in the flesh, 4 that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us who do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit.

For what the Law could not do [for wherein the Law was weak].[ 12 ] The Law of Moses pointed out that sin was wrong in God's sight. It assigned strict penalties for its violation. Yet it could not condemn sin in the manner that God did. Under it, sins were "passed over." They were remembered again year by year.

But in those sacrifices there is a reminder of sins every year. For it is not possible that the blood of bulls and goats could take away sins (Heb 10:3, 4).

And every priest stands ministering daily and offering repeatedly the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins (Heb 10:11).

Under the Law, there was never any permanent forgiveness as is now obtained freely through Christ (Heb 10:12, 14). So how does God condemn sin? Not by just saying it is wrong. The Law did that. He condemned it in a greater and more significant way. He condemned it in that He defeated it for all eternity. He did this by the marvelous sacrifice of Christ on the cross by which sin is atoned.

In that it was weak through the flesh [weakened by the flesh, because of the weakness of the flesh].[ 13 ] The major weakness of the Law was that it required obedience that man was never able to flawlessly achieve. Neither did it provide complete forgiveness (Heb 10:4). Because those under the Law were not permanently forgiven they, as well as the Law, were termed "still without strength" (Ro 5:6). The Greek does not justify a paraphrase such as, "In that it was weakened by our sinful nature."[ 14 ]

For on the one hand there is an annulling of the former commandment because of its weakness and unprofitableness, 19 for the law made nothing perfect; on the other hand, there is the bringing in of a better hope, through which we draw near to God (Heb 7:18, 19).

God did by sending His own Son [God, sending, having sent, has done sending, his own Son].[ 15 ] God did what the Law was powerless to do. That is, through Christ He condemned sin. It was condemned as Christ atoned for it. He conquered death and "led captivity captive" (Eph 4:8).

Having disarmed principalities and powers, He made a public spectacle of them, triumphing over them in it (Col 2:15; compare Joh 12:31).

Inasmuch then as the children have partaken of flesh and blood, He Himself likewise shared in the same, that through death He might destroy him who had the power of death, that is, the devil (Heb 2:14).

In the likeness of sinful flesh [in the form of flesh of sin].[ 16 ] The "likeness of sinful flesh" describes the humanity of Jesus. He came not in sinful flesh, but in its likeness. He was human, yet sinless. This in no way is intended to deny His Deity (see note on Joh 17:5).

The following statement will probably surprise readers of the NIV.[ 17 ] HUMAN FLESH IS NOT SINFUL BY NATURE! Neither is it sinful by heredity or by birth. The supposed acquired characteristic [sin of Adam] cannot be passed on through chromosomes or genes. It is amazing that some people apparently believe that Adam's sin could have somehow attached itself to the Y-chromosome.[ 18 ] Why do they assume acquired characteristics are passed on only through the male and not through the female? But, someone says, "Don't you know, sin was not passed on in the physical body but through the spirit?" Well, what about the fact that God is the Father of spirits (Nu 16:22; 27:16; Ec 12:7; Zec 12:1; Ac 17:28; Heb 12:9)?


    (Ro 8:3)

    1. Christ was "the Son of man" (Mt 9:6).
    2. Christ was "man" (1Ti 2:5).
    3. Since then the children share in flesh and blood, He Himself likewise also partook of the same
    (Heb 2:14).
    (Whiteside 169)


    (Ro 8:3)

    1. Christ had to be made like His brethren in all
    things (Heb 2:17).
    2. If His brethren were born sinful and He was not, then He was not like them in all things.
    3. But Jesus was made in all things like His brethren and was without sin. So sin is not a part of man's nature.
    (Whiteside 169)

When Adam and Eve were first created, they had all that belongs to human nature. Sin came into their lives as a foreign element. Sin [was] no more a part of their nature nor ours than dust in the eye is a part of the nature of the eye. Because the desires, appetites, and passions of the flesh so often lead to sin, flesh is called sinful. But we should remember always that fleshly desires lead to sin only when the mind, or heart, purposes to gratify the flesh in an unlawful way.[ 19 ]

On account of sin [and for sin, relating to sin].[ 20 ] Men were sinful because they violated God's Law (1Jo 3:4). They did not inherit Adam's guilt but they were troubled by the consequences of his sin (compare Eze 18:20). Our Redeemer was sinless (Isa 53:9; Lu 23:41; 2Co 5:21; Heb 4:15; 7:26; 9:14; 1Pe 1:19; 2:22; 1Jo 3:5). Other passages that do not specifically state He was sinless, imply it (see Joh 8:46; Ro 13:14; Ga 5:16, 24). Men were sinful. Christ was not. Yet he was like sinful man. He took upon Himself "the form of a bondservant, and coming in the likeness of men" (Php 2:7). He partook of flesh and blood, and "suffered being tempted" (Heb 2:18). He died like sinful man but there was a remarkable difference. He died for sin, not because He had committed it.


    (Ro 8:3)

    1. He knows all things. He knew about sin
    (Job 10:14; 14:16; Jer 2:22; 16:17; Eze 11:5;
    Ho 7:2; Am 5:12).
    2. Absolutely forbade it (Isa 1:16; Joh 5:14; 8:11;
    Ro 6:12; 1Co 15:34; 1Jo 2:1).
    3. Utterly denounced it (Isa 30:1; Eze 16:35-39;
    Mt 3:7; 23:33; Lu 10:13).
    4. Punishes it (Mt 25:46; 2Th 1:7-9).
    5. Made an offering [Christ] for it
    (Heb 9:27, 28; 10:10).
    6. Forgives it (Mt 26:28; Lu 24:47; Ac 2:38).

Just what does God do "on account of sin" or "for sin"? He not only condemned it but He has made a way for it to be forgiven (see chart WHAT GOD DID/DOES FOR SIN).

He condemned sin in the flesh [condemned, has condemned, sin in the flesh].[ 21 ] Some translators[ 22 ] who rendered this phrase, "And so he condemned sin in sinful man" made a vain attempt to explain the sense. However, they surely did not understand it. God condemned sin in the flesh in that He sent Jesus who, in that very flesh, lived a sinless life. He became the sacrifice "to put away sin" (Heb 9:26). He condemned sin when He atoned for it. He robbed it of its power that otherwise would have brought everyone eternal death (see notes on From one offense resulted in condemnation at Romans 5:16; Judgment came to all men resulting in condemnation at Romans 5:18 and For what the law could not do at Romans 8:3.


    (Ro 8:4)

    1. The Law required a perfect life in order to be saved. a. Some people were pretty good (Lu 1:6; Ro 2:26). b. None were completely without sin (Ro 3:23).
    2. Death for its violation.



    (Ro 8:4)

    1. Christ fulfilled the Law.
    2. He is our life in that He gives Christians spiritual life. 3. Justified by faith in Him, not by works of the Law.
    4. God counts as righteous those forgiven in Christ.

That the righteous requirement of the law [in order that the just requirement, the ordinance, the righteousness, of the law].[ 23 ] There are two consequent requirements of the Law (see chart REQUIREMENTS OF THE LAW). First, although He gave Himself, Christ was "required" to pay the just penalty for sin. Then the righteous requirement of the Law is fulfilled when sinners become Christians (see Lu 1:6; Ro 2:26; 5:16; Heb 9:1).

Might be fulfilled in us [should be fulfilled in us].[ 24 ] The righteous requirement of the Law is fulfilled in Christians (see chart REQUIREMENT OF THE LAW FULFILLED IN CHRISTIANS). They are not under the Mosaic Law and are not obligated to obey any of its rules. Rather they are to "fulfill the law of Christ" (Ga 6:2; compare Jas 1:25). The "law of Christ" is the law that came "out of Zion" (Isa 2:3). The "righteous requirement of the law" is fulfilled when sinners are forgiven by the merits of the blood of Christ. It continues to be fulfilled in them as they remain faithful to Christ (see 1Jo 1:7).

    WALK (A)

    (Ro 8:4)

    1. In newness of life (Ro 6:4).
    2. Not according to the flesh (Ro 8:4).
    3. According to the Spirit (Ro 8:4).
    4. Becomingly, properly, decently, honestly
    (Ro 13:13; 1Th 4:12).
    5. Not like mere men (1Co 3:3).

Who do not walk according to the flesh [who walk not after the flesh].[ 25 ] The "requirement of the law" or "ordinance of the law" is not fulfilled in unfaithful Christians who walk after the flesh (see note on Ro 8:13). Some versions that are strictly paraphrases are misleading. For example, one says, "who do not live according to our sinful nature."[ 26 ] Another reads, "whose conduct, no longer under the control of our lower nature"[ 27 ] (see chart IS SIN PART OF MAN'S NATURE? at verse 3). Christians are not to continue in sin (Ro 6:1, 2). They are not to practice the "works of the flesh" (Ga 5:19-21; see chart WALK A, B and C. They have "put off the old man with his deeds" (Col 3:9; compare Eph 4:22).

But according to the Spirit [but after the Spirit].[ 28 ] The promise of the righteous requirement of the Law being fulfilled is only to Christians who walk "according to the Spirit." The church age is the age of the Spirit. Christians are to "walk in the Spirit" and do not carry out "the lust of the flesh" (Ga 5:16). They are "filled with the Spirit" (Eph 5:18; Col 3:16). "If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit" (Ga 5:25). Walking according to the Spirit is required of them. Dear reader, are you walking according to the Spirit? If so, you will not go wrong (1Jo 1:7). If not, you are walking in darkness and are lost (1Jo 1:6; 2:11). It is that simple (see also Joh 8:12; Eph 5:8).

    WALK (B)

    (Ro 8:4)

    1. Not in craftiness (2Co 4:2).
    2. By faith (2Co 5:7).
    3. Not by sight (2Co 5:7).
    4. Not according to the course of this world (Eph 2:2).
    5. In good works (Eph 2:10).

    WALK (C)

    (Ro 8:4)

    1. Not in the futility of the mind (Eph 4:17).
    2. In love (Eph 5:2).
    3. In wisdom (Col 4:5).
    4. Not disorderly (2Th 3:6).
    5. In truth, the truth (2Jo 4; 3Jo 4).
    6. According to His commandments (2Jo 6).


8:5 For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit.

For those who live according to the flesh [for they that are after, living according to, flesh, the flesh].[ 29 ] Some paraphrase versions[ 30 ] show an apparent Calvinistic agenda. Their repeated insertion of "sinful nature" or "lower nature" implies that man has inherited a depraved and sinful nature from Adam. According to Scripture, this is not the case (see Eze 18:20).

Set their minds on the things of the flesh [mind, do mind, have their minds on, things of the flesh]. [ 31 ] Those who live "according to the flesh" have a fleshly mind-set. They dwell on things of the flesh, set their affections on earthly things and often make plans to achieve them (see Col 3:2). Sins, whether pleasurable or not, are their goal. In Scripture, sexual sins are listed along with pride, anger, wrath and drunkenness (Ro 1:30; Ga 5:19-21; 2Ti 3:2). "A look at a fellow's magazine rack or his video tape library will tell you a lot about him"[ 32 ] (see Mt 16:23; Php 3:19; Col 3:2).

But those who live according to the Spirit [and they that are living according to, after, Spirit, the spirit]. [ 33 ] Spiritually minded persons have righteous character and lofty goals. They engage in wholesome activities (see Ga 5:16-26). They set their mind on "things above" (Col 3:2).

The things of the Spirit [set their minds on spiritual things].[ 34 ] They that live "according to the Spirit" feed regularly upon the Word inspired by the Spirit. They lead pure lives, are generous and kind to the poor. They pray (Ro 8:26) and attend worship regularly (see Heb 10:25). They are known for love to God (Ro 8:28) and humility (Jas 4:6; 1Pe 5:5).



    (Ro 8:7, 8)

    1. Enmity against God (Ro 8:7).
    Friendship with God.
    2. Not subject to the law of God (Ro 8:7).
    Obedient to God's law.
    3. Cannot please God (Ro 8:8).
    Pleasing to God.
    4. Attitude of worldliness (1Jo 2:15, 16).
    Godly, spiritual attitude (Col 3:2).


8:6, 7 For to be carnally minded is death, but to be spiritually minded is life and peace. 7 Because the carnal mind is enmity against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, nor indeed can be.

For to be carnally minded [to set the mind on the flesh, for the mind of the flesh].[ 35 ] Those in the flesh walk "according to the flesh" (verse 4) and are "carnally minded." That is, they have the mind set on the flesh (verses 6, 7; compare Mt 16:23; Ro 12:1, 2; Php 2:5; Jas 4:4). The "carnal mind" is a of the flesh. It is works to fulfill the desires and propensities of the flesh (see Ga 5:19-21; 1Jo 2:15-17).

Is death [is death].[ 36 ] Paul equates the mind set on the flesh with spiritual death. This worldly way of thinking is adverse to righteousness, hostile to God and will lead to hell (see verse 7; Re 21:8).

But to be spiritually minded [but to set the mind on the Spirit, but the mind of the spirit].[ 37 ] To "be spiritually minded" is to have an inner inclination to do right, to walk in newness of life (Ro 6:4; 2Co 5:17). Christians have thought-patterns of the Spirit. In part, this consists of life and peace. They walk in "newness of life" and enjoy abundant life on earth (Joh 5:40; 10:10). They have "peace with God" (Ro 5:1) and enjoy "the peace of God" (Php 4:7). They worship "the God of peace" who is with them (Php 4:9). They have "hope of eternal life" (Tit 1:2).

Is life and peace [life and peace].[ 38 ] The gospel offers good tidings of "peace through Jesus Christ" (Ac 10:36).

And how shall they preach unless they are sent? As it is written: "How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the gospel of peace, who bring glad tidings of good things!" (Ro 10:15).[ 39 ]

At the birth of Christ, the heavenly host praised God.

And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God and saying: "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, goodwill toward men!" (Lu 2:13, 14).

And He came and preached peace to you who were afar off and to those who were near (Eph 2:17).

Peace by Jesus Christ coincides with salvation in Christ. The gospel of peace is the power of God to salvation (Ro 1:16).


    (Ro 8:7)

    1. Your right hand, O LORD, has dashed the enemy in pieces (Ex 15:6).
    2. I will render vengeance to My enemies, and repay those who hate Me (De 32:41).
    3. Thus let all Your enemies perish, O LORD! (Jg 5:31).
    4. Let God arise, let His enemies be scattered
    (Ps 68:1).
    6. Ah, I will rid Myself of My adversaries, and
    take vengeance on My enemies (Isa 1:24).

Because the carnal mind [for the mind that is set on, the mind of, the inclination of, the flesh].[ 40 ] Before the Noahic flood, with few exceptions, the wickedness of man was great in the earth.

Then the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually (Ge 6:5; compare Ge 8:21; Ps 14:1-3; 53:1-4; Jer 17:9; Ro 8:6).

Is enmity against God [is hostile to God].[ 41 ]

Adulterers and adulteresses! Do you not know that friendship with the world is enmity with God? Whoever therefore wants to be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God (Jas 4:4; compare Isa 59:2; 1Jo 2:15).

For it is not subject [it does not submit, submit itself]. [ 42 ] The fleshly mind-set is unwilling to submit in obedience to God's NT law. Jews were once described as "a stubborn and rebellious generation, a generation that did not set its heart aright, and whose spirit was not faithful to God" (Ps 78:8). Prior to the fall of Jerusalem,[ 43 ] the Jews did not submit to God's Law.

But this people has a defiant and rebellious heart; they have revolted and departed (Jer 5:23).

To the law of God [to God's law].[ 44 ] Here "the law of God" is not the OT Mosaic Law but rather the NT law that applies to Christians.[ 45 ] It is the law of Christ also called "the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus" (see note on verse 2).

Nor indeed can be [indeed it cannot, neither, for neither, indeed can it be, for it is not able to do so].[ 46 ] There is no compromise between righteousness and evil. No one can serve two masters. As long as a person keeps his mind set on the flesh he is in rebellion against the will of God. There is no way for him to be subject to God's law until he turns to the Lord in repentance and renounces his fleshly mind-set.


8:8 So then, those who are in the flesh cannot please God.

So then, those who are in the flesh [but, and, they that are in, those living after, flesh].[ 47 ] "Those who are in the flesh" are all those out of Christ plus those Christians who have backslidden from God's holy way (see note on Ro 7:5).


    (Ro 8:8)

    1. When a man's ways please the LORD, he makes even his enemies to be at peace with him (Pr 16:7).
    2. Even so we speak, not as pleasing men, but God who tests our hearts (1Th 2:4).
    3. How you ought to walk and to please God (1Th 4:1).
    4. But without faith it is impossible to please Him
    (Heb 11:6).
    5. But do not forget to do good and to share, for with such sacrifices God is well pleased (Heb 13:16).
    6. We keep His commandments and do those things that are pleasing in His sight (1Jo 3:22).

Once again, it is necessary to point out that the NIV does not translate HOI DE EN SARKI ONTES they that are in the flesh but instead inserts (as if it were a part the text itself) the comment, "those controlled by their sinful nature." By doing so it implies that one is controlled by his sinful nature! According to Calvinism, the sinner is so totally depraved that he cannot do even one good thing without the Holy Spirit first working directly upon his heart[ 48 ] (compare the chart IS SIN PART OF MAN'S NATURE at verse 3). I reject the Calvinistic view. It makes God responsible for selectively saving certain people and arbitrarily damning others without any conditions whatsoever on their part. It makes a mockery out of gospel invitations addressed to "Whosoever will" or "Whoever desires" (see Re 22:17).

Cannot please God.[ 49 ] "Cannot please God" is what happens when a person lives a rebellious, worldly life. Nobody in sin and away from God can please Him so long as he remains in that state.

Verse 8 has been used to bolster the shaky and ugly doctrine[ 50 ] of total depravity. The verse does not teach that a person cannot perform any good action whatsoever. However, according to Calvinism, a sinner cannot believe, repent and obey the gospel in baptism until and unless God operates directly upon his heart. Passages that teach faith comes by hearing the word of God mean just that (Joh 20:30, 31; Ro 10:17). Multitudes of sinners have heard the gospel, responded to the Lord's invitation and, by doing so, pleased God. Any doctrine that discourages gospel obedience is of Satan. If preaching the truth cannot affect the minds of sinners, it cannot produce faith in them. Then why did Peter, Paul and others spend so much time preaching? If no one can voluntarily respond to the gospel invitation, why extend it?


    (Ro 8:9)

    1. If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our home with him (Joh 14:23).
    2. The Spirit of God dwells in you (1Co 3:16).
    3. I will dwell in them (2Co 6:16).
    4. A dwelling place of God in the Spirit (Eph 2:22).
    5. Filled with all the fullness of God (Eph 3:19).


8:9 But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you. Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he is not His.


    (Ro 8:9)

    1. John filled with the Spirit while yet in mother's womb (Lu 1:15).
    2. Apostles filled with Holy Spirit (Ac 2:4).
    3. Peter filled with the Holy Spirit (Ac 4:8).
    4. All filled with the Holy Spirit (Ac 4:31).
    5. Full of the Holy Spirit (Ac 6:3, 5; 7:55; 11:24).
    6. Saul . . . filled of the Holy Spirit (Ac 13:9).
    7. And the disciples were filled with joy and with the Holy Spirit (Ac 13:52).
    8. Be filled with the Spirit (Eph 5:18).

But you are not in the flesh [but ye, but you all, are not in flesh, living after the flesh].[ 51 ] For a comment on the NIV's "not controlled by your sinful nature" see note on So then, those who are in the flesh at verse 8. Those "not in the flesh" are Christians who are living a godly, spiritual life in Christ (see notes on Ro 7:18; 8:8).

But in the Spirit [you are in the Spirit, but in Spirit].[ 52 ] In spite of the fact that some versions capitalize "spirit," this does not mean the Holy Spirit. Instead, it is equivalent to serving "in newness of the spirit" (Ro 7:6) or walking "in newness of life" (Ro 6:4). One who is "in the spirit" is a Christian. Those "in the spirit" endeavor to live according to the teachings of the Holy Spirit. The NEB gives the approximate sense with the paraphrase, "You are on the spiritual level."

If indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you [if, if in fact, if so be that, God's Spirit, dwell, dwelleth, in your midst].[ 53 ] When one walks in close fellowship with God he desires to please Him and obey His every command. The same desire reigns in the heart of one in whom the Holy Spirit dwells. One can be pleasing to God only if he is "in the spirit" and not in the flesh (see chart PLEASING GOD at verse 8).

Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ [any one, but if any man, has not, hath not, have not, who does not have, the spirit of Christ].
[ 54 ] When the second person of the Godhead literally indwelt the physical body of Jesus, He was an object of worship. If the Holy Spirit, the third person of the Godhead, as a person, actually and literally indwells Christians, would that not also make them objects of worship? Most agree that Christ and the Father do not personally and actually indwell Christians. It should be understood that "the Spirit of Christ" dwells in them in the same manner, not personally, but by faith (Eph 3:17).


    (Ro 8:9)

    1. We have the mind of Christ (1Co 2:16).
    2. The Spirit of God dwells in you (1Co 3:16).
    3. The Holy Spirit who is in you (1Co 6:19).
    4. I will dwell in them, and walk among them
    (2Co 6:16).
    5. God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into your hearts (Ga 4:6).
    6. A dwelling place of God in the Spirit (Eph 2:21, 22).

He who has ECHON has [holds fast] the Son ECHEI has [holds fast to] life [literally, the life]" (1Jo 5:12).

Whoever has the Son has the life that is in God's Son (see 1Jo 5:11). Albert Barnes was right when he wrote:

The meaning is not that there is a personal or physical indwelling of the Holy Ghost, but that he influences, directs and guides Christians, producing meekness, love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, etc., Galatians 5:22, 23.[ 55 ]

He is not His [does not belong to him, he is none of his, not of him].[ 56 ] When one refuses to allow the Spirit of Christ to influence, direct and guide his heart, he is not a Christian. Such a person is lost.


    (Ro 8:9, 10)

    1. I in you (Joh 14:20).
    2. We will come to him, and make Our abode with him (Joh 14:23).
    3. I in them and You in Me (Joh 17:23).
    4. Jesus Christ is in you?-- unless indeed you are disqualified (2Co 13:5).
    5. Christ lives in me (Ga 2:20).


    (Ro 8:9, 10)

    1. That Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith (Eph 3:17).

    2. Christ in you, the hope of glory (Col 1:27).
    3. Now he who keeps His commandments abides in Him, and He in him (1Jo 3:24).
    4. I will come in to him and dine with him, and he with Me (Re 3:20).


    (Ro 8:9)

    1. He dwells with you and will be in you (Joh 14:17).
    2. The Spirit of God dwells in you (Ro 8:9).
    3. You are the temple of God and that the Spirit of
    God dwells in you (1Co 3:16).
    4. Your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you (1Co 6:19).
    5. Keep by the Holy Spirit who dwells in us (2Ti 1:14).
    6. But the anointing which you have received from
    Him abides in you (1Jo 2:27).


8:10 And if Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is life because of righteousness.

And if Christ is in you [but if Christ be in you, is with you].
[ 57 ] Vine holds to an actual and absolute indwelling of the Holy Spirit whereas Thayer is more moderate. His view is that not the person of Christ but His mind, power and life indwells the Christian. Christ indwells "by the faith of the Son of God" (Ga 2:20).

There is no doubt that Jesus Christ dwells in Christians, but not bodily or personally. He dwells in them to the extent that His teachings influence and control their lives. This is in line with Paul's statement:

My little children, for whom I labor in birth again until Christ is formed in you (Ga 4:19).

Paul implied that Christ would again be formed in the Galatians when they rejected false teaching and returned to living by to the truth of God's word. He knew "That Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith" (Eph 3:17). And that faith comes by the word of God (Ro 10:17).

The Spirit of God and the Spirit of Christ are equivalent terms. Thus the phrase "If Christ is in you" means the same as "If indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you" (verse 9). Christ in Christians "refers to the mind, the disposition and the character of Christ which the Spirit imparts through His teaching."[ 58 ]

Perhaps a reason for much misunderstanding is that the Holy Spirit is invisible. Not only that, but He is a person whose influence, power or word is sometimes referred to in the Scriptures as "the Spirit" (see Joh 6:63). It is amazing that some writers understand the Father and the Son to be persons (personalities) but they think of the Holy Spirit as some kind of incomprehensible, mysterious and impersonal force or influence. The Holy Spirit is a person too, not just a power or influence. There are three manifestations or personalities of Deity: Father, Son and Holy Spirit. They are all one, at least in unity of purpose, truth and love. It is inconceivable that one of the Godhead could indwell the Christian without the other two.

The body is dead because of sin [although your bodies are dead because of, on account of, sin].[ 59 ] The physical body is not now really and truly dead but is "as good as dead" because it is sure to die (see Heb 9:27; see Thayer in above footnote). In another sense, the body is dead in that it is crucified with Him, "that the body of sin might be done away with" (Ro 6:6).

But the Spirit is life because of righteousness [your spirits are alive, but the spirit is alive, on account of righteousness].[ 60 ] One whose spirit is alive is constantly sowing to the Spirit.

For he who sows to his flesh will of the flesh reap corruption, but he who sows to the Spirit will of the Spirit reap everlasting life (Ga 6:8).

Some versions appropriately do not capitalize "spirit." The human spirit is alive because of righteousness by means of the gospel[ 61 ] (see note on verse 6).


8:11 But if the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, He who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through His Spirit who dwells in you.


    (Ro 8:11)

    1. THE POWER OF DARKNESS (Col 1:13).
    a. Sin that dwells in me (Ro 7:17).
    a. The Spirit dwells in you (Ro 8:11).
    To open their eyes, in order to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan to God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins and an inheritance among those who are sanctified by faith in Me (Ac 26:18).

But if the Spirit of Him [if, and if, but, the Spirit of the One].[ 62 ] The Spirit that raised Christ is the Spirit of God (see charts WHO RAISED CHRIST? A and B).


    (Ro 8:11)

    1. Jesus answered and said to them, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up"
    (Joh 2:19).
    2. No one takes it from Me, but I lay it down of Myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This command I have received from My Father (Joh 10:18).


    (Ro 8:11)

    1. Whom God raised up (Ac 2:24).
    2. Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father (Ro 6:4).
    3. He who raised up the Lord Jesus will also raise us up with Jesus (1Co 6:14).
    4. Knowing that He who raised up the Lord Jesus will raise us also (2Co 4:14).


    (Ro 8:11)

    1. Which He worked in Christ when He raised Him from the dead (Eph 1:20).
    2. Through faith in the working of God, who raised
    Him from the dead (Col 2:12; Ga 1:1).
    3. Whom He raised from the dead, even Jesus
    (1Th 1:10).
    4. Now may the God of peace who brought up our Lord Jesus from the dead (Heb 13:20).

Who raised Jesus from the dead [that raised up Jesus from the dead, from among [the] dead].[ 63 ] The Spirit of God miraculously raised Christ from the dead.

Dwells in you [dwelleth, dwell, in you, lives with you all].
[ 64 ] (see note below on Through His Spirit who dwells in you).

He who raised Christ from the dead [he that raised up, has raised up, Christ Jesus, from among the dead].[ 65 ] Raising the dead was efficiently accomplished by Deity.

For as the Father raises the dead and gives life to them, even so the Son gives life to whom He will (Joh 5:21).

The living God raised up Christ but Christ also has life within Himself (Joh 5:26). Both the Father and the Son possess the kind of power that can create life and raise the dead (compare Ro 8:11).

Will also give life [shall give life also, shall quicken, shall also quicken, shall make alive].[ 66 ] The resurrection of Christ inspires Christians to live a "risen life." Paul wrote about this to the Colossians:

If then you were raised with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ is, sitting at the right hand of God (Col 3:1; compare 3:16; 1Pe 1:13, 14).

There are at least three interpretations of the present verse: (1) The Spirit of God gives life here and now in the sense of enabling the body of flesh to do good works for God.[ 67 ] For reasons given elsewhere, I reject this view outright. I agree, however, that the Christian serves God with his body (see Ro 12:1; 1Co 6:20; Php 1:20). (2) The Spirit will someday literally enliven the Christian's physical body in the resurrection at the last day.[ 68 ] The Spirit does not indwell sinners but they too will be raised. However, there is something special for children of God at the manifestation of Christ (see notes on Php 3:11; 1Jo 2:28; 3:2, 3). (3) As in a temple, the Spirit indwells forgiven Christians. Faithful worship and service are acceptable to God (see Ro 12:1, 2; 2Co 4:11).

To your mortal bodies [your mortal bodies also].[ 69 ] I am inclined to think this has to do with giving life to the mortal body on the resurrection day. Certainly the Holy Spirit is not required to literally indwell the decaying fleshly body in a grave or the dust into which it disintegrates in order to give it life. Nevertheless, He will powerfully and marvelously raise the physical body.[ 70 ]

Through His Spirit who dwells in you [by, on account of, his Spirit, which dwells, that dwelleth, in your midst].[ 71 ] Thayer points out that every time the NT refers to the Spirit of God dwelling in Christians it is metaphorical. That is, deity does not actually, literally and bodily dwell in them. Yet the Scripture plainly states that God's Spirit dwells in Christians. By His resurrection power, life will be imparted to mortal bodies at the final coming of Christ (see 2Ti 1:14). The church is the holy temple of God. The Spirit dwells in the midst of the church (1Co 3:16).


8:12, 13 Therefore, brethren, we are debtors-- not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh. 13 For if you live according to the flesh you will die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live.

Therefore, brethren [so then, brethren].[ 72 ] Paul draws a grand conclusion from the discussion he began in chapter 6 with special attention to his discourse on the Spirit in chapter 8.

We are debtors [we are under obligation].[ 73 ] Christians are not in debt to the flesh. In fact, the flesh is to have been put away or put to death (Col 3:5, 9). We are not obligated to pamper or gratify it. Many seem to be trying to resurrect it in order pay it a debt they do not owe. Look at some of the reasons we are not debtors to the flesh (see chart NOT DEBTORS TO THE FLESH).


    (Ro 8:12)

    1. For he who has died has been freed from sin
    (Ro 6:7).
    2. For you are not under law but under grace (Ro 6:14).
    3. Crucified with Christ (Ga 2:20; 5:24; Col 2:11).
    4. If you live according to the flesh you will die
    (Ro 8:13).

Not to the flesh.[ 74 ] It is better to translate what the Holy Spirit inspired than to insert a Calvinistic paraphrase to alter the original doctrine of the text. To do the latter gives the impression that the translators think they know more than God does.[ 75 ] It is bad enough for people to foist a non-biblical doctrine upon others but to do so within the pages of the Bible is indefensible. Translators who do this should take careful note of Revelation 22:18, 19.


    (Ro 8:12, 13)

    1. Because we are in Christ (Ro 6:3, 4; 8:1).
    2. Because living according to the Spirit brings life.
    3. Because we are not under the OT law but under Christ.
    4. Because it brings tragic results: You must die! (Rom 6:13).

To live according to the flesh [to live after the flesh, according to its desires].[ 76 ] To live according to the flesh is to mentally or literally be involved in fornication, uncleanness, passion, evil desire, covetousness, anger, wrath, malice, railing, shameful speaking and lying (Col 3:5-9). "Shall we continue to sin?" Paul then answered, "Certainly not!" (Ro 6:1, 2; see chart WHY NOT TO LIVE AFTER THE FLESH). Now, subsequent to that, he has reasoned through two additional chapters. His final conclusion is: Christians are under no obligation to live according to the flesh!

For if you live according to the flesh [for if ye live after the flesh, according to flesh]. [ 77 ] Spiritual death is the compensation for living after the flesh. If a Christian sows to the flesh, corruption is the outcome (Ga 6:8). For comments on "According to your sinful nature"[ 78 ] see note To live after the flesh at verse 12 also on verses 3 and 8 and footnotes.

You will die [ye must, shall, ye are about to, die].[ 79 ] This is a solemn thought indeed. Perhaps in one sense, a person begins his eternal death on earth, but this verse has a finality about it that reaches past the judgment to the second death (see Re 2:11; 20:6, 14; 21:8). Notice that Paul is writing to Christians. If they live after the flesh, they will fall from grace and be lost eternally, forever banished from the presence of God (see Ga 5:4, 19-21).

But if by the Spirit [but if ye through the Spirit,
but in spirit if you].[ 80 ] Some versions do not capitalize "spirit" in order to imply that it is the human spirit, the inner nature of man. According to this view, the spirit of man puts to death the deeds of the body. Nevertheless, the human spirit should be led by the Spirit of God (see verse 14). Adam Clarke advised Christians.

Seek that grace and spiritual help which the gospel of Christ furnishes, resist, and by resisting, mortify the deeds of the flesh."[ 81 ]

David Lipscomb shared the same view. He wrote:

If through following the law given by the Spirit of life we restrain and control the desires of the flesh, we shall live with Christ.[ 82 ]

Regardless of the position regarding the indwelling of the Spirit, all will surely agree that He leads through the Word. Some argue for an additional, internal and direct power. In doing so, they imply that the word of God is not sufficient. But Paul said it is (see 2Ti 3:16, 17)!

You put to death [ye put to death, do mortify].[ 83 ] Paul gave the Ephesians a reason for putting to death the deeds of the old man. He said it "is being corrupted in accordance with the lusts of deceit" (Eph 4:22; compare Col 3:5-11).

The deeds of the body [the works of the body].[ 84 ] In explaining how to put to death, put off or put away the conduct of the old man, Paul details such things as lying, anger, corrupt speech, bitterness, clamor, loud quarreling, evil speaking and fornication, all of which should be stopped (Eph 4:25-5:5).

You will live [ye shall live].[ 85 ] "Live" is the opposite of death which was just mentioned. Newness of life begins after conversion but finds its completeness in eternity. "You will live" looks forward to post-judgment day life everlasting.


    (Ro 8:14)

    1. Believe the Spirit-revealed gospel (Ro 1:16; 10:17).
    2. Repent of sins (Ro 2:4; compare (Ac 2:10, 38).
    3. Confess faith in Jesus Christ (Ro 10:9, 10).
    4. Be baptized into Christ (Ro 6:3; 1Co 12:13;
    Ga 3:27).
    5. In Christ and under grace (Ro 6:14).
    6. Dead to the Law and married to Christ (Ro 7:4).


8:14 For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are sons of God.

For as many as are led by the Spirit of God [for all who are led by the Spirit of God].[ 86 ] Those led by the Spirit are contrasted with those following the Law (see note on Ga 3:3). Those who are being led by the Spirit, and no others, are sons of God. Excluded are all unfaithful Christians and all those in denominations who have not obeyed the gospel of Christ, even those who may be fleshly descendants of Abraham.

The Spirit of God leads through His Word. Those so led first of all become sons of God (see chart LED BY THE SPIRIT). It is important for Christians to be continually led by the Spirit in order to remain faithful as sons of God.


    (Ro 8:14)

    1. Adam (Lu 3:38).
    2. Israel is my son, my first-born (Ex 4:22; Ho 11:1).
    3. Sons of God, being sons of the resurrection
    (Lu 20:36).
    4. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are sons of God (Ro 8:14).
    5. Therefore you are no longer a slave but a son, and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ (Ga 4:7; compare Ga 3:26, 27).

These are sons of God [are, they are, children, the sons, of God].[ 87 ] In the OT, angels or supernatural beings were sometimes called "sons of God" (see Job 1:6; 2:1; 38:7; Ps 89:6; compare Da 3:25).[ 88 ] In the NT, those receiving Christ were given "the right to become TEKNA children by birth of God" (Joh 1:12; compare Joh 3:3-5). All those whom God receives are His sons (2Co 6:17, 18).
Having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will (Eph 1:5).

Sinners become sons of God by faith and baptism (Ga 3:26, 27).

And because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying out, "Abba, Father!" Therefore you are no longer a slave but a son, and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ (Ga 4:6, 7; compare Ro 8:16, 19; 1Jo 3:1, 2).

By adoption as a son, one is legally privileged and entitled to an inheritance. In various figures, sons of God are begotten, are born [again] of noble birth, are heirs of heaven and look forward to the redemption of the body and immortality.


    (Ro 8:15)

    1. Property of his father.
    2. His father entitled to his earnings.
    3. Never became "of age" while his father lived.
    4. Ownership transferred by "true sale."
    5. Father could put a son to death.

    (Barclay 110, 111; Vincent 3.91)


    (Ro 8:15)

    1. A transfer of PATRIA POTESTAS [fatherly control].
    2. By "symbolic sale" with copper and scales.
    a. First father bought him back twice, but not thrice.
    b. VINDICATIO [legal transfer].
    c. Seven witnesses required [compare witness of Spirit] (Ro 8:16).
    1. Considered same as a natural son.
    2. Could no longer inherit from natural father.
    3. Old debts canceled [a loophole later plugged].
    4. Natural family regarded him dead.

    (Barclay 110, 111; Vincent 3.91)


8:15 For you did not receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption by whom we cry out, "Abba, Father."

For you did not receive [for ye received not, have not received].[ 89 ] This is interesting because elsewhere Paul calls himself a bondservant of Christ. In the present verse, he emphasizes an intimate relationship with deity instead of servitude (compare Ga 4:6, 7 quoted above).

The spirit of bondage [a spirit of slavery].[ 90 ] The "spirit of bondage" is not a living being, certainly not the Holy Spirit. It is the attitude or disposition of a slave. Those under the Law may have had the spirit of bondage (see Mt 23:4; Ac 15:10; Ga 5:1). So did those devoted to idols as well as those enslaved to various sins of the flesh.

Again to fear [to fall back into, unto, fear, to be afraid, again for fear].[ 91 ] The word "again" suggests that former law-keeping Jews or as idolatrous Gentiles, the Roman Christians were then in fear (see Ga 4:9). Attitudes of bondage and fear are not characteristics of Christians, because those in God's family are sons with attitudes of trust and love.


    (Ro 8:15)

    1. Rights of the old family forfeited.
    2. Old debts canceled.
    3. Obligated to new family.
    4. Considered dead by old family.
    5. Considered literally and absolutely the son of the new father.
    6. Witnesses called if questions arose.
    (Barclay 110, 111; Zondervan 15, 16)

But you received the Spirit of adoption [but ye received, have received, a spirit of sonship, of adoption].[ 92 ] Just as the spirit of bondage is a disposition, the spirit of adoption is also an attitude or disposition. This is explained by both Arndt and Thayer (see footnote). Roman law stated that an adopted son not only inherited but assumed the burdens of the new family.[ 93 ]


    (Ro 8:15)

    1. Without Christ, no way to be saved (Ac 4:11, 12).
    2. Spirit of bondage, fear (Ro 8:15).
    3. Death (Heb 2:15).
    4. Lost, debt-laden sinners (1Jo 5:19).
    1. Now serving righteousness (Ro 6:17).
    2. Debts of past sins canceled (Ro 8:1, 12).
    3. Spirit bears witness (Ro 8:16).
    4. Heirs of God, joint-heirs with Christ (Ro 8:17).
    5. New obligations [including suffering] (Ro 8:17).
    6. Like Christ, raised and "glorified together (Ro 8:17).

Some think the spirit of adoption is the Holy Spirit. There is considerable misunderstanding here. In the early manuscripts, all Greek letters were capitals. Any capitalization in English versions is due to the opinion of translators, not inspiration. There is no article before "spirit" in the Greek. This strongly suggests that it is not the person of the Holy Spirit. Contextually, the spirit of adoption is the opposite of the spirit of bondage, a disposition. "A better rendering would be:

The state of mind that belongs to slavery and the state of mind that belongs to adoption.[ 94 ]


    (Ro 8:15)

    1. Without it, debts not canceled [sins not forgiven].
    2. Without it, do not cry "Abba, Father!"
    3. Without it, Spirit does not bear witness that we are sons of God (Ro 8:16).
    4. Without it, not heirs of God (Ro 8:17).
    5. Without it, not glorified with Christ (Ro 8:17).
    6. How does adoption occur? By faith, repentance, confession and baptism
    (Ac 2:38; Ro 6:3, 4; 10:9, 10; Ga 3:26, 27).


    (Ro 8:15)

    1. Because of a new relationship with God.
    2. Because of the way He blesses us.
    3. Because the Holy Spirit is witness (Ro 8:16).
    4. Because of our heavenly inheritance (Ro 8:17).
    5. Because to be called children of God is an exalted privilege (1Jo 3:1).
    6. Because of His approval and love for us.
    7. Because of our child-like love for Him.

By whom we cry out [when, whereby, in which, we cry]. [ 95 ] The Christian is not shy or hesitant in calling God Father. He is so addressed by them as they come boldly before His throne of grace in whole-hearted singing and fervent prayer (Heb 4:16; see Ex 14:15).

Abba.[ 96 ] Note that Arndt and Ginrich disagree with Thayer who describes "Abba" as the "emphatic state" (see footnote). The spirit of sonship is evident here. Jewish tradition forbade slaves to call their master Abba. Greek-speaking Jews addressed God as HO PATER the Father in their own tongue as well as ABBA Father [in Aramaic] in order to express their sonship. For certain ones, "Abba" must have became almost another name for God. In the same way, nearly every prayer leader today appropriately calls God "Father." In this sense, Father is almost equivalent to Abba. In prayer, every Christian, every spiritual son and daughter of God, frequently calls upon Him as Father. Those who do not take advantage of this opportunity probably do not realize the magnificence of the privilege.

Father.[ 97 ] Was God the Father of the Jews under the old covenant? Yes, He was (De 32:6; 1Ch 29:10; Ps 68:5; Isa 63:16; 64:8; Jer 3:4; 31:9 Mal 2:10). They were His children because they were created, formed and redeemed by Him. He called them by name (Isa 43:1). Jesus taught His disciples to pray, "Our Father" (Mt 6:9; Lu 11:2; compare Mt 7:11). At His crucifixion, He Himself addressed God as Father (Lu 23:46).[ 98 ]

Christians pray, "Father, forgive our sins through Christ." God is their Father by virtue of the new birth. In the present figure, He is their Father by adoption. They are His children, members of His household, His family (2Co 6:18; Eph 2:19; 1Ti 3:15).


    (Ro 8:15)

    1. Walk not after the flesh (Ro 8:4).
    2. Walk after the Spirit (Ro 8:4).
    3. Suffer with Christ (Ro 8:17).


There are three conditions of faithfulness laid down in this chapter (see chart CONDITIONS OF FAITHFULNESS). Without dread, faithful children of God cry to their loving God saying, "Abba, Father" (see also Eph 1:5). Calling Him Father suggests that a decision has been made to be His obedient child.

But I said: "How can I put you among the children and give you a pleasant land, a beautiful heritage of the hosts of nations?" And I said: "You shall call Me, `My Father,' and not turn away from Me" (Jer 3:19).

It also implies reverence and fear.

And if you call on the Father, who without partiality judges according to each one's work, conduct yourselves throughout the time of your stay here in fear (1Pe 1:17; see also 1Pe 1:21, 22; 2:1, 5).


    (Ro 8:16)

    1. Spiritual begettal by the word (Jas 1:18; 1Co 4:15).
    2. Born again by the word of God (1Pe 1:23).
    3. Made alive by grace (Eph 2:1, 5).
    a. Grace teaches us (Tit 2:11, 12).
    b. Your word has given me life (Ps 119:50, 93).
    c. Buried with Him in baptism . . . made alive
    (Col 2:12, 13).
    4. Cleansed by the word (Joh 15:3; Eph 5:26).
    5. Souls purified (1Pe 1:22; 1Jo 3:3).
    6. Saved by the implanted word (1Co 15:1, 2;
    Jas 1:21, 22).
    7. Justified by the law of faith, the faith of Christ
    (Ro 2:13; 3:27; Ga 2:16).
    a. Justified by the Spirit of God=by the gospel
    (1Co 6:11).


    (Ro 8:16)

    1. Led by the Spirit of God (Ro 8:14).
    2. Filled with knowledge (Col 1:5, 9, 13).
    3. Let the word dwell in you (Col 3:16; Eph 5;18, 19).
    4. Led by the word (Ps 73:24; 119:105; Lu 1:77-79).
    5. The witness in believer, the word (1Jo 5:10).
    6. Spiritual growth by milk of word (1Pe 2:2).
    7. Effectual working (1Th 2:13).
    8. Truth within yields fruit without (Col 1:5, 6, 9, 10).
    9. Indwelling truth is the rule by which we walk (Php 3:16; 2Jo 4; 3Jo 4).(Wallace)


    (Ro 8:16)

    1. Strengthened through His Spirit=knowledge of word (Ac 20:32; Ro 16:25; Eph 3:16; Col 1:10, 11; Tit 2:11, 12).
    2. Power to comfort (Ro 15:4; 1Th 3:2; 4:18).
    3. The Spirit of grace=the gospel
    (Ac 20:24, 34; Tit 2:11, 12; Heb 10:29).
    4. Spirit of grace=new covenant (Ga 1:6; Heb 10:29).
    5. Love of God shed abroad in hearts by Spirit/gospel
    (Ro 5:5; 2Co 4:4-8).
    6. Word lives in the believer (Joh 6:35, 45, 51).
    7. Christ lives in me=the faith of the Son of God
    (Ga 2:20; Eph 3:17).
    8. Enters "by the hearing of faith" (Ga 3:2).


    (Ro 8:16)

    1. Christ's words are spirit and life, spiritual and life- giving (Joh 6:63).
    2. Can Spirit make more spiritual than Christ's words?
    3. The word in the heart flows outward to the life
    (Ps 119:103; Jer 15:6; Joh 4:14; 6:31-35, 63; 1Co 10:3, 4).
    4. "Metonymy" puts one word for another. The Spirit is put for the "things" the Spirit gives
    (see Mt 7:11; Lu 11:13).
    5. Entrance of the word enlightens the heart (Ps 19:8; 119:130).


    (Ro 8:16)

    1. Source of understanding=the inspired word (Job 32:8; Ps 119:104; Eph 1:17, 18; 3:4; 2Ti 3:16, 17).
    2. Sanctification begins at baptism, washing of water (Eph 5:26), is completed by the word (Joh 17:17).
    3. Resisting the Holy Spirit=not heeding the word
    (Ne 9;30; Ac 7:51; 2Ti 3:8).
    4. Grieving the Holy Spirit=a callous attitude to the word (Ps 95:7-10; Jer 3:17; 7:24; 11:8; 16:12; 18:12; Heb 3:7-12).

    "Imagination" in these verses comes from a root meaning "stubbornness."(Wallace)


    (Ro 8:16)

    1. Do not quench the Spirit (1Th 5:19).
    2. "Quench" is SBENNUTAI are going out, are being quenched (Mt 25:8).
    3. Is not my word like a fire? (Jer 23:29; Ps 39:3).
    4. Blaspheming the Spirit=repudiating the word
    (Mk 3:28, 29; Ac 13:45; 1Ti 2:5; 6:1).
    5. The body to be raised by the word of Christ
    (Joh 5:29, 29; 1Co 15:52; 1Th 4:16).
    4. Judged by the word of Christ (Joh 12:47, 48).
    5. EVERY EFFECT AND EMOTION the Holy Spirit produces in man, the word of God engenders!


8:16, 17 The Spirit Himself bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God, 17 and if children, then heirs-- heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ, if indeed we suffer with Him, that we may also be glorified together.

The Spirit Himself [it is the Spirit himself, itself, the same spirit of sonship].[ 99 ] Harold Littrell has an interesting concept of verse 16. He has pointed out what he conceives to be a translation error in standard versions of the Bible. Instead of "the Spirit Himself" he renders it "the same spirit of sonship," identical to the spirit of adoption (see verse 15). The spirit then would be the consciousness of being a child of God rather than a slave. According to Littrell, that inner awareness sense, spirit or feeling is what the writer is relating by "spirit." He cites Luke 2:38; 10:7,21; 12:12; 13:1; 20:19; 23:12; 24:13,33; Acts 16:18 as examples of the use of the Greek AUTO as "same" or its equivalent. I

remain skeptical of Littrell's interpretation. Be careful not to think that mere emotions or feelings guarantee that one is who he thinks he is (Ga 6:3). Many poor, demented souls think they are Shakespeare, Lincoln or even the Messiah. Ruling Jews mistakenly thought they were spiritual sons of Abraham (Mt 3:9; Joh 8:33, 39). No passage, especially this one, teaches that the Spirit bears witness to us through subjective feelings. In the following notes, I will assume that the meaning is "the Holy Spirit Himself."

How does the Spirit bear witness with our spirit? And to whom does he testify? After having been born anew, by obedience to the gospel, the human spirit bears witness to others as a person explains how he became a child of God. The Holy Spirit does the very same thing. He does so in verse upon verse in the NT. There can be no mistaking His testimony (see Mk 16:16; Joh 3:3, 5; Ac 2:38; 22:16; Ro 6:3, 4; Ga 3:26, 27; 1Pe 3:21). Some tend to argue against the plain meaning of the Scriptures. Please! Let the Holy Spirit speak to you through His written word!

He who is of God hears God's words; therefore you do not hear, because you are not of God (Joh 8:47; compare 1Co 14:37).


    (Ro 8:16)

    1. The Holy Spirit testifies in every city, saying
    that chains and tribulations await me (Ac 20:23).
    2. Agabus: Thus says the Holy Spirit, "So shall the Jews at Jerusalem bind the man who owns this belt" (Ac 21:10, 11).
    3. God also bearing witness both with signs and wonders, with various miracles, and gifts of the
    Holy Spirit (Heb 2:4).
    3. Through the written words of Jeremiah: But this
    is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the LORD (Jer 31:33).
    4. The Holy Spirit also witnesses to us; for after He
    had said before, "This is the covenant that I will make with them" (Heb 10:15, 16).

Bears witness with our spirit [bearing witness, beareth witness, with our spirit].[ 100 ] The Holy Spirit has borne witness to man in three ways: (1) by the words of a living prophet; 2) by miracles; (3) by the written words of Scripture. Sometimes MARTUROMAI to summon as a witness merely suggests to testify or solemnly protest[ 101 ] (see Ga 4:6; 1Jo 3:24; 4:13; 5:6). This is the sense Paul used the word to the Ephesian elders:

Therefore I testify to you this day that I am innocent of the blood of all men (Ac 20:26; compare Re 22:18).


Under OT Law, two or three witnesses were required (Nu 35:30; De 17:6; 19:15). This principle is continued in the NT (Mt 18:16; 2Co 13:1; 1Ti 5:19; Heb 10:28). According to Roman law, witnesses of an adoption could be called upon to prove the validity of sonship in order to confirm an inheritance. The adopted son would bear witness. Along with him, one or more of the other witnesses would testify. The seven witnesses were not called to assure the son of his own sonship. He knew about that because he had undergone the adoption procedure. Neither were they called to assure his adopted father. He was present at the procedure too. They testified to others to prove that he was truly adopted and entitled to an inheritance. In a similar fashion, the Holy Spirit testifies to others along with our spirit that we are God's sons. The Holy Spirit with our spirit bears witness. Our spirit cries "Abba, Father!" The Spirit also says, "Abba, Father" (Ga 4:6).[ 102 ]


In Scripture, the Spirit is never said to bear witness by mysterious, subjective feelings or so-called "leadings." He is primarily a teacher (Joh 14:26; 16:13; 1Jo 2:20, 27). He gives His testimony in words. Does He give us assurance that we are children of God? Of course He does! In the first century, He gave assurance by miracles (Mk 16:20; 1Th 1:5; 1Jo 4:13) but this is not the same as bearing witness in words (see chart HOW THE SPIRIT BEARS WITNESS).

The Hebrew writer specifically states:

God also bearing witness both with signs and wonders, with various miracles, and gifts of the Holy Spirit, according to His own will? (Heb 2:4).

In our day, the Spirit bears witness through the language of the Bible, the Spirit-revealed word of God. Assurance is given by written miracles and by fulfilled prophecy. In addition, events such as the conversion and life of Paul confirm the truth of the gospel (Php 1:7; 1Ti 1:12). In a broad sense, anything that validates the revealed word bears witness. It assures others that those who have believed and obeyed the gospel are Christians and truly the sons of God.

That we are children of God [that we are the children of God, God's children].[ 103 ] Legally, Christians are God's "children" or "sons" by adoption. They are also His children by regeneration, by the new birth (Joh 3:3-5). The word "children" hints that Christians are dependent upon God (see verse 21; compare Eph 5:1; Php 2:15). As His children "give answer"[ 104 ] to other people concerning their faith, the Holy Spirit, through the written word, confirms their testimony. He bears witness to others along with their spirit.

And if children, then heirs [and if children, heirs also].[ 105 ] Adopted HUIOI sons are heirs just the same as children born into a family. The word in verse 17 is TEKNA children. Via adoption or the new birth, God accepts sinners as His own children (see note on Ga 3:29).

Heirs of God.[ 106 ] Under Judaism, the oldest son received a double portion of the inheritance (De 21:17). Daughters, at least in some cases, could also inherit (Nu 27:1-11; De 21:15-17). Under Roman law, all children inherited equally. The expression "heirs of God" refers to the promise of salvation. That promise was first made figuratively to Adam and Eve (Ge 3:15). It was made more fully to Abraham (Ge 12:1-3; compare Ro 4:14; Ga 3:29; Eph 3:6; Tit 3:7; Heb 1:14; 6:17). The inheritance of the "heirs of God" is eternal salvation in Christ Jesus. Penitent sinners are made God's children by faith and baptism (Ga 3:26, 27), a process open to both men and women (see Ac 8:12; Ga 3:28).

And joint heirs with Christ [and heirs, and fellow heirs, with Christ, Christ's joint heirs].[ 107 ] Jesus has been appointed heir of "all things" (Heb 1:2; compare Ps 2:8; Heb 2:8). God holds back nothing from His Son nor from His fellow-heirs. Christ the heir came to earth and was killed by the very ones who considered themselves heirs of the promise to Abraham (Mt 21:38; Mk 12:7). Christians, as heirs with Him, should expect to suffer with Him (Joh 15:18, 20, 21). Some of the early saints suffered at the hands of persecutors who thought that punishing Christians was doing God service (Joh 16:2; Ac 26:9).


    (Ro 8:17)

    1. The Son of Man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified (Lu 24:7, 26, 46;
    Ac 17:3).
    2. Delivered by the determined purpose and fore- knowledge of God (Ac 2:23).
    3. Those things which God foretold by the mouth of all His prophets, that the Christ would suffer (Ac 3:18).
    4. The prophets and Moses said would come-- that the Christ would suffer (Ac 26:22, 23).
    5. Made a little lower than the angels, for the suffering of death (Heb 2:9).
    6. To make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings (Heb 2:10; 5:8, 9).

If indeed [provided, if, if so be].[ 108 ] Suffering an assured for the Christian. From other Scriptures, we must interpret "if so be" as necessity. Faithfulness in suffering leads to eternal salvation. The degree of faithfulness that endures suffering for Christ is essential to salvation (Re 2:10, 13; 12:11; 17:14).


    (Ro 8:17, 36)

    1. Joint heirs with Christ, if indeed we suffer with Him
    (Ro 8:17).
    2. The sufferings of Christ abound in us
    (2Co 1:5-7; Col 1:24).
    3. To you it has been granted on behalf of Christ, not only to believe in Him, but also to suffer for His sake (Php 1:29).
    4. You yourselves know that we are appointed to this (1Th 3:3; 2Th 1:4, 5).
    8. All who desire to live godly in Christ Jesus will suffer persecution (2Ti 3:12; 1Pe 1:6, 7; 4:12-14).

We suffer with Him [that we suffer with him].[ 109 ] Christ warned His disciples that they would suffer with Him (see (Mt 10:38; 16:24; Mt 20:23; Joh 16:33). Christians also share in His sufferings, even now. Not only must they suffer as Christians but they must not deny the Lord.

If we endure, we shall also reign with Him. If we deny Him, he also will deny us. If we are faithless, he remains faithful; he cannot deny Himself (2Ti 2:12, 13; see Mt 10:22; Ro 8:32; Php 3:10; 1Pe 3:14, 15; 4:16).

That we may also be glorified together [in order to be, that we may be, also glorified with him].[ 110 ] Heavenly glory with Christ follows faithfulness in suffering with Him (see note on The redemption of our body, verse 23).


8:18 For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us.

For I consider [I consider, for I reckon, estimate].[ 111 ] Paul contemplated the incorruptible prize awaiting him and all the faithful (1Co 9:25; 2Ti 4:8).

That the sufferings of this present time].[ 112 ] Paul's letters to Galatia, Philippi, Thessalonica and Corinth were already written. From them, we know that he had already endured many trials (Ga 6:17; Php 1:12-14; 1Th 2:2). He listed some of his own intense sufferings (2Co 4:8-11, 17; 11:23-28). He was fully aware that there were more persecutions to come (Ac 20:23; Php 1:16). Others too had suffered a great deal. For example, the Jerusalem church had been scattered because of bitter persecution. Saul of Tarsus had an aggressive part in that (Ac 8:1-3; compare Heb 10:34). Some of the Thessalonians had been "troubled" (2Th 1:7) and the Philippians were severely persecuted (Php 1:29).


    (Ro 8:18)

    1. They look to its cessation and the ensuing rest
    (Job 3:17).
    2. They think of the glory that to be revealed
    (Ro 8:18).
    3. They realize that the sons of God themselves will be revealed (Ro 8:19).
    4. They anticipate rest in heaven (Rev 14:13).
    5. They think of the honor given to Christ and desire fellowship with him (see Ac 7:56; Php 3:10).

Are not worthy to be compared [are not worth comparing]. [ 113 ] Paul now contrasts present suffering with future glory. He considered sufferings to be the trivia of earth. To him, they were insignificant, unimportant and as nothing compared to the ultimate glory of heaven. He knew there would come a time of rest from it all (2Th 1:7). He contemplated the incorruptible prize awaiting him and all the faithful (1Co 9:25; 2Ti 4:8).


    (Ro 8:18)

    1. Glory outweighs the suffering (Ro 8:18;
    2Co 4:17).
    2. The creation suffers (Ro 8:22).
    3. The physical body will be redeemed (Ro 8:23).

With the glory [with the coming glory].[ 114 ] The worst persecutions of Christians are like sand in the shoe compared with the radiant splendor of the heavenly destination. They are like dust in the eye compared to seeing the majestic beauty of heaven. There will be rest from the weariness of earth (Isa 57:1, 2; 2Th 1:7; Heb 4:9; Re 14:13). There will be a glorious reward for faithful saints who suffer with their Christ (Mt 5:11, 12; 2Ti 2:12; Heb 10:34; 11:26; Re 20:4). There will be no more tears (Re 21:4) but instead, joy (Ps 16:11).

Which shall be revealed in us [to be, that is to be, revealed to us].[ 115 ] This verse sets forth the wonder and glory of heavenly life. Because of limited ability to comprehend it, this has not yet been fully disclosed but we know that nothing else can compare with it. The rest of the chapter is related to this great truth. Although not fully comprehended, Christians, with a steadfast hope, look forward to it with great anticipation. Why is there so little teaching about heaven? One reason may be that none of us has experienced it. Another reason is that in Scripture it is mostly described in figurative language. The full realization of it is yet to come.


8:19 For the earnest expectation of the creation eagerly waits for the revealing of the sons of God.

For the earnest expectation [for with eager longing, hope, for the anxious looking out].[ 116 ] It is interesting that Paul does not say the creation is waiting, but the "earnest expectation" is waiting. As long as earth stands, the expectation will be in anxious hearts waiting for "the revelation of the sons of God." Unless this language is highly symbolic, it could not possibly apply to the non-human creation. How do rocks, plants and animals eagerly expect the revealing of the Sons of God? To what spiritual truth does the symbolic language allude if not applied to human beings?

Of the creation [the, of the, creature].[ 117 ] "The creation," in this passage, means the human creation or mankind (as in Mk 16:15; Col 1:23) and, in a special and limited sense, to the creation in Christ (2Co 5:17; Ga 6:15). To my knowledge, there is no biblical support for the idea that the irrational or inanimate creation eagerly awaits the revealing of the sons of God. Certainly we are not to understand that it refers to unsaved people inasmuch as they have no valid hope. Is there any sense that the mineral creation eagerly expects the resurrection (see note below on For the revealing of the sons of God)? In no way do atheists eagerly await "the revealing of the sons of God." Various opinions are given in the footnote.[ 118 ]

Eagerly waits [waits, waiteth, expects]. [ 119 ] Perhaps the non-human creation may be said to wait persistently, but not eagerly nor expectantly. Passages that present inanimate objects such as trees and mountains rejoicing or with other actions or emotions all refer in some way to living beings (see Ps 19:2; Isa 11:6; 14:8; 55:12; 65:17; Eze 31:15; 37:1-10; Hab 2:11). Thus the present verse refers to the creation in Christ, to Christians, to those who "have loved His appearing" (2Ti 4:8; Heb 9:28).

For the revealing of the sons of God [the revelation, for the manifestation of, the children of God].[ 120 ] Christians are sons of God (Joh 1:12; 2Co 6:18; Ga 4:7; Php 2:15; 1Jo 3:1). They know they are saved (1Jo 3:14, 19, 20; 4:13) and the Lord "knows those who are His" (2Ti 2:19). However, when a person is born anew, the inner change may be as undiscernible to others as the wind (Joh 3:8). The forgiveness that takes place in the mind of God may be unknown to others. On the judgment day, secret things will be brought to light (Lu 8:17; Ro 2:16). Unproductive branches, like tares that resemble wheat, like will be burned (Mt 13:30; Joh 15:6). Christians look forward to the happiness and blessings of being with the Lord (see 2Co 5:1-4). On the great judgment day, the true sons of God will be revealed (Mt 13:43). On that day, there will also be a revelation of the Lord with His angels, perhaps identified as "sons of God" in the OT (see Job 38:7; 2Th 1:7).


8:20, 21 For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of Him who subjected it in hope; 21 because the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God.

For the creation [for the creature].[ 121 ] Human creation was subjected to vanity.

Remember how short my time is; for what futility have You created all the children of men? (Ps 89:47).

Was subjected to futility [was subject, was made, has been made, subject, to vanity].[ 122 ] The trials and tribulations of life prove, test and prepare Christians for eternity (Ro 5:3-5; Heb 12:3-7; Jas 1:2-4). Physical decline and death is the lot of Christians and sinners alike (1Co 15:53; 2Co 4:16; 5:1; Heb 9:27). The frustration of change, decline and decay plagues older people. They are sure that death will come (Job 4:19; 10:9; Ps 89:48; 103:15, 16; Ec 3:20).

Man who is born of woman is of few days and full of trouble. He comes forth like a flower and fades away; he flees like a shadow and does not continue (Job 14:1, 2).

Indeed, You have made my days as handbreadths, and my age is as nothing before You; certainly every man at his best state is but vapor (Ps 39:5 NKJV); Surely every man at his best estate is altogether vanity (Ps 39:5 ASV; see 62:9; Ec 6:12).

"Vanity of vanities," says the Preacher; "Vanity of vanities, all is vanity" (Ec 1:2; 12:8).

Not willingly [not voluntarily, of its will, its own will].[ 123 ] The insertion of the phrase "not willingly" by the Holy Spirit suggests that He did not have in mind the non-human creation because that creation does not possess a will. Mankind willingly became vain but was unwillingly subjected to the kind of vanity mentioned here. It was due to the consequences of his sin.

But because of Him [but by the will of him, but by reason of him, of the One].[ 124 ] God is the one who subjected mankind to vanity. He said to Adam,

In the sweat of your face you shall eat bread till you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken; for dust you are, and to dust you shall return (Ge 3:19).

Man is not the "master of his fate" (see Jer 10:23). God is in control. He subjected the creation to vanity. He provides its salvation.

Who subjected it [who hath subjected the same].[ 125 ] Since the creation was subjected to vanity "in hope," it is intimated that it was God who did the subjecting, for only with Him there is hope (Eph 2:12).

In hope.[ 126 ] The Creation in Christ (Christians) are the only ones who enjoy true hope. The non-human creation is not really waiting in hope. Hope involves the God of hope.

The great problem of God permitting suffering has perplexed the greatest of minds. Whole volumes have been written about it. To atheistic philosophers, this may seem to be unanswerable. However, the problem will eventually be resolved if Christians will only patiently wait in hope (see 1Co 15:25).

[8:21] Because the creation itself [that the creation, creature, itself].[ 127 ] The correct translation is "creation" but the meaning is human creation. Versions that have "the universe" are not translations, but interpretations and poor ones at that. Paul is discussing reasons for the hope of Christians. The entropy[ 128 ] and decay of the universe, together with the suffering and death of organisms in various food chains, do not offer Christians any hope. If we understand Paul to refer to the creation in Christ, the passage makes sense. Christians endure trials but one day will be delivered from them as they are ushered into the glorious liberty of the sons of God.

Also will be delivered [will be, also shall be, set free, freed from serving]. [ 129 ] Those who hold the view that the creation to be "delivered" is the material earth, including animals and plants, have difficulty harmonizing the idea of hope with passages that tell of the fiery end of the material world (see Job 14:12; Isa 34:4; Lu 21:33; 2Pe 3:10-12; Re 20:11). Just how they conceive the creation to be "delivered" I have not the slightest idea. Do they envision animals, plants, bacteria and possibly viruses being raised to life again?

From the bondage of corruption [from its bondage to decay, that which brings destruction]. [ 130 ] The bondage of corruption implies sin and death just as the next phrase implies redemption and resurrection (see 2Pe 2:19).

Into the glorious liberty [and obtain the glorious liberty, into the liberty, unto the freedom, of the glory].[ 131 ] There will be an unconditional and universal resurrection of all mankind (Joh 5:28, 29). There will be a very special deliverance for the children of God.[ 132 ] In heaven, the children of God will be set free from all evil, harm, suffering and death that have been caused by sin in this world.

Of the children of God [of God's children].[ 133 ] The resurrection body will be glorious (1Co 15:42, 49; Php 3:21). To be with Christ will be to share in His glory (Ps 73:24; Col 1:27; 3:4; 1Th 2:12; 2Th 2:14; Heb 2:10).


8:22 For we know that the whole creation groans and labors with birth pangs together until now.

For we know [we know].[ 134 ] Paul assumed that his readers were familiar with the groaning of the creation.

That the whole creation [that the creation].[ 135 ] Some think the whole universe "groans." If so, it is only symbolic of the groaning done by human beings (see note on Of the creation, verse 19).

Groans [has been groaning, groaneth, groans together].[ 136 ] Paul understood suffering humanity to groan.

For in this we groan, earnestly desiring to be clothed with our habitation which is from heaven, if indeed, having been clothed, we shall not be found naked (2Co 5:2, 3; see note on Even we ourselves groan within ourselves at verse 23).

And labors with birth pangs [in travail, and travaileth in pain, and travails, and travails in pain].[ 137 ] Human life is not easy. Sinners do not suffer with Christ but they do suffer. They endure whatever is the lot of all mankind. They are weary and heavy laden with sin, fears, anxieties, frailties and pain. If they do not become Christians, they will suffer eternally. Conversely, some of the same earthly ills that plague sinners are also companions of Christians. In addition to the suffering common to all, Christians suffer with Christ.

Until now [together until now].[ 138 ] "Until now" proves that the suffering Paul speaks of is not eternal torment in hell. It was happening right up to the time he wrote but was not required to cease then.


8:23 Not only that, but we also who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, eagerly waiting for the adoption, the redemption of our body.

Not only that [and not only so, they, they only, the creation].[ 139 ] Something new and different is added in the thought here. Even the apostles were groaning inwardly.

But we also [but we, but even we, ourselves, ourselves also]. [ 140 ] Even though Paul had received the miraculous outpouring of the Holy Spirit (Tit 3:5), he includes himself and the other apostles among the groaners. The miraculous outpouring did exempt him from suffering (see notes on Ac 9:16; Php 1:16).

Who have the firstfruits of the Spirit [which have the first-fruit of the Spirit].[ 141 ] Primary reference is to the apostles who received the baptism or outpouring of the Holy Spirit (see Ac 2:1-5; 2Co 1:22; 5:5; Eph 1:13, 14; Tit 3:5). Even the apostles groaned because of their burdens and their longing for heaven (see 2Co 5:1-5).

Even we ourselves groan within ourselves [we also ourselves groan inwardly, in ourselves]. [ 142 ] Paul included himself with the groaners when he wrote to Corinth:

For we who are in this tent groan, being burdened, not because we want to be unclothed, but further clothed, that mortality may be swallowed up by life (2Co 5:4; see note on Groans, Ro 8:22 above).


    (Ro 8:23)

    1. Jews in the OT had "the adoption" (Ro 9:4).
    2. Christians have already been adopted--"because you are sons" (Ga 4:6).
    a. Predestined to adoption as sons (Eph 1:5).
    b. Sons of God through faith, baptism (Ga 3:26, 27). c. Made sons of God in Christ (Ro 8:16).
    d. Received spirit of adoption (Ro 8:15).
    e. No longer a slave, but a son (Ga 4:7).
    3. Eagerly waiting for the adoption, the redemption of our body (Ro 8:23; compare 7:24).

Eagerly waiting for the adoption [as we wait for adoption as sons, waiting for our adoption, expecting, as adopted children, awaiting adoption].[ 143 ] The adoption for which Christians wait is not their becoming Christians or to the destruction of Judaism but to the bodily resurrection at the end of time.

The redemption of our body [to wit, the, that is the, redemption of our bodies].[ 144 ] Redemption of the body is synonymous with being "glorified" (verse 17). It relates to "the glorious liberty of the children of God" (verse 21). By metonymy of the cause for the effect, it is understood to be the inheritance of adopted sons, specifically the future bodily resurrection. The body that faithful Christians will receive at the resurrection is a spiritual and immortal body (1Co 15:42-44). The mortal body is also made alive in the present for service to Christ (Ro 6:11-14).


8:24 For we were saved in this hope, but hope that is seen is not hope; for why does one still hope for what he sees?

For we were saved in this hope [for in hope, this hope, were we saved, for we are saved, have been saved, by, in, hope].[ 145 ] Salvation occurred at a definite point in time. At baptism, Christians were saved with a view toward the object of their hope (see Ro 6:5). According to Lenski:

We were saved "for the hope," the great object of our hope, the one of which Paul has been speaking (hence the article), the glory about to be revealed, the liberty of the children of God.[ 146 ]

This verse explains a little more about the redemption of "our body" (verse 23). At the time Paul wrote, it had not been realized by Paul or by the saints at Rome. It was hoped for (see Tit 1:2). A woman in pains of childbirth hopes for a healthy baby. Suffering Christians hope for a glorious resurrection to eternal life with Christ. The hope and expectation of heaven and an immortal, spiritual body provides an incentive to persevere and to remain faithful (see Re 2:10).

But hope that is seen is not hope [now hope seen, that is seen. is not really hope].[ 147 ] We do not yet see the heavenly glorified state. In fact, it does not yet appear "what we shall be" (1Jo 3:2). The redemption of the body is accepted by faith. Our belief in the bodily resurrection of Christ is so strong that acceptance of teaching about "redemption of the body" amounts to a hope "both sure and steadfast" (Heb 6:19; Col 1:5; 1Ti 1:1; Heb 6:18).

For why does one still hope for what he sees? [for who hopes, hopeth, for what, that which, he, a man, anyone, seeth, why should we, doth he yet, hope for, hope for that which we see, why does he also hope?]. [ 148 ] The resurrection was not "already past" (2Ti 2:18). It was something all Christians looked forward to in hope. This shows there is more awaiting the Christian than a happy, earthly life.


8:25 But if we hope for what we do not see, we eagerly wait for it with perseverance.

But if we hope for what we do not see [but if we hope for that, for that which, we see not, but if what we see not we hope].[ 149 ] The Christian hope is for something not seen as yet (compare Heb 11:1).

We eagerly wait for it [we, then do we, wait for it, expect]. [ 150 ] Life, for many Christians, is a time suffering, toiling and waiting. They eagerly expect, wait and long for the coming of Christ (2Ti 4:8). They wait for their adoption, for the redemption of their body (Ro 8:23).

With perseverance [with patience, in patience].
[ 151 ] Christians are steadfastly and patiently enduring the sufferings of the present life in hope for the unseen reward (see Heb 11:13, 27).


8:26, 27 Likewise the Spirit also helps in our weaknesses. For we do not know what we should pray for as we ought, but the Spirit Himself makes intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered. 27 Now He who searches the hearts knows what the mind of the Spirit is, because He makes intercession for the saints according to the will of God.

Likewise [and in like manner].[ 152 ] This refers back to "wait for it" (verse 25). Whether in weakness or difficulties, in illnesses or persecution, because of a bright and sure heavenly hope, the human spirit waits longingly, sometimes groaning agonizingly. It waits patiently through ordeals of anguish and suffering because of hope (see Re 5:8; 8:3, 4).


    (Ro 8:26)

    1. The Spirit Himself, actually and personally.
    2. SUNANTILAMBENETAI, helps us, takes hold along with, stands on the other side and helps (same Greek in Lu 10:40).
    3. In our weakness, infirmity.
    4. When we do not know what we should pray for as we ought.
    5. Makes intercession, technical term for approaching the king [God] on behalf of another.
    6. With groanings which cannot be uttered [inarticulate groanings].

The Spirit also helps [the Spirit helps us, also helpeth, joins also its help].[ 153 ] The word "helps" implies that someone is standing on the other side to help. Only one other time in all the NT is this Greek word used. It occurs in the story of Mary and Martha.

But Martha was distracted with much serving, and she approached Him and said, "Lord, do You not care that my sister has left me to serve alone? Therefore tell her to help me" (Lu 10:40).

Perhaps Martha was lifting one end of a heavy table, or another heavy object, and wanted Jesus to tell Mary to take hold and "help" her to lift it. So it is that the Holy Spirit helps us. He helps us in prayer when we are weak, when we do not know what to pray for as we ought. He lifts with us. He does not do it all; neither do we. He stands on the other side and helps.[ 154 ]


    (Ro 8:26)

    1. Watch and pray, lest you enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak
    (Mt 26:41; Mk 14:38).
    2. Receive one who is weak in the faith (Ro 14:1, 2).
    3. I was with you in weakness, in fear, and in much trembling (1Co 2:3).
    4. Will not the conscience of him who is weak be emboldened? (1Co 8:7, 10).
    5. For this reason many are weak and sick among you (1Co 11:30).
    6. My strength is made perfect in weakness
    (2Co 12:9).
    7. Out of weakness were made strong (Heb 11:34).

In our weaknesses [our, to our, infirmity, infirmities, weakness]. [ 155 ] The Holy Spirit helps us in our infirmity, that is, when we are weak.

For we do not know [for we know not].[ 156 ] Christians today are not miraculously endowed with knowledge. Certainly they are not given instant instructions on how to offer a particular prayer. They do not have the personal, actual and bodily indwelling of the Holy Spirit. They are not taught "all things" by inspiration. People today are not gifted as were some in the first century (see 1Jo 2:27). However, then (and today) distraught saints relied on the Holy Spirit to help in prayer. Even though present-day saints do not claim a personal, actual, miraculous indwelling of the Spirit, the personal Holy Spirit is just as active for the praying Christian today as in the first century. Bear in mind that the Spirit exerts an influence on God, not directly upon the Christian's heart.

On the Mount of Transfiguration, Peter did not really know what to say when he suggested the building of three tabernacles (Mk 9:5; Lu 9:33). Likewise, I admit that I am often lacking in the mental efficiency and competency necessary to analyze the world's problems or my own. I am not able to skillfully figure out the best way to pray. Sometimes terror, anxiety or grief overwhelms to such an extent that my prayers may be little more than words of helplessness or merely an agonizing cry or groan. It is then that I believe the Holy Spirit takes over and makes a plea to God on my behalf.

What we should pray for [how to pray, what to pray for].[ 157 ] Sometimes sincere prayers take the form of familiar words like, "Guide, guard and direct us." Some with creative expressions beautifully express petitions to God in picturesque language. At times, Christians may only groan, "Oh, God!" At such moments the Holy Spirit assists with an interpretation of their needs to the Father who knows and understands the mind of the Spirit. It is thus that the sweet incense of the prayers of God's people ascends before the great and merciful throne in heaven.


    (Ro 8:26)

    1. Humility; turning from wicked ways (2Ch 7:14).
    2. Search for Me with all your heart (Jer 29:13).
    3. Believe (Mk 11:24).
    4. Cry out day and night to Him (Lu 18:7, 8; Ac 12:5).
    5. In the name of Christ (Joh 14:13; Eph 5:20).
    6. Confess trespasses; effective, fervent prayer of a righteous man avails much (Jas 5:16).
    7. Keep God's commandments (1Jo 3:22; 5:14).

As we ought [as is fitting].[ 158 ] We ought to pray with the whole heart (Jer 29:13), in the name of Christ (Joh 16:24), believing (Mk 11:24) and regularly (1Th 5:17; Lu 18:7). In the present verse, "What to pray for as we ought" has to do with both the content and manner of prayer.

But the Spirit Himself [but the Spirit itself, but the same spirit of sonship].[ 159 ] The reflexive pronoun "Himself" appears to identify the personal Holy Spirit and distinguishes Him from a mere operation, force or agency.

Makes intercession for us [intercedes, maketh intercession, for us]. [ 160 ] The Holy Spirit approaches the King of the entire universe in order to plead on behalf of Christians. There is a distinction between a mediator, a go-between and an intercessor. An intercessor pleads on behalf of another. Christ, our one mediator has attributes of both God and man. He comprehends the claims of God and the needs of man. He bridged the gap between God's justice and His love in that He died for us (see note on Ro 3:26). In recognition of the difference between being mediator and intercessor, we may say that in addition to being mediator, He intercedes (Heb 7:25).

With groanings [with sighs, groaning].[ 161 ] When Jesus saw Mary and the Jews weeping at Lazarus' tomb, "He groaned in the spirit and was troubled" (Joh 11:33, 38). In the present verse, the groanings appear to be those of the one praying (see various footnotes, especially Thayer's comments).

Which cannot be uttered [too deep for words, unspoken]. [ 162 ] The unuttered groanings are not the communication of the omniscient Holy Spirit but of the frail human who is unable to express himself in prayer as he should. The Holy Spirit has no problem in expressing Himself.


    (Ro 8:27)

    1. O LORD, You have searched me and known me. You know my sitting down and my rising up; you understand my thought afar off (Ps 139:1, 2).
    2. Hell and Destruction are before the LORD; so how much more the hearts of the sons of men
    (Pr 15:11).
    3. But, O LORD of hosts, you who test the righteous, and see the mind and heart (Jer 20:12).
    4. But God knows your hearts (Lu 16:15).
    5. You, O Lord, who know the hearts of all (Ac 1:24).


[8:27] Now He who searches the hearts [but he who, and he that, for the One who, searcheth the hearts of men].[ 163 ] God searches hearts but in the present context, Christ is the heart-searcher (see charts GOD SEARCHES THE HEARTS; CHRIST KNOWS THE HEART; SUPERNATURAL KNOWLEDGE OF JESUS at Joh 2:25).


    (Ro 8:27)

    1. Jesus knew their thoughts (Mt 12:25).
    2. Jesus perceived their wickedness (Mt 22:18).
    3. Jesus perceived in His spirit that they reasoned thus within themselves (Mk 2:8).
    4. He knew their thoughts (Lu 6:8).
    5. Knowing their thoughts (Lu 11:17).
    6. Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you (Joh 1:48).
    7. He knew what was in man (Joh 2:25).
    8. I am He who searches the minds and hearts
    (Re 2:23).

Knows what the mind of the Spirit is [knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit, the aspiration of the spirit is]. [ 164 ] The Holy Spirit and the Father have intimate fellowship and knowledge of each other's thoughts, designs, purposes and intents.

Because He makes intercession [because it, the Spirit, maketh intercession, intercedes].[ 165 ] When Christians pray, the Holy Spirit intercedes with pleadings to God on their behalf.

For the saints [in behalf of saints].[ 166 ] Because of the intercession of the Holy Spirit, God makes allowances for weaknesses of praying saints. Did He serve in a similar way in OT days?

Now it happened in the process of time that the king of Egypt died. Then the children of Israel groaned because of the bondage, and they cried out; and their cry came up to God because of the bondage. So God heard their groaning, and God remembered His covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob (Ex 2:23, 24).

"Saints" are those who have been baptized into Christ and are justified by faith (Ro 5:1; 6:3, 4). Does the Holy Spirit also make intercession for sincere alien sinners when they attempt to pray? The Scriptures are much less positive on this point (but see Pr 15:29; 28:9; Joh 9:31; Ac 10:31). At times, even David's prayer "returned to" his own heart (Ps 35:13; compare 66:17, 18; Job 27:8, 9)

According to the will of God [that in keeping with God's will, according to God]. [ 167 ] The words "the will of" were supplied by translators. Other possible words they could have chosen are "the purpose of" (verse 28), "the good pleasure of," "the mercy of" or "the grace of" God. "Will" was an excellent selection because it embraces most, if not all, of the other possible choices. The intercession of the Spirit coincides with the will of God and His merciful nature. What the Spirit does is in perfect harmony with Him who responds positively, working all things together for good to those who love Him (verse 28).

Thomas W. Franklin paraphrased Romans 8:23, 26, 27 as follows:

We Christians, while we pray, have inner groanings (compare verse 23) and desires which our spirit finds inexpressible as it tries to intercede on behalf of these heart-felt needs (verse 26). But Christ, who searches our hearts (Re 1:1; 2:23) knows what these longings of our minds and spirits are (verse 27) and makes intercession for us (verses 27, 34) as He stands at the right hand of God (verse 34) as the only mediator between God and man (1Ti 2:5).[ 168 ]


8:28 And we know that all things work together for good to those who love God, to those who are the called according to His purpose.

And we know [we know, but we do know].[ 169 ] It was commonly understood by the early Christians that the loving God brings together, or turns about, events and circumstances for the good of his loving children. Down through the ages, He has expressed His love by working together all things for good, that is, for their salvation (see note on Freely give us all things, verse 32). Christians express love to Him by obedience and by sincere worship.

That all things work together [that in everything God works, that God works all things, together].[ 170 ] In verse 32, "all things" is salvation and whatever blessings pertain thereto. In the present verse, "all things" include tribulation and persecution (see verses 35-39), especially as they point to eternal salvation (verse 29). God does not always work together all things for ease, pleasure and prosperity but He does so for good (see Heb 11:35-38). He is able to override earthly circumstances so that they will contribute toward the eternal redemption in heaven.

For good.[ 171 ] An enjoyable event is pleasant and seems good. When brethren dwell together in unity it is both good and pleasant (Ps 133:1). Simply because something brings pleasure or happiness does not guarantee that it is good. It is difficult to see how distasteful or painful events could possibly be for good. For example, Jacob had trouble seeing God's hand in his own life. He complained to his sons, "All these things are against me" (Ge 42:36). Even so, God was working things for his good just as He did for his sons (see Ge 50:15-20). Mary chose that "good part," that is, she listened to the words of Christ. What she chose was pleasant but it was also good inasmuch as hearing and obeying Him leads to heaven (see Lu 10:42). "For good" in the present verse does not allude to that which is fun but to that which leads to eternal life. Paul had this idea in mind when he wrote:

Being confident of this very thing, that He who has begun a good work in you will complete it until the day of Jesus Christ (Php 1:6; compare Php 2:13).


    (Ro 8:28)

    1. By words of praise (Ps 18:1).
    2. With heart, soul and mind (Mt 22:37).
    3. By a benevolent ministry (Heb 6:10).
    4. By keeping His commandments (1Jo 5:3).

To those who love God [to them that love him].[ 172 ] Love is a prerequisite to receive all of God's blessings. In the present verse, it is the only condition mentioned. Love is more than an attitude. Like faith, it is active. It is put here for the entire human response to the will of God. It implies prompt and willing obedience. Those who truly love God become Christians and live faithfully. Mainly, love is shown by keeping God's word (Joh 14:23; 1Jo 2:5; see chart SHOWING LOVE TO GOD). David, Asaph and the sons of Korah expressed love to God over and over in the Psalms (see Ps 42:1, 2; 73:25; 84:1-3; 116:1).

To those who are the called [with those who are called, (even) to them that are called].[ 173 ] "The called" are "the children of the promise" (Ro 9:8) and "children of God" (Ro 8:16, 21; 1Jo 3:1). In the present verse, they are equivalent to "those who love God." They are Christians, people who have heard the gospel call and who responded to it by faith and obedience.

But we are bound to give thanks to God always for you, brethren beloved by the Lord, because God from the beginning chose you for salvation through sanctification by the Spirit and belief in the truth, to which He called you by our gospel, for the obtaining of the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ (2Th 2:13, 14).

And let the peace of God rule in your hearts, to which also you were called EN in one body; and be thankful (Col 3:15).


    (Ro 8:28)

    1. All things work together for good to those who love God, to those who are the called according to His purpose (Ro 8:28).
    2. To those who are called (1Co 1:24).
    3. Called to liberty (Ga 5:13).
    4. God did not call us to uncleanness, but in holiness (1Th 4:7).
    5. To which He called you by our gospel, for the obtaining of the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ
    (2Th 2:14).
    6. To those who are called, sanctified by God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ (Jude 1).
    7. Those who are with Him are called, chosen,
    and faithful (Rev 17:14).

There is emphasis upon the oneness of the body of Christ. The church is the body of Christ of which He is the Savior (Eph 1:22, 23; 5:23). The body is the church (Col 1:18). Diligent effort is necessary in order to be certain of heaven.
Therefore, brethren, be even more diligent to make your call and election sure, for if you do these things you will never stumble (2Pe 1:10; compare Re 2:10).

According to His purpose [ according to purpose].[ 174 ] "His purpose" is God's eternal purpose to save man "which he accomplished in Christ Jesus our Lord" (Eph 3:11; compare Eph 1:11, 12; 1Jo 3:8). He "saved us and called us with a holy calling . . . according to His own purpose and grace" (2Ti 1:9; compare Tit 3:5). In the long ago, He devised a plan to save men, to make them His sons. He kept it rather silent through the ages, except in promise, prophecy, type and figure. He has now revealed it in the gospel of His Son (Ro 16:25, 26; compare 1Co 2:6-10; Eph 3:9; Col 1:25-28). Christians have been called by the gospel (2Th 2:14; compare Mk 16:15, 16; Ro 1:16).


8:29, 30 For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren. 30 Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified.


For whom He foreknew [for those whom he foreknew, for whom he did foreknow, because whom he has foreknown].[ 175 ] God planned all along for Gentiles as well as Jews to be saved through the church, the one body of Christ (Eph 3:5, 6). He did not alter His eternal design.


    (Ro 8:29)

    1. The rulers with them sneered, saying, "He saved others; let Him save Himself if He is the Christ,the chosen of God" (Lu 23:35).
    3. That He might be the firstborn [pre-eminent] among many brethren (Ro 8:29; Col 1:18).
    4. Rejected indeed by men, but chosen by God and precious (1Pe 2:4).
    5. He indeed was foreordained before the foundation
    of the world (1Pe 1:20).


    (Ro 8:29).

    1. Foreknown as having a distinct place in God's purpose (Ro 8:28).
    2. HOUS whom [plural] He foreknew, a plurality (Ro 8:29).
    3. Their destiny is "to become conformed to the image of His Son" (Ro 8:29 NASB).
    4. Just as He chose us in Him, a plurality (Eph 1:4).


He also predestined [he has also foreordained, did predestinate, marked off as his own, predestinated].[ 176 ] Since free choice and gospel response are elsewhere attributed to man, the predestined ones make up a class of people foreordained to salvation. That class is made up of individual men and women. Was any individual ever foreordained to be lost? If so, I know not of it. Are all foreordained to be saved? Apparently so.

For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Savior, who desires all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth (1Ti 2:3, 4; compare 2Pe 3:9).

To whom does God's goodness that leads to repentance not apply (see Ro 2:4; see 5:18)?


If God would have all men to be saved and His goodness leads them to repentance, then why are some lost? Simply because they choose not obey the gospel and live faithfully in Christ (Mk 16:15, 16; 2Th 1:7-9; Re 2:10). It is a matter of personal choice.

Although God's children are foreordained to glory, those who do not continue in the faith will be cut off (Ro 11:21, 22). People foreordained or appointed beforehand to salvation must live as faithful Christians in order to arrive at heaven at last. Some opt to "draw back" or "shrink back" to perdition or destruction (Heb 10:39).


God's intended purpose can be changed by man either for ill or for good (see Jer 18:7-12; Jonah 3:20). God's intent was to save the Jews but they "stumbled" (Ro 9:32). His intent is to save all men. He will save all who obey the gospel and remain faithful.


    (Ro 8:29).

    1. Conformed to the image of His Son (Ro 8:29).
    2. We shall also bear the image of the heavenly Man
    (1Co 15:49).
    3. Are being transformed into the same image
    (2Co 3:18).
    4. Will transform our lowly body that it may be conformed to His glorious body (Php 3:21).
    5. And have put on the new man who is renewed in knowledge according to the image of Him who created him (Col 3:10).
    6. We shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He is (1Jo 3:2).

To be conformed. [ 177 ] Conformity to Christ is not physical likeness (see 1Co 15:20, 23; Php 3:21). It involves being like Him in attitudes toward God, self, others, sin and in disposition. It implies following Him in His faithfulness and obedience (see Joh 8:29). Ultimate conformity to Him will take place in heaven. "We shall also bear the image of the heavenly Man" (1Co 15:49). "We shall be like Him" (1Jo 3:2).

To the image of His Son.[ 178 ] Christ is pre-eminent. He is the firstborn among many brethren (verse 29). It is God's will that all of His children be like His Son. He has ordained that they become like Him, not primarily in stature, color or in physical features. The likeness is one of character, obedience, blamelessness and innocence (Php 2:15). When Christians mature in Christ they have the mind of Christ (Php 2:5). They have the spirit of Christ (Ro 8:9). They are Christ-like in their daily lives.

And everyone who has this hope in Him purifies himself, just as He is pure (1Jo 3:3).

That He might be the firstborn [so that, in order that, he should be the first-born].[ 179 ] To make "first-born" mean first in order of time is to miss its most important meaning, that of exaltation and preeminence. The term "first-born" here does not pertain to a literal, fleshly birth at all nor even to Christ's so-called beginning in heaven. In part, it alludes to His resurrection (Ac 13:33, 34). He is firstborn in the sense of preeminence. This explains what the purpose of God is (verse 28). It is whatever is meant by Christ being "the first-born among many brethren." It implies that His brethren will be raised from the dead as He was. It is God's purpose that many become Christians, that they be like Christ in holiness and faithfulness and that, like Him, they shall be raised from the dead.

Among many brethren [of many brethren][ 180 ] In the present verse, "brethren" not only the saints who came forth out of the tombs after Christ's resurrection (Mt 27:53). Neither are they super-Christians. They are all of the saved ones in the church of Christ.

Christ is pre-eminent [firstborn] over all others in sinlessness, in resurrection and in exaltation. With sins forgiven, his brethren are like Him in purity (see Ac 2:38; 1Jo 1:7, 9). They grow into His likeness as they allow His word to richly indwell them (Col 3:16). They live pure lives because of the hope He gives them (1Jo 3:3).

[8:30] Moreover whom He predestined [but whom, and whom, and those whom, he did, he has, predestined, predestinate, foreordained, he marked off as his own].[ 181 ] Those foreordained make up the saved group, that is, those called, justified and glorified. God did not arbitrarily predestine only a few individuals for salvation and the rest for damnation.[ 182 ]

These He also called [he, them he, these also he called, has called].[ 183 ] Men and women are called by the gospel. The calling process involves hearing the truth, being drawn by the Father's teaching and obeying the gospel (Mt 7:24-27; Joh 6:44, 45; 2Th 2:14).

Whom He called these He also justified [and whom, and those whom, he has called, these also, them he also, has justified].[ 184 ] When one is justified his sins are forgiven. This is made possible by the sacrifice of Christ and is appropriated by faith, repentance, confession and baptism (Mk 16:16; Ac 2:38; 22:16; Ro 10:9, 10).

And whom He justified, these He also glorified [but whom, and those whom, he has justified, he also, them he also, these also he, has glorified].[ 185 ] Sometimes the Holy Spirit uses the past tense (Greek aorist tense) to describe an event absolutely certain to occur in the future. To Abraham, God said, "I have made you a Father of many nations"[ 186 ] (Ge 17:5). The fulfillment was yet future. After the golden calf incident, there was a real possibility that the Israelites as a nation would be destroyed. However, the promise to Abraham was renewed (Ex 33:1-3).

Before His death, Christ spoke of his blood as already "shed" or "poured out" (Mt 26:28), His body as having already been "given" (Lu 22:19), and "broken" (1Co 11:24). Paul spoke of his approaching death, saying, "For I am already being poured out as a drink offering" (2Ti 4:6). The same manner of speech is used here to give Christians assurance of heaven. Glorification is yet future because it is our hope (see verses 24, 25).

Future glorification is just as certain as past justification. The only thing to prevent Christians from being saved eternally or being glorified is their own unfaithfulness. Christians have been washed, sanctified and justified (1Co 6:11). The washing is that of the new birth (Joh 3:3, 5; Tit 3:5). Then and there a sinner is saved (see Ro 6:17, 18).


8:31 What then shall we say to these things? If God is for us, who can be against us?


    (Ro 8:29-31)

    1. Foreknowledge (Ro 8:29).
    2. Foreordination (Ro 8:29).
    3. Calling (Ro 8:30).
    4. Justification (Ro 8:30).
    5. Glorification (Ro 8:30).

What then shall we say to these things? [what shall we then say, then what are we to say, to this, to these things?].[ 187 ] That God is for us is shown by His working all things together for our good in giving us hope (verses 24, 25). On the divine side, this is accomplished according to foreknowledge, foreordination, calling, justification and glorification (verses 28-30).

If God is for us who can be against us? [if God be for us, who, who is, against us?].[ 188 ] If God is truly for us (and He is), all obstacles to eternal salvation can be overcome. The implication is that neither Satan nor anyone else can significantly hinder Christians from faithfully serving God or interfere with their reaching heaven. There is no question that God is for Christians. "If God be for us" is equivalent to since He is for us.


8:32 He who did not spare His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how shall He not with Him also freely give us all things?

He who did not spare [he that spared not, yea, has not spared].[ 189 ] God did not spare the angels that sinned. He reserved them for punishment (2Pe 2:4). He did not spare the ancient world but destroyed it in the flood (2Pe 2:5). Others were not spared (see Ex 12:29; De 7:23; 1Sa 15:18; Ro 11:21). He gave Him to die on the cross for us. He did not spare Him (Lu 22:42; Re 5:6, 9, 12). He determined and permitted His death according to His eternal plan (see Ac 2:23).

His own Son.[ 190 ] By the new birth and by adoption, Christians are sons of God (Joh 3:3-5; Ro 8:15). In a special sense, Jesus is God's unique and proper Son. He is His "Only Begotten" (see note on Joh 3:16).

But delivered Him up [but gave him up, but gave him over to death].[ 191 ] The suffering of Christ was not simply the result of a human decision made by Jews and/or Romans. They decided to reject and murder the Christ but being "delivered up because of our offenses" involved God (Ro 4:25; Ac 2:23). We esteemed Him "stricken, smitten by God and afflicted" (Isa 53:4).

For us all [for all of us].[ 192 ] Christ's blood is sufficient to save every person in the whole world (Mt 20:28; 26:28; Ro 5:15, 19). Foreordination or predestination as used in the Bible excludes nobody from the possibility of salvation. His blood is effective for all who believe and obey the truth.

How shall He not with Him also [ will he not, how will he not, also with him?].[ 193 ] God exhibited marvelous concern for mankind in making the ultimate sacrifice of His Son. The cross is forever a sign of just how much He wants men and women to be saved. Paul uses this point to argue that God will freely give Christians a heavenly home. All spiritual blessings related to salvation are "with Him," that is, they are enjoyed in connection with Christ. Note that in baptism we are buried "with" Him (Ro 6:4). Our old man is crucified "with" Him (Ro 6:6; Ga 2:20). We shall also live "with" Him (Ro 6:8) and "in Him" (see Ro 6:3; Eph 1:3).

Freely give us all things [give us all things, favor us with, grant us, all things].[ 194 ] Since God freely gave His Son, it would be out of character for Him to balk at giving a heavenly inheritance to faithful Christians. He gives "good things" to His own who ask in faith (Mt 7:11; Jas 1:5). Indeed, according to His purpose, He will freely give His children "all things." "All things" include everything incorporated in being fellow-heritors with Christ (verse 17).


    (Ro 8:32)

    1. Predestined, called, justified, glorified (Ro 8:30).
    2. Did not spare His own Son (Ro 8:32).
    3. Will not allow temptation beyond ability
    (1Co 10:13).
    4. Will also make the way of escape (1Co 10:13).
    5. Begun good work in you, will complete it (Php 1:6).
    6. For to you it has been granted on behalf of Christ, not only to believe in Him, but also to suffer for His sake (Php 1:29).
    7. It is God who works in you both to will and to do for His good pleasure (Php 2:13).


8:33, 34 Who shall bring a charge against God's elect? It is God who justifies. 34 Who is he who condemns? It is Christ who died, and furthermore is also risen, who is even at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us.

Who shall bring a charge [who can bring any charge, lay anything to the charge, bring an accusation?].[ 195 ] Unbelieving Jews who murdered Christ charged Him with blasphemy (Mt 26:65). They regarded His followers as blasphemers and liars (see chart CHARGES AGAINST GOD'S ELECT). In the early centuries of the church, charges of treason, arson and refusing to worship the emperor were levied once and again against Christians. When viewed from eternity, these false charges amount to little. The importance of a saved relationship with God dwarfs them all. Human criticisms, judgments and persecutions are not worthy to be compared with the glory to be revealed (see Ro 8:18).


    (Ro 8:33)

    1. Does not cease to speak blasphemous words
    against this holy place and the law (Ac 6:13).
    2. Acting contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying there is another king-- Jesus (Ac 17:7).
    3. This is the man who teaches all men everywhere against the people, the law, and this place
    (Ac 21:28).
    4. Many serious complaints against Paul (Ac 25:7).
    5. Lying (implied in Ro 3:7).

Against God's elect [of God's elect, chosen].[ 196 ] God's elect are Christians. They are called by the gospel, baptized into Christ and justified by His blood (Ro 5:9; 6:3, 4; Ga 3:27).

It is God who justifies [it is God that justifieth].[ 197 ] The emphasis is upon God, the omnipotent, all-merciful God who "so loved the world that He gave His only Begotten Son" (Joh 3:16). He justifies. For all intents and purposes, all charges against the elect are dropped. Christians may be persecuted but He does not forget His saints. He strengthens them as they work out their own salvation. He is at work in them "both to will and to work for His good pleasure" (Php 2:12, 13; see Heb 13:20, 21; 1Pe 4:11; Jude 1). False charges by Jews, Romans and others are insignificant compared to the blessings of His justification.


Who is he who condemns? [who is to condemn, who is he that condemneth, then who condemns?].[ 198 ] Human judges are relatively unimportant when compared with the all-powerful Christ who is Judge of the universe (Mt 28:18; Eph 1:20-23). The futility of Satan's efforts to defeat Christians are ultimately futile. The accuser of our brethren has been cast down (Re 12:10). Neither he, nor human judges has power to ultimately condemn anyone (compare Isa 51:7, 8; Jer 1:8; Mt 10:28; Lu 12:4, 5). Only Christ can do that. There is no question that He is our Judge (Mt 25:32; Joh 5:22; Ac 10:42; 17:31; Ro 2:16; 14:10; 1Co 4:5; 2Ti 4:1; 1Pe 4:5). He has the power to condemn the soul but He is the very one who did not come "into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved" (Joh 3:17). It is not His desire or intent to arbitrarily or dictatorially condemn anyone to hell. On the contrary, since He came to save, He intends to do just that. His work as intercessor is performed for that very reason.

It is Christ who died [is it, Christ Jesus, that died, has died]. [ 199 ] Because of the construction of the following sentence, I take this phrase as a question, "Is it Christ who died?" That He is on our side is clear. Our judge is the very one who died that we might be saved! He is not out with a vengeance to condemn His saints. It is not His will that any be lost. His aversion to arbitrary condemnation is shown by His willingness to suffer and die for us.

There is therefore now no condemnation to those who are in Christ Jesus, who do not walk according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit (Ro 8:1).
And furthermore [yes, yea rather, or rather, but rather].[ 200 ] This phrase lends great emphasis to the resurrection of Christ. If He was not raised, the rest of the gospel story does not matter. If He was raised, it was easy for the early Christians (and us) to accept all the other miracles and the entire gospel message.
Is also risen [who was, that was, that is, has been, raised up, also, raised from the dead, risen again].[ 201 ] The bodily resurrection of Christ is the king-pin of the gospel. It was universally preached by the apostles (Ac 2:24, 30-32; 3:15; 5:30, 31; 10:40, 41; 13:39, 33-41; 17:31).

Who is even at the right hand of God [and who is, who is also, at the right hand of God].[ 202 ] The Father made a promise to Christ that he would sit at His right hand.

The LORD said to my Lord, "Sit at My right hand, till I make Your enemies Your footstool" (Ps 110:1).

The "right hand" is figurative (consider carefully Re 3:21). It indicates that, subsequent to His resurrection, the reign of Christ is universal over the church and over all things (Eph 1:20-23). He is reigning with the power of Deity (compare Mt 28:18; Mk 16:19; 1Ti 6:14-16; Re 11:15; 17:14; 19:16).

Who also makes intercession for us [who, indeed, intercedes, maketh intercession, for us].[ 203 ] Still another reason for hope is the intercession of Christ on our behalf. We do not expect the one who pleads for us to turn against us. If He intercedes, how can He consistently follow up with condemnation?


    (Ro 8:34)

    1. Eagerly waiting for the adoption, the redemption of our body (Ro 8:23).
    2. The Spirit Himself makes intercession for us
    (Ro 8:26, 27).
    3. All things work together for good to those who love God (Ro 8:28).


    (Ro 8:34)

    1. Foreknown, predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son (Ro 8:29).
    2. He who did not spare His own Son (Ro 8:32).
    3. Christ also makes intercession for us (Ro 8:34).
    4. The inseparable love of Christ (Ro 8:35).
    5. More than conquerors (Ro 8:37).


8:35 Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?

Who shall separate us?].[ 204 ] "Who" is used figuratively for the actions that enemies inflict on the saints. None of the troubles mentioned can come between Christ and His love for Christians.

From the love of Christ.[ 205 ] The Greek plainly shows this is Christ's love for us, not our love for Him. However, "We love Him because He first loved us" (1Jo 4:19). Christians abide His love by keeping His commandments (Joh 15:10).



    (Ro 8:35)

    1. Greater love has no one than this, than to lay down one's life for his friends (Joh 15:13).
    2. While we were still sinners, Christ died for us
    (Ro 5:8).
    3. For the love of Christ compels us (2Co 5:14).
    4. Loved me and gave Himself for me (Ga 2:20).
    5. By this we know love, because He laid down His
    life for us (1Jo 3:16).

Shall tribulation [tribulation, shall trouble?].[ 206 ] "Tribulation" may take the form of sickness, famine, terrorism, war or persecution. Paul begins a list of troubles that perplexed Christians in the early centuries (for a discussion of Paul's trials, see notes on 2 Co 4:8-12; 11:23-28).

Or distress [or anguish].[ 207 ] Anguish may be due to hardship, outward circumstances or to the excruciating consequences of sin[ 208 ] (see Ps 38:18).

Or persecution.[ 209 ] Those truly converted are strengthened during persecution (Lu 6:22; 1Pe 4:14). However, a new convert who has "no root in himself" might be influenced to stumble in time of tribulation and persecution (Mt 13:21). No doubt, Paul was thinking of the past when he persecuted the church, as well as later when he himself suffered as a persecuted Christian (see Ac 8:1; 9:1, 2, 13, 21; 22:14; 26:10, 11).

Or famine [or hunger].[ 210 ] David's recognition of God's providence (Ps 37:25) and the promise of Christ in Matthew 6:33 that "All these things shall be added to you" are not to be taken as an all-inclusive guarantee against hunger. Some of God's faithful saints have actually been "destitute" (Heb 11:37). There was a critical need for food in Jerusalem when Paul wrote the Roman letter. He had already gathered much of great contribution for the poor saints but had not yet delivered it to Jerusalem (see Ac 24:17; Ro 15:25-28; 1Co 16:1, 2; 2Co 8:1-4; 9:1, 2, 12).

Or nakedness.[ 211 ] At times, Paul suffered the privation of insufficient clothing (see notes on 2Co 11:27; 2Ti 4:13).

Or peril [or danger].[ 212 ] Paul and others were often in jeopardy of being falsely charged, jailed, beaten or even killed (see note on 2Co 11:26).

Or sword.[ 213 ] Many Christians suffered from the hands of the state. The sword was a metaphor for official punishment (see Ro 13:4). Paul would eventually die by the literal sword of a Roman soldier (see notes on 2Ti 4:4-8).


8:36 As it is written: "For Your sake we are killed all day long; we are accounted as sheep for the slaughter."

As it is written [according as, even as, it is written]. [ 214 ] The verse quoted is from a contemplation of the sons of Korah.

But for Thy sake we are killed all day long; we are considered as sheep to be slaughtered (Ps 44:22).

Since persecution was foretold by prophecy, Christians have become resigned to it. Even so, they may have depression and doubts. Paul gives them assurance.

For Your sake [for thy sake].[ 215 ] The quotation from the Psalms may refer first to troubles during the Babylonian captivity. At that time, the Jews were persecuted because of their religion (compare Ps 137:1, 2). Psalm 44 voices a plea to God on their behalf. Likewise, in the early centuries, Christians were persecuted and killed for their faith. In substance their cry was, "We are suffering for You, Lord. Will You not do something about it?" (compare Ps 42:9; Re 6:10).

We are killed all day long [we are being killed, to death, all the day, all the day long]. [ 216 ] David said:

Those also who seek my life lay snares for me; those who seek my hurt speak of destruction, and plan deception all the day long (Ps 38:12).

"All day long" alludes to something expected, usually protracted. It was expected that Christians would be persecuted and killed on a regular basis.

We are accounted as sheep [we were, we have been, reckoned, regarded, considered, as sheep].[ 217 ] In Jewish sacrifices many hundreds of sheep were slaughtered (see Ex 29:38-42; Le 12:6; 14:10-18; Nu 28:9, 11, 16, 19, 26, 27; 29:1, 2; 7, 8, 13-36). For example, Passover lambs were selected on the tenth day of the month for sacrifice on the fourteenth (Ex 12:3). Christ was led as a lamb to the slaughter (Isa 53:7). Like Him, some of the early Christians were to suffer martyrdom. There was no more pity for them than for slaughtered sheep.

For the slaughter [for slaughter, to be slaughtered, killed]. [ 218 ] Christians certainly are not promised divine protection from all persecution. However, they are given encouragement and strength to endure it (see 1Pe 4:11-14).


8:37 Yet in all these things we are more than conquerors through Him who loved us.

Yet in all these things [no, nay, but, in all these things]. [ 219 ] None of the tragic events mentioned in verse 35 destroyed the faith of true Christians. They were given strength as they kept in mind the great love of their Savior who had suffered so much for them (see 1Pe 4:14).

We are more than conquerors [we win overwhelmingly, more than conquer].
[ 220 ] Even in martyrdom, Christians are surpassingly victorious. Suffering for Christ never brings guilt or shame but calls forth victorious praise to God (1Pe 4:16; compare Lu 6:23; 2Co 2:14; 1Jo 2:13; 4:4; 5:4, 5). Joe Louis was heavyweight champion for a number of years. In order to keep his title, he had to fight again and again. Finally, he lost it. Through Christ, the Christian conquers eternally. No one can take the crown of a faithful Christian (see Re 3:11, 20; compare Joh 10:28).

Through Him who loved us [through him that loved, has loved, us].[ 221 ] The love Christ has for us was mentioned in verse 35. However, the present verse alludes to God's continuing love (implied by verses 38, 39).


8:38, 39 For I am persuaded that neither death nor life, nor angels nor principalities nor powers, nor things present nor things to come, 39 nor height nor depth, nor any other created thing, shall be able to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.

For I am persuaded [for I am sure, convinced].[ 222 ] Paul indicates his firm belief in what he is saying (compare Ro 14:14; 2Ti 1:12).

That neither death nor life.[ 223 ] A list of opposites that cover a range of difficult circumstances and troubles begins here. None of them can push the Christian outside the sphere of God's love. Even execution or terminal disease will not separate them from it.

Nor angels nor principalities [nor angels, nor rulers].[ 224 ] The expressions "principalities" and "powers" were applied in Jewish theology to divisions of the hierarchy of angels and as such were familiar to Paul's readers (compare Eph 1:21; Col 1:16).[ 225 ]

Nor powers [nor any powers].[ 226 ] Arndt, Thayer and others view the "powers" as hostile spirits or apostate angels. My thought is that they may have been the authorities such as the ruling Jews, the Romans and others who were doing the persecuting (see Lu 12:11; Ro 13:1).

Nor things present.[ 227 ] "Things present" allude to troubles that were affecting Christians at that very time. Paul writes about not being separated from Christ's love for us. However, "things present" might have caused the love for Christ in some to "grow cold" or "wax cold" (Mt 24:12). With so much dishonesty in society, so many portrayals of sin, so much immorality and so much false teaching, it is no wonder that some today respond in a negative manner to "things present" and separate themselves from Christ.

Nor things to come [nor things to come].[ 228 ] In these eloquent remarks, Paul does not even allude to things past. They have already been forgiven, forgotten or overcome. However, more persecution loomed on the horizon.

[8:39] Nor height nor depth.[ 229 ] The highest officer or the lowest soldier could not destroy Christ's loving care for His own. Neither could any demonic power, regardless of its rank.

Nor any other created thing [nor anything else in all creation, nor any other creature].[ 230 ] This includes anything else in the entire created universe that might be unforeseen. Nothing whatsoever can separate from the love of Christ.


    (Ro 8:39)

    1. Alive to God in Christ Jesus our Lord (Ro 6:11, 23).
    2. No condemnation (Ro 8:1).
    3. Love (Ro 8:39).
    4. Grace (1Co 1:4).
    5. Freedom (Ga 2:4).

Shall be able to separate us [can, will be able to, separate us].[ 231 ] This is parallel to Christ's statement that "Neither shall anyone snatch them out of My hand" (Joh 10:28). It is possible that a Christian may "draw back" or "shrink back to perdition or destruction (Heb 10:39) and fall from grace (Ga 5:4; Heb 12:15; 2Pe 3:17, 18) but no external force can separate a Christians from the love that God has for them.

From the love of God.[ 232 ] The love God has for His children is constant, true and permanent. Only the child of God himself can lose it (compare Joh 15:10; Jude 21).

O Love that wilt not let me go,
I rest my weary soul in Thee;
I give Thee back the life I owe,
That in Thine ocean depths its flow
May richer, fuller be.
Albert L. Peace

Which is in Christ Jesus our Lord [in Christ Jesus our Lord].[ 233 ] God's love for men and women is designated as being "in Christ." Of course, God loves sinners, but there is something special about His love for His own children. His love is active. He not only loved the world in the past and gave His Son in the past but He loves now and will continue to do so.

There is a great encouragement in Paul's beautiful language in these concluding verses. Christians should never be faint, downhearted or discouraged. Persecution should never cause gloom or depression. Despondency has no place in their hearts. Thomas Moore, no doubt, had verses such as these in mind when he wrote:

Come, ye disconsolate, wher-e'er ye languish;
Come at the mercy-seat fervently kneel;
Here bring your wounded hearts,
Here tell your anguish;
Earth has no sorrow that heaven cannot heal.


[ 1 ]The basic text in this chapter is the NKJV. Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright 1979, 1980, 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. Alternate phrases in brackets are from ASV, Darby, ESB, KJV and RSV and occasionally another version. Greek transliteration approximates the BibleSoft method.
[ 2 ]NU-Text omits the rest of this verse.
[ 3 ]OUDEN ARA NUN KATAKRIMA, no then [there is] now condemnation (Marshall 625); [no] sentence of condemnation (Vincent 3.85); God's condemnation of sin is set forth in Christ, His own Son, sent by Him to partake of human nature [sin apart] and to become an offering for sin, died under the judgment due to our sin (Vine 214); there is no doom for those who are in Christ Jesus (Arndt 412); so then there is no condemnation at all (Williams); accordingly, now, not one condemnation (Lenski 493); no not one condemnation (Lenski 493); so then there is now condemnation at all (Williams).
[ 4 ]TOIS EN CHRISTOO 'IEESOU, to the [ones] in Christ Jesus (Marshall 625); engrafted as it were in Christ, in fellowship and union with Christ, with the Lord . . . most intimately united with him (Thayer 211); for those in Christ Jesus (Lenski 493); for those who are in union with Christ Jesus (Williams).
[ 5 ]Compare Littrell, NEB footnote.
[ 6 ]MEE KATA SARKA PERIPATOUSIN ALLA KATA PNEUMA [Received Text], not walking according to the flesh but according to the Spirit; with an accusative of the person or thing furnishing the standard of living (Thayer 504); PERIPATOUSIN is the present active participle, dative plural masculine of PERIPATEOO (Han 305); see KJV, NKJV; note on verse 4.
[ 7 ]Ellicott 233.
[ 8 ]HO GAR NOMOS TOU PNEUMATOS TEES ZOOEES, for the law of the spirit of life (Marshall 625); the law, the regulative principle; the Spirit, the divine Spirit who inspires the law [compare Ro 7:14]. Of life, proceeding from the life of Jesus and producing and imparting life (Vincent 3.85); the animating principle by which the Holy Spirit acts as the Imparter of life [compare Joh 6:63] (Vine 645); the impulse to right action emanating from the Spirit (Thayer 427); the law of the spirit of life (Arndt 543); for the law of the Spirit of the life (Lenski 493).
[ 9 ]EN CHRISTOO 'IEESOU, in Christ Jesus (Marshall 625; Lenski 493); construe with hath made me free, Vincent 3.85; in Christ Jesus (Arndt 543; Ellicott 234); through union with Christ Jesus (Williams).
[ 10 ]EELEUTHEROOSEN SE, freed thee (Marshall 625); EELEUTHEROOSEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of ELEUTHEROOO (Han 305); made free, used of deliverance from the Law (Vine 461); free from, that is, no longer under obligation to, so that one may now do what was formerly forbidden by the person or thing to which he was bound (Thayer 204; Arndt 251); liberated me (Lenski 493); has set us free (Williams).
[ 11 ]APO TOU NOMOU TEES HAMARTIAS KAI TOU THANATON, from the law of sin and of death (Marshall 625); death being the effect (Vine 645); [the law] emanating from the power of death (Thayer 427); the dictate of sin or an impulse proceeding from it (Thayer 31; Arndt 542); from the law of the sin and of the death (Lenski 493); from the power of sin and death (Williams).
[ 12 ]TO GAR ADUNATON TOU NOMOU, for the impossible thing of the law (Marshall 625); impossible, what the law could not do (Thayer 12); literally, the impossible [thing] of the law. An absolute nominative in apposition with the divine act--condemned sin. God condemned sin, which condemnation was an impossible thing on the part of the law (Vincent 3.85); literally, "the inability [ADUNATON, the neuter of the adjective ADUNATOS unable, used as a noun] of the Law;" this may mean either "the weakness of the Law" or "that which was impossible for the Law;" the latter is preferable; the significance is the same in effect; the Law could neither give freedom from condemnation nor impart life (Vine 645); what was impossible for the law, the Mosaic law, almost synonymous with the Jewish religion (Arndt 19, 542); for the thing impossible for the law (Lenski 493); for though the law could not do it (Williams).
[ 13 ]EN HOO EESTHENEI DIA TEES SARKOS, in which it was weak through the flesh (Marshall 625); EESTHENEI is third person singular, imperfect active indicative of ASTHENEOO (Han 305); lacking strength, [through] the weaker element in human nature (Vine 438, 1216); EN HOO is equivalent to EN TOUTO HOTI [in that], since (Thayer 212); because it was weakened (Arndt 115); in that it was weak by means of the flesh (Lenski 493).
[ 14 ]NIV.
[ 15 ]HO THEOS TON HEAUTOU HUION PEMPSAS, God the of himself Son sending (Marshall 625); PEMPSAS is the first aorist active participle, nominative singular masculine of PEMPOO (Han 305); sending of Christ by the Father (Vine 1015); literally, "flesh of sin," the flesh stands for the body, the instrument of indwelling sin (Vine 1045); this God effected by [Jesus] who came forward by God's command and with his authority (Thayer 499); God [has done] (Arndt 19); God, by sending his own Son (Lenski 493); yet God by sending His own Son (Williams; see John 4:34; 5:23, 30, 37; 6:38-40, 44; 7:16, 28).
[ 16 ]EN HOMOIOOMATI SARKOS HAMARTIAS, in likeness of flesh of sin (Marshall 625); literally, of the flesh of sin . . . really human, conformed in appearance to the flesh whose characteristic is sin, yet sinless (Vincent 3.85); which is made like something, a resemblance (Vine 674); Christ preexistently the Son of God, assumed human flesh, "of the substance of the Virgin Mary; "the reality of his incarnation was His, without taint of sin (Vine 1045); that which is made like something, a resemblance (Vine 674); likeness, that is, resemblance [inasmuch as appears in an image or figure], frequently such as amounts well-nigh to equality or identity, "note that 'flesh' signifies the entire nature of man, sense and reason, without the Holy Spirit" [Melanchton, Corpus Reform 21.277] (Thayer 445, 571); of Christ's own physical nature, [in the likeness of] sinful flesh (Arndt 743, 744); in likeness of sin's flesh (Lenski 493).
[ 17 ]Eleven times in the book of Romans the NIV inappropriately renders the Greek for "flesh" as "sinful nature."
[ 18 ]The Y-chromosome is that which is responsible for maleness in humans. A girl has XX-chromosomes whereas a boy has XY. Calvinists and others who hold that "original sin" was passed on always talk about "Adam's sin." According to the false theory, Eve's sin must not have attached itself to any chromosome at all.
[ 19 ]Whiteside 169.
[ 20 ]KAI PERI HAMARTIAS, and concerning sin (Marshall 625); the preposition expresses the whole relation of the mission of Christ to sin. The special relation is stated in condemned. For sin--to atone, to destroy, to save and sanctify its victims (Vincent 3.86); that is, Christ, having taken human nature, sin apart [Heb 4:15], and having lived a sinless life, died under the condemnation and judgment due to our sin (Vine 1045); when used with HAMARTIA [sin], the word "for" has the sense to take away, to atone for (Arndt 644); to break the power of sin (Thayer 30); and in regard to sin (Lenski 493); and as a sacrifice for sin [use of phrase in Septuagint] (Williams).
[ 21 ]KATEKRINEN TEEN HAMARTIAN EN TEE SARKI, condemned sin in the flesh (Marshall 625); KATEKRINEN is third person singular, first aorist passive subjunctive of PLEEROOO (Han 305); he has passed judgment against sin, a thing impossible to the law, which could pronounce judgment and inflict penalty, but not dethrone (Vincent 3.86); God's condemnation of sin is set forth in that Christ, His own Son, sent by him to partake of human nature [sin apart] and to become "an offering for sin, died under the judgment due to our sin (Vine 214); that is, through his Son, who partook of human nature but was without sin, God deprived sin [which is the ground of the KATAKRIMA [condemnation] of its power in human nature [looked at in general], broke its deadly sway, [just as the condemnation and punishment of wicked men puts an end to their power to injure or to do harm (Thayer 332); God has pronounced his sentence on sin in the flesh (Arndt 412); condemned the sin in the flesh (Lenski 493); passed sentence upon sin through His body (Williams).
[ 22 ]NIV.
[ 23 ]HINA TO DIKAIOOMA TOU NOMOU, in order that the ordinance of the law (Marshall 625); DIKAIOOMA ordinance is singular; primarily that which is deemed right, so as to have the force of law; hence, an ordinance (Vincent 3.86); that is, collectively, the precepts of the Law, all that it demands as right (Vine 614); collectively, of the [moral] precepts of the same [Mosaic] law (Vine 614); fulfill the requirement of the law (Arndt 542); in order that the righteous requirement of the law (Lenski 493); so that the requirement of the law (Williams).
[ 24 ]PLEEROPTHEE EN HEEMIN, may be fulfilled in us (Marshall 625; Lenski 493); PLEEROPTHEE is the present active participle, dative plural masculine of PERIPATEOO (Han 305); carried into effect, brought into realization, realized, of matters of duty, performed, executed (Thayer 518; Arndt 671); might be fully met in us (Williams).
[ 25 ]TOIS MEE KATA SARKA PERIPATOUSIN, the ones not according to flesh walking (Marshall 625); PERIPATOUSIN is the present active participle, dative plural masculine of PERIPATEOO (Han 305); flesh is contrasted with spirit (Vine 438); regulate one's life, with an accusative of the person or thing furnishing the standard of living (Thayer 504); according to the flesh, on the physical level (Arndt 649); as those walking not according to the flesh (Lenski 493).
[ 26 ]NIV.
[ 27 ]NEB.
[ 28 ]ALLA KATA PNEUMA, but according to spirit (Marshall 625; Lenski 493); [from PNEOO to breathe or blow] (Vincent 3.86); the new life, Vine 1075; without the article, in contrast to SARX [flesh] (Arndt 677); but by the standard set by the Spirit (Williams).
[ 29 ]HOI GAR KATA SARKA ONTES, for the [ones] according to flesh being (Marshall 625); ONTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of EIMI (Han 305); wider in meaning than walk, which expresses the manifestation of condition expressed by are (Vincent 3.90); Paul uses the phrase with designed ambiguity in order to involve also the ethical sense, "to be in the power of the flesh," to be prompted or governed by the flesh, who exhibit the nature of the flesh, which is HOI SARKIKOI [opposite to HOI KATA PNEUMA ONTES, to be in the power of the flesh, under the control of the flesh; pursue those things which gratify the flesh (Thayer 570, 571, 658); for those who are according to flesh (Lenski 504).
[ 30 ]NIV, NEB and others.
[ 31 ]TA TEES SARKOS PHRONOUSIN, the things of the flesh mind (Marshall 625); the verb means primarily to have understanding . . . [here] to direct the mind to something, and so to seek or strive for . . . The object of their thinking and striving is fleshly (Vincent 3.90); think, be minded in a certain way, do mind the things of the flesh (Vine 742); the things which please the flesh, which the flesh craves (Thayer 571); mi d the things of the flesh (Lenski 504).
[ 32 ]Gifford 63.
[ 33 ]HOI DE KATA PNEUMA, but the [ones] according to spirit (Marshall 625); those who bear the nature of the Spirit [that is, HOI PNEUMATIKOI [those who are spiritual] (Thayer 522); pursue those things which [please] the Holy Spirit (Thayer 658); but those according to spirit (Lenski 504).
[ 34 ]TA TOU PNEUMATOS, the things of the Spirit (Marshall 626; Lenski 504); in contrast with SARX [flesh], which is more closely connected with sin than any earthly material (Arndt 677); those who bear the nature of the Spirit (Thayer 522); the things suggested by the Spirit (Williams).
[ 35 ]TO GAR PHRONEEMA TEES SARKOS, for the mind of the flesh (Marshall 626); literally, the mind of the flesh. Fleshly thinking and striving (Vincent 3.90); what one has in the mind, the thought [the content of the process expressed on PHRONEOO, to have in mind, to think]; or an object of thought (Vine 742); opposed to TO PNEUMA [TOU THEOU] [the Spirit of God], to pursue those things which gratify the flesh, human nature left to itself without the controlling influence of God's Spirit, subject to error, sin (Thayer 522, 571, 658); with subjective genitive, striving for, desire for (Arndt 866); for what is minded of the flesh (Lenski 504); see verse 27.
[ 36 ]THANATOS, [is] death (Marshall 626); of spiritual death, to which everyone is subject, unless he has been called to the life of grace (Arndt 351); all the miseries arising from sin, as well as physical death, as the loss of a life consecrated to God and blessed in him on earth . . . to be followed by wretchedness in the lower world (Thayer 283); death (Lenski 504).
[ 37 ]TO DE PHRONEEMA TOU PNEUMATOS, but the mind of the Spirit (Marshall 626); to be spiritually minded (Vincent 3.90); striving for, desire for (Arndt 866); what one has in mind, the thoughts and purposes (Thayer 658); but what is minded of the spirit (Lenski 504); see verse 27.
[ 38 ]ZOOEE KAI EIREENEE, life and peace (Marshall 626; Lenski 504); the sense of rest and contentment consequent [upon] the harmonized relationship between God and man accomplished through the gospel (Vine 842); of the life of grace and holiness, nearly synonymous with Messianic salvation (Arndt 227, 340); life real and genuine . . . active and vigorous devoted to God, blessed, the portion even in this world of those who put their trust in Christ, but after the resurrection to be consummated by new accessions [among them a perfect body], and to last forever, [and] the tranquil state of a soul assured of its salvation through Christ, and so fearing nothing from God and content with its earthly lot, of whatever sort that is (Thayer 182, 273); means life and peace (Williams).
[ 39 ]Compare the KJV and NKJV; Isa 52:7 which includes the phrase who proclaims peace.
[ 40 ]DIOTI TO PHRONEEMA TEES SARKOS, wherefore the mind of the flesh (Marshall 626); what one has in mind, the thoughts and purposes [of the flesh] (Thayer 658); because what is minded of the flesh (Lenski 504).
[ 41 ]ECHTHRA EIS THEON, [is] enmity against God (Marshall (626); [from the adjective ECHTHROS hated, hateful, hostile], enmity toward God (Arndt 311); at enmity with God by sin (Thayer 265); is enmity toward God (Lenski 504); means enmity to God (Williams).
[ 42 ]GAR OUCH HUPOTASSETAI, for it is not subject (Marshall 626); HUPOTASSETAI is third person singular, present middle indicative of HUPOTASSO (Han 305); originally to arrange under. Possibly with a shade of military meaning suggested by enmity. It is marshalled under a hostile banner (Vincent 3.90); [not] to subject oneself, to obey, be subject to (Vine 1099); [not] subject, subjected or subordinated [obey] (Arndt 848); [does not] yield to [its] admonition or advice (Thayer 645); for it does not subject itself (Lenski 504); for it does not subject itself (Williams).
[ 43 ]The particular fall alluded to is when Jerusalem was defeated by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BC.
[ 44 ]TOO NOMOO TOU THEOU, to the law of God (Marshall 626; Lenski 504); the Mosaic Law (Vine 644); because it was given by God and accords with his will (Arndt 542); the will of God (Arndt 848); the observance of the law (Thayer 428); to God's law (Williams).
[ 45 ]In the OT period, a mind set on the flesh was just as hostile toward God as now.
[ 46 ]OUDE GAR DUNATAI, neither indeed can it (Marshall 626); DUNATAI is third person singular, present middle indicative of DUNAMA (Han 306); not able (Arndt 207); neither indeed is it able (Lenski 504); nor indeed can it (Williams).
[ 47 ]HOI DE EN SARKI ONTES, and the [ones] in flesh being (Marshall 626); ONTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of EIMI (Han 306); in the power of the flesh, under the control of the flesh (Thayer 571); the unregenerate state of men (Vine 438); in the power of the flesh, under the control of the flesh (Thayer 571); now those who are in flesh (Lenski 504).
[ 48 ]This false view is expressed by R. C. Sproul (page 5): "Only God can convert the sinner. No amount of rational argument, cogent evidence, or forceful persuasion can change the heart of the unbeliever unless that sinner is first regenerated by God the Holy Spirit."
[ 49 ]THEOO ARESAI OU DUNANTAI, God to please cannot (Marshall 626); ARESAI is the first aorist active infinitive of ARESKOO; DUNANTAI is third person plural, present passive indicative of DUNAMAI (Han 306); [cannot] please (Thayer 72); of pleasure caused by persons [to God] (Arndt 105); [cannot] be well-pleasing to, be acceptable to (Vine 860); [cannot] please God [without the article] (Thayer 72, 287); are not able to please God (Lenski 504).
[ 50 ]"The matter of total depravity is a very ugly concept, and it is this doctrine that divides the church as no other teaching concerning salvation" (Harold Camping, God's Magnificent Salvation Plan, Family Stations, Inc., 1981, page 14).
[ 51 ]HUMEIS DE OUK ESTE EN SARKI, ye but are not in flesh (Marshall 626); ESTE is second person plural, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 306); opposite PSUCHEE [soul], [not] under the domination of the old self (Arndt 260, 744); the unregenerate state of men (Vine 438); now ye live not to the flesh (Macknight 97); but you are not in flesh (Lenski 509).
[ 52 ]ALLA EN PNEUMATI, but in Spirit (Marshall 626); under the impulsion of the spirit (Arndt 260); in contrast to SARX [flesh] which is more closely connected with sin than any other earthly material (Arndt 677); under the power of the Spirit, guided by the Spirit (Thayer 522); but in spirit (Lenski 509).
[ 53 ]EIPER PNEUMA THEOU OIKEI EN HUMIN, since [the] Spirit of God dwells in you (Marshall 626); OIKEI is third person singular, present active indicative of OIKEOO (Han 306); the reality of the condition is taken for granted, if indeed, if after all, since, without the article, the Son of God, which dwells in a person (Arndt 219, 220, 557, 676); the Spirit of God, the Holy Spirit (Vine 1076), the Spirit of God, fixed and operative in one's soul (Thayer 209, 439); if, indeed, God's Spirit dwells in you (Lenski 509); in your midst [from EN in]. When its object is plural as here with, among, in the midst (Littrell). Jesus (the Word) "dwelt EN among us" (Joh 1:14).
[ 54 ]EI DE TIS PNEUMA CHRISTOU OUK ECHEI, if but anyone [the] Spirit of Christ has not (Marshall 626); ECHEI is third person singular, present active indicative of ECHOO (Han 306); the Spirit of Christ, of the Lord (Arndt 676); Spirit of Christ, the Holy Spirit (Vine 1076); have, hold . . . of opportunities, benefits, advantages, conveniences, which one enjoys and can make use of: PNEUMA CHRISTOU [Spirit of Christ] (Thayer 267); ECHEI signifies to hold fast, retain, possess (Macknight 97); but if anyone has not Christ's Spirit (Lenski 509); unless a man has the Spirit of Christ (Williams).
[ 55 ]Albert Barnes 4.175.
[ 56 ]HOUTOS OUK ESTIN AUTOU, this one is not of him (Marshall 626); ESTIN is third person singular, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 306); he is not his (Lenski 509); he does not belong to Him (Williams).
[ 57 ]EI DE CHRISTOS EN HUMIN, but if Christ [is] in you (Marshall 626; Lenski 509); without the article, the One who by His Holy Spirit and power indwells believers and molds their character in conformity to His likeness (Vine 182); the mind, power, life of Christ (Thayer 209); but if Christ lives [Greek if Christ is in you] (Williams); with [from EN in]. When its object is plural as here: with, among, in the midst (Littrell).
[ 58 ]Foy E. Wallace, Jr. 70.
[ 59 ]TO MEN SOOMA NEKRON DIA HAMARTIAN, the one hand body [is] dead because of sin (Marshall 626); the believer's natural body (Vincent 3.90); of the believer, in whom Christ lives . . . the body [of SARX flesh and sin] is dead (Arndt 535); the body [is] dead because of sin (Lenski 509); the body of the believer in contrast to his spirit (Vine 265); your bodies must die because of sin (Williams); hyperbolically and proleptically, which is, as if already dead, sure to die, destined inevitably to die (Thayer 423). "Hyperbolically" means something is exaggerated. "Proleptically" means it is futuristic or predictive.
[ 60 ]TO DE PNEUMA ZOOEE DIA DIKAIOSUNEEN, the on the other spirit [is] life because of righteousness (Marshall 626); the believer's natural spirit (Vincent 3.90); the Spirit stands with Christ as the power of life (Arndt 340); the new life (Vine 1075); but the [is] life because of righteousness (Lenski 509); real life and genuine, Thayer 273; your spirits are now enjoying life (Williams 343).
[ 61 ]Some have proposed that the Holy Spirit is life-giving because of Christ's righteous act of redemption. Others see a possible allusion to the Spirit as an earnest or pledge (see notes on 2Co 1:22; Eph 1:13, 14). By "life" does Paul mean "life-triumphant over death," a meaning hinted at by the context? (see Conybeare 562).
[ 62 ]EI DE TO PNEUMA TOU, but if the Spirit of the [one] (Marshall 626); [but if] the Spirit of God, of the Lord (Arndt 676); the Spirit of him [that is, God], Vine 1076; [the Spirit] of God, of Christ (Thayer 209); moreover, if the Spirit of him (Lenski 509); if the Spirit of Him (Williams).
[ 63 ]TOU EGEIRANTOS 'IEESOUN EK NEKROON, of the [one] having raised Jesus from [the] dead (Marshall 626); EGEIRANTOS is the first aorist active participle, genitive plural masculine of EGEIROO (Han 306); raised, risen, helped to rise . . . mostly of Jesus' resurrection, Arndt 214, 535; of raising the dead, of the resurrection of Christ (Vine 917); aroused from the sleep of death, recalled the dead to life, from the company of the dead (Thayer 165); who raised up Jesus from the dead (Lenski 509); who raised Christ Jesus from the dead (Williams).
[ 64 ]OIKEI EN HUMIN, dwells in you (Marshall 626; Lenski 509); OIKEI is third person singular, present active indicative of OIKEOO (Han 306); of the Spirit of God, which dwells in a person (Arndt 557); of the indwelling of the Spirit of God in the believer (Vine 337); with dative of a person, in the person, nature, soul, thought of anyone (Thayer 209).
[ 65 ]HO EGEIRAS EK NEKROON CHRISTON 'IEESOUN, the [one] having raised from [the] dead Christ Jesus (Marshall 626); EGEIRAS is the first aorist active participle, nominative singular masculine of EGEIROO (Han 306); of Jesus' resurrection (Arndt 214); he that raised up Jesus from the dead (Lenski 509); He who raised Christ Jesus from the dead (Williams).
[ 66 ]ZOOOPOIEESEI KAI, will quicken also (Marshall 626); ZOOOPOIEESEI is third person singular, future active indicative of ZOOOPOIEOO (Han 306); literally, of God who gives life to all things (Arndt 341); of the "changing" or "fashioning anew," of the bodies of the living, which correspond with, and takes place at the same time as, the resurrection of the dead in Christ (Vine 668); of the dead, re-animate, restore to life (Thayer 274); will make alive also (Lenski 509); will also give your mortal bodies life (Williams).
[ 67 ]Calvinists insist that the direct operation of the Holy Spirit is necessary for anyone to do any good thing such as hear the gospel, believe it or repent of sins (see note on And those who are in the flesh, verse 8).
[ 68 ]Critics of this view ask whether the Spirit stays in the dust and/or bones with His resurrection power? This objection carries little weight because it is not necessary for the Spirit to literally indwell everyone's bodily remains in order to raise them (see Joh 5:28, 29; Ac 24:15). They may be thinking of the OT story of Elijah. "And as they were burying a man, behold, they saw a marauding band; and they cast the man into the grave of Elisha. And when the man touched the bones of Elisha he revived and stood up on his feet" (2Ki 13:21).
[ 69 ]TA THNEETA SOOMATA HUMOON, the mortal bodies of you (Marshall 626); man's mortal body, because it is subject to sin and death (Arndt 362; 799); the stress is on the liability to death, and the quickening is not reinvigoration but the impartation of life at the time of the Rapture (Vine 756); your mortal bodies (Lenski 509; Williams).
[ 70 ]Some think this refers to serving with the body presented as a living sacrifice (Ro 12:1, 2).
[ 71 ]DIA TOU ENOIKOUNTOS AUTOU PNEUMATOS EN HUMIN, through the indwelling of him Spirit in you (Marshall 626); ENOIKOUNTOS is the present active participle, genitive singular neuter of ENOIKEOO (Han 306); of the Holy Spirit which indwells in men, Arndt 267; the indwelling of the Holy Spirit (Vine 337); everywhere metaphorically, dwell in one and influence him [for good] . . . in a person's soul, of the Holy Spirit (Thayer 217); because of his Spirit who dwells in you (Lenski 509); dwells in your midst [from EN in]. When its object is plural as here with, among, in the midst (Littrell).
[ 72 ]ARA OUN, ADELPHOI, so then, brothers (Marshall 626); there is no doubt that ADELPHOI is equivalent to brothers and sisters (Arndt 16); accordingly, therefore, brethren (Lenski 515); so, brothers (Williams).
[ 73 ]OPHEILETAI ESMEN, debtors we are (Marshall 626); ESMEN is first person plural, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 306); we are under obligation (Arndt 598); of believers [under obligation] to mortify the deeds of the body (Vine 270); under obligation to do something (Thayer 469); we are debtors (Lenski 515); we are under obligation (Williams).
[ 74 ]OU TEE SARKI, not to the flesh (Marshall 626); but not to the flesh (Arndt 598); not to the flesh (Lenski 515).
[ 75 ]Translators of the NIV rendered this, "but it is not to our sinful nature." Those who translated the NEB, were milder in their error with, "our lower nature." In this one phrase alone, the NIV completely omitted the translation of the important word SARKI flesh. They translated only two of the three Greek words (not and to) and supplied six words from thin air (but, it, is, our, sinful and nature)!
[ 76 ]TOU KATA SARKA ZEEN, according to flesh to live (Marshall 626); ZEEN is the present active infinitive of ZAOO (Han 306); to live according to its demands (Arndt 336, 598); opposite to KATA PNEUMA [according to the Spirit], to live according to the standard of the flesh, to comply in conduct with the impulse of the flesh, according to anything as a standard agreeable to (Thayer 328, 571); to be living according to flesh (Lenski 515).
[ 77 ]EI GAR KATA SARKA ZEETE, if for according to flesh ye live (Marshall 626); ZEETE is second person plural, present active indicative of ZAOO (Han 306); according to the demands of the flesh; flesh is contrasted with spirit, the [evil] course, conduct and character of men (Vine 438, 679); for if you keep living according to flesh (Lenski 515).
[ 78 ]NIV.
[ 79 ]MELLETE APOTHNEESKEIN, ye are about to die (Marshall 626); APOTHNEESKEIN is the present active infinitive of APOTHNEESKOO (Han 306); stronger than the simple future of the verb. It indicates a necessary consequence. So ASV, ye must (Vincent 3.90; of those things [eternal death, as it is called, that is, to be subject to eternal misery, and that, too, already beginning on earth], which we infer from certain preceding events will of necessity follow (Thayer 61, 397); you are about to die (Lenski 515).
[ 80 ]EI DE PNEUMATI, but if by [the] Spirit (Marshall 627); by the power and aid of the Spirit, the Spirit prompting (Thayer 522); but if with [your] spirit (Lenski 515).
[ 81 ]Adam Clarke 6.96.
[ 82 ]David Lipscomb 149.
[ 83 ]THANATOUTE, ye put to death (Marshall 627); THANATOUTE is second person plural, present active indicative of THANATOOO (Han 306); put to death, of the act of the believer in regard to the deeds of the body (Vine 269); make to die, that is, destroy, render extinct [something vigorous] (Thayer 283); you keep putting to death (Harrison 543); you keep mortifying (Lenski 515).
[ 84 ]TAS PRAXEIS TOU SOOMATOS, the practices of the body (Marshall 627); doings, transactions, deeds, the action of which are looked upon as incomplete and in progress [compare PRASSOO to practice] (Vine 175); wicked doings, crimes [compare our practices, that is, trickery] (Thayer 534); the doings of the body (Lenski 515); see 7:15; Joh 3:21.
[ 85 ]ZEESESTHE, ye will live (Marshall 627); second person plural, future middle indicative of ZAOO (Han 306); spiritual life (Vine 678); you shall live (Lenski 515).
[ 86 ]HOSOI GAR PNEUMATI THEOU AGONTAI, for as many as by [the] Spirit of God are led (Marshall 627); AGONTAI is third person plural, present passive indicative of AGOO (Han 306); that is, these and no other, borne, brought, carried, led, of the Spirit of God (Vine 651, 652, 1061); how many, as many as; in Paul's writings, all who are animated by the Spirit of God and thus are closely related to God, those who are governed by the Spirit of God, move, impel, of forces and influences affecting the mind (Thayer 9, 456, 617, 636); figuratively, of the working of the Spirit on man, passive, be led, allow oneself to be led (Arndt 14); for as many as are being led by God's Spirit (Lenski 519).
[ 87 ]HOUTOI HUIOI EISIN THEOU, these sons are of God (Marshall 627); EISIN is third person plural, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 306); there is an implied contrast with the Jewish idea of sonship by physical descent (Vincent 3.91); these [are the Sons of God], that is, these and no other (Vine 1061); [these] repose the same calm and joyful trust in God which children do in their parents (Thayer 636); these are God's sons (Lenski 519).
[ 88 ]This has fueled the imagination and caused some to think the "sons of God" who married daughters of men were angels (compare Ge 6:4). Although the reference is in question, it probably refers to the descendants of Seth (see Ge 4:25).
[ 89 ]OU GAR ELABETE, for ye received not (Marshall 627); ELABETE is second person plural, second aorist active indicative of LAMBANOO (Han 306); for we did not receive (Lenski 519).
[ 90 ]PNEUMA DOULEIAS, a spirit of slavery (Marshall 627; Vincent 3.91; a spirit of slavery); moral qualities and activities, as of bondage, as of a slave (Vine 1075); a spirit of slavery (Arndt 205).
[ 91 ]PALIN EIS PHOBON, again for fear (Marshall 627); again [unto] fear, a fear that shrinks from God's presence (Vine 32); denoting a falling back into a previous state or a return to a previous activity; you have not received a spirit of slavery to cause you to fear (Arndt 606, 863); again unto fear (Lenski 519).
[ 92 ]ALLA ELABETE PNEUMA HUIOTHESIAS, but you received a spirit of adoption (Marshall 627); ELABETE is second person plural, second aorist active indicative of LAMBANOO (Han 306); but you received the Spirit of God, producing the condition of adoption [HUIOTHESIA adoption, from HUIOS son, and THESIS a setting or placing]: the placing one in the position of a son (Vincent 3.91); the Holy Spirit, who given as the firstfruits of all that is to be theirs, produces in them the realization of sonship and the attitude belonging to sons; Spirit of adoption, as of adoption, that is, liberty as of a son (Vine 24, 1075, 1076); the disposition or influence which fills and governs the soul of anyone; the efficient source of any power, affection, emotion, desire, etc., such as belongs to sons (Thayer 523); the Spirit, whom the converts receive, works as PNEUMA HUIOTHESIAS [spirit of adoption or sonship] Ro 8:15 [opposite PNEUMA DOULEIAS, equivalent to such a spirit as is possessed by a slave, not by the son of the house] (Arndt 833); but we did receive a spirit of adoption (Lenski 519); see note on verse 23.
[ 93 ]Merivale; see Ga 4:5; Eph 1:5.
[ 94 ]Harrison 544.
[ 95 ]EN HOO KRAZOMAN, by which we cry (Marshall 627); KRAZOMAN is first person plural, present active indicative of KRAZOO (Han 306); of the appeal of believers to God the Father (Vine 251); cry, that is, call out aloud, speak with a loud voice, of those who offer earnest, importunate, prayers to God (Thayer 358); of prayer, rather fervent than loud (Arndt 448); in which we cry (Lenski 519); of a loud cry or vociferation; expressing deep emotion (Vincent 3.91). Vociferation means to cry out loudly.
[ 96 ]ABBA, Abba (Marshall 627; Lenski 519); Aramaic, secondarily and erroneously equated with the determinate state [status emphaticus: Dalman, Grammar, 90f] and hence translated HO PATER [instead of PATER MOU], father, transliterated ABBA, Aramaic form used in prayer . . . and in the family circle, taken up by Greek-speaking Christians (Arndt 1); a Syrian term to which Paul adds the Greek Father (Vincent 3.91); an Aramaic word. In the Genera [a Rabbinical commentary] . . . slaves were forbidden to address the head of the family by this title (Vine 1); in the Chaldee, emphatic state . . . HO PATERA, a customary title of God in prayer (Thayer 1);
[ 97 ]HO PATEER, Father (Marshall 627; Lenski 519); the Father; God is called the Father of Christians, as those who through Christ have been exalted to a specially close and intimate relation with God, and who no longer dread him as a stern judge of sinners, but revere him as their reconciled and loving Father. This conception, common in the NT epistles, shines forth with especial brightness in Ro 8:15; Ga 4:6 (Thayer 495).
[ 98 ]The publican prayed, HO THEOS HILASTHEETI the God be merciful (Lu 18:13).
[ 99 ]AUTO TO PNEUMA, it[him]self the Spirit (Marshall 627); the rendering "itself" in Ro 8:16, 26 [KJV], due to the Greek gender, is corrected to "Himself" (Vine 1077); the Spirit of God, that is, God's power and agency (Thayer 521); the Spirit [of God] (Arndt 675); the Spirit himself (Lenski 524); the same spirit [from AUTO TO PNEUMA, precisely, the same spirit]. The phrase has been long mistranslated as "The Spirit itself" or "The Spirit himself" (Littrell).
[ 100 ]SUMMARTUREI TOO PNEUMATI HEEMOON, witnesses with the spirit of us (Marshall 627); SUMMARTUREI is third person singular, present active indicative of SUMMARTUREOO (Han 306); this rendering assumes the concurrent testimony of the human spirit with that of the divine Spirit (Vincent 3.92); bears witness with, the new life (Vine 1075, 1238); the rational part of man, the power of perceiving and grasping divine and eternal things, and upon which the Spirit of God exerts an influence, with our spirit already giving its testimony (Thayer 520, 596); bears witness to our very self (Arndt 675); bears witness with our spirits (Williams); testifies together with our spirit (Lenski 524).
[ 101 ]Vine 1132.
[ 102 ]Can the Spirit also bear witness to God that we are His children? I suppose He could do so in his role as intercessor but the Lord already knows His own (Joh 10:14, 27; 1Co 8:3; 2Ti 2:19).
[ 103 ]HOTI ESMEN TEKNA THEOU, that we are children of God (Marshall 627); ESMEN is first person plural, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 306); the difference between believers as "children of God" and as "sons of God" is brought out in Ro 8:14-21. The Spirit bears witness with their spirit that they are "children of God," and, as such, they are His heirs and joint-heirs with Christ. This stresses the fact of their spiritual birth [verses 16, 17]. Therefore their conduct gives evidence of the dignity of their relation and the likeness to His character (Vine 1061); closely related to God (Thayer 617); those adopted by God (Arndt 808); that we are God's children (Lenski 524); that we are God's children (Williams).
[ 104 ]See 1 Peter 3:15.
[ 105 ]EI DE TEKNA, KAI KLEERONOMOI, and if children, also heirs (Marshall 627); if you are children, then (Arndt 219); believers inasmuch as they share in the new order of things to be ushered in at the return of Christ (Vine 542); of Christians, as exalted by faith to the dignity of sons of Abraham, and so of sons of God, and hence to receive the blessings of God's kingdom promised to Abraham (Thayer 349); but if children, also heirs (Lenski 524); and if children, then also heirs (Williams).
[ 106 ]KLEERONOMOI MEN THEOU, heirs on one hand of God (Marshall 627); of God's possessions equivalent to TEES DOXEES [the glory] (Thayer 349); heirs, figurative, of the believers (Arndt 435); God's heirs (Lenski 524).
[ 107 ]SUNKLEERONOMOI DE CHRISTOU, joint heirs on the other of Christ (Marshall 627); Roman law made all children, including adopted ones, equal heritors. Jewish law gave a double-portion to the eldest son (Vincent 3.92); of all believers as prospective participants with Christ in His Glory, as recompense for their participation in His sufferings (Vine 542); fellow-heirs, joint heirs (Thayer 593); followed by genitive of the person with whom one is inheriting . . . fellow-heir[s] with Christ (Arndt 774); and Christ's joint-heirs (Lenski 524); and fellow-heirs with Christ (Williams).
[ 108 ]EIPER, since (Marshall 627); the conditional particularly with the indicative mood assumes the fact. If so be, as is really the case (Vincent 3.92); if indeed, if after all, since (Arndt 220); if on the whole, if only, provided that; is used "of a thing which is assumed to be, but whether rightly or wrongly is left in doubt" (Thayer 172); if you are children, then (Arndt 219); since (Lenski 524); if in reality (Williams).
[ 109 ]SUNPASCHOMEN, we suffer with [him] (Marshall 627); first person plural, present active indicative of SUMPASKOO (Han 306); [SUN with, PASCHOO to suffer], present tense, mere suffering does not fulfill the condition. It is suffering with Christ (Vine 1104); suffer evils [troubles, persecutions] in like manner with one another (Thayer 597); of suffering with Christ (Arndt 779); we suffer with him (Lenski 524); we share His sufferings (Williams).
[ 110 ]HINA KAI SUNDOXASTHOOMEN, in order that also we may be glorified with [him] (Marshall 627); SUNDOXASTHOOMEN is first person plural, first aorist passive subjunctive of SUNDOXAZOO (Han 306); [SUN with, DOXA glory], glorified together (Vine 483); exalted to the same glory to which Christ has been raised (Thayer 602); passive, be glorified with [him], share in [his] glory (Arndt 785); in order that we may also be glorified with him (Lenski 524); so that we may share His glory too (Williams).
[ 111 ]LOGIZOMAI GAR, I reckon For (Marshall 627); LOGIZOMAI is first person singular, present middle indicative of LOGIZOMAI (Han 306); implies reasoning. "I judge after calculation made" [Godet], Vincent 3.92; suppose, judge, deem (Vine 930; Thayer 379); think, believe, be of the opinion (Arndt 476); for I reckon (Lenski 529); for I consider (Williams); see similar expressions in Romans 3:28; 2 Corinthians 11:5; Philippians 3:13.
[ 112 ]HOTI TA PATHEEMATA TOU NUN KAIROU, that the sufferings of the now time [to (present) be compared] (Marshall 627); [PATHOS suffering], afflictions (Vine 30); sufferings, misfortunes, calamities, evils, afflictions (Thayer 472); what we suffer at the present time (Arndt 602); that the sufferings of this present period (Lenski 529); all that we suffer in this present life (Williams).
[ 113 ]HOTI OUK AXIA, that [are] not worthy (Marshall 627); in comparison with, to be compared to (Arndt 710); are not worthy to be compared (Lenski 529); is nothing to be compared with (Williams).
[ 114 ]PROS TEEN MELLOUSAN DOXAN, with the coming glory (Marshall 627); MELLOUSAN is the present active participle, accusative singular feminine of MELLOO (Han 306); PROS [towards] is used of mental direction, in the way of estimation, or comparison, as in the phrase, "[worthy] to be compared," or "[worthy] in comparison with" the salvation and glory that awaits the believer (Vine 209, 964); with present passive infinitive, instead, have in mind, think to, in comparison with (Thayer 543); the glorious condition of blessedness into which it is appointed and promised that true Christians shall enter after their Savior's return from heaven (Thayer 156); the state of being in the next life is thus described as participation in the radiance or glory [of] his disciples (Arndt 203); with the glory (Lenski 529); with the glory which by-and-by (Williams).
[ 115 ]APOKALUPHTHEENAI EIS HEEMAS, to be revealed to us (Marshall 627); APOKALUPHTHEENAI is the first aorist passive infinitive of APOKALUPTOO (Han 306); the saints, to the creation, in association with Christ in His glorious reign (Vine 965); of passive things, previously non-existent, coming into being and to view: as HEE DOXA [the glory] EIS HEEMAS [unto us] to be conferred on us (Thayer 62); in the eschatological sense of the disclosure of secrets belonging to the last days . . . the revealing of the sons of God (Arndt 92); be on the point of, be about to, be about to be revealed, Arndt 501; about to be revealed to us (Lenski 529); is to be uncovered for us (Williams).
[ 116 ]HEE GAR APOKARADOKIA, for the anxious watching revealed (Marshall 627); [APO away, KARA the head, DOKEOO to watch], a watching with the head erect or outstretched. Hence a waiting in suspense (Vincent 3.92); strained expectancy, eager longing, the stretching forth of the head indicating an expectation of something from a certain place (Vine 391); anxious[?] and persistent expectation (Thayer 62); the eagerly awaiting creation (Arndt 92); for the anxious watching (Lenski 532); is expectantly waiting (Williams).
[ 117 ]TEES KTISEOOS, of the creation (Marshall 627); either the creative act [as in 1:20], or the thing created [Mk 10:6; 13:19; 16:15; Col 1:23; Heb 4:13]. Here in the latter sense (Vincent 3.92); figuratively, of the creation as waiting for the revealing of the sons of God (Vine 392); the aggregate of irrational creatures, both animate and inanimate [what we call nature] (Thayer 363); the meaning of KTISEOOS is in dispute in Ro 8:19-22, though the passage is usually taken to mean the waiting of the whole creation below the human level [animate and inanimate] (Arndt 456); creature [from KTISIS creature, creation] (Littrell); the creation's (Lenski 532); all nature [literally, creation] (Williams).
[ 118 ]Various explanations of the "creature" [creation] have been set forth: (1) The whole creation, vegetable, animal and mineral, except humanity. (2) All humans, both Jew and Gentile, the whole creation, PASEE TEE KTISEI every creature to whom the gospel was to be preached (Mk 16:15), and was preached "EN PASEE KTISEI in all creation under heaven" (Col 1:23). (3) The creation in Christ, Christians (2Co 5:17; Ga 6:15). Did the non-human creation "suffer" because of man's sin? In a way, yes. God said, "Cursed is the ground for thy sake . . . thorns and thistles shall it bring forth to thee" (Ge 3:17, 18). However, Noah was expected to somehow bring rest from the work and toil of man, "arising from the ground which the Lord has cursed" (Ge 5:29). Man has added greatly to the curse of the earth by polluting its water, air and soil. Does the non-human creation groan (verses 22, 23)? Some say it groans during earthquakes and tornadoes. Will it someday be delivered from these? Will it be "delivered" by some kind of resurrection (see verse 21; Joh 5:28, 29)? I do not think so (see Ec 3:21; 2Pe 3:11).
[ 119 ]APEKDECHETAI, is eagerly expecting (Marshall 627); third person singular, present middle indicative of APEKDECHOMAI (Han 306); the whole passage, with the expressions waiting, sighing, hoping, bondage, is poetical and prophetic (Vincent 3.93); of the state of blessedness into which believers are to enter hereafter through being brought into the likeness of Christ; awaits or expects eagerly, a strengthened form of APOKARADOKIA, a watching with outstretched head (Vine 391, 392, 483); watching with outstretched head is waiting it out awaits eagerly (Lenski 532); the revelation of the sons of God (Arndt 83); assiduously and patiently waits for (Thayer 56). "Assiduously" means "unremittingly, persistently."
[ 120 ]HEE GAR TEEN APOKALUPSIN TOON HUIOON TOU THEOU, for the revelation of the sons of God (Marshall 627); the dignity of the relationship with God whereunto men are brought by the Holy Spirit when they believe on the Lord Jesus Christ (Vine 1060); the saints, to the creation, in association with Christ in His glorious reign (Vine 965); the revelation of the sons of God (Arndt 83); for the unveiling of the sons of God (Williams).
[ 121 ]GAR HEE KTISIS, for the creation (Marshall 627; Lenski 533); the product of the creative act (Vine 247); for nature (Williams); see note above on verse 19.
[ 122 ]MATAIOTEETI HUPETAGEE, to vanity was subjected (Marshall 627); HUPETAGEE is third person singular, second aorist passive indicative of HUPOTASSOO (Han 306); aimlessness . . . a perishing and decaying condition, separate from God, and pursuing false ends (Vincent 3.93); put in subjection (Vine 1099); arranged under, subordinated, subjected, put in subjection (Thayer 645); the creation was subjected to frustration (Arndt 495); to vainness was made subject (Lenski 533); give up to failure (Williams).
[ 123 ]OUCH HEKOUSA, not willing[ly] (Marshall 627); [not] of free will, willingly (Vine 1229); [not] unforced, voluntary, willing, of one's own will, of one's own accord (Thayer 201); it was subjected against its own will (Arndt 247); not of its own will (Lenski 533); did not of its own accord (Williams).
[ 124 ]ALLA DIA TON, but because of the [one] (Marshall 627); passive, arranged under, subordinated, subjected, put in subjection (Thayer 645); become subject to a person or a state of being (Arndt 848); but because of him (Lenski 533); it was for the sake of Him (Williams).
[ 125 ]HUPOTAZANTA, subjecting (Marshall 627); is the first aorist active participle, accusative singular masculine of HUPOTASSOO (Han 306); who made it subject, not an act of the creature--on the contrary, by an act of God (Lenski 533); who let it thus be given up (Williams).
[ 126 ]EPH' HELPIDI, in hope (Marshall 627); in hope (Thayer 206); in hope, expectation, prospect (Arndt 252); on the basis of hope (Lenski 533); in the hope (Williams). Some versions weaken this point by placing "hope" at the beginning of verse 21.
[ 127 ]DIOTI KAI AUTEE HEE KTISIS, because even itself the creation (Marshall 627); what we call nature (Thayer 363); even the created world; the meaning of KTISIS is in dispute (Arndt 123; 456); "The creation was subjected in the hope that" (Vincent 3.91); that even nature itself (Williams); that also the creation itself (Lenski 533); see note on Of the Creature at verse 19.
[ 128 ]Entropy is the degradation of matter and energy in the universe to a state of inert conformity.
[ 129 ]ELEUTHEROOTHEESETAI, will be freed (Marshall 627); third person singular, future passive indicative of ELEUTHEROOO (Han 306); freed, set free (Arndt 251); liberated from bondage (Thayer 204); shall be liberated (Lenski 533)l might finally be set free (Williams).
[ 130 ]APO TEES DOULEIAS TEES PHTHORAS, from the slavery of corruption (Marshall 627); [from] slavery to decay (Arndt 858); the bondage which consists of decay, equivalent to the law, the necessity of perishing (Thayer 157); from the slavery of the corruption (Lenski 533); from its bondage to decay (Williams).
[ 131 ]EIS TEEN ELEUTHERIAN, to the freedom (Marshall 627); liberty of the glory, liberty is one of the elements of the glorious state and is dependent upon it (Vincent 3.94); the glorious freedom of God's children (Arndt 250); freedom from the restraints and miseries of earthly frailty: so in the expression HEE ELEUTHERIA TEES DOXEES, manifested in the glorious condition of the future life (Thayer 204); for the liberty (Lenski 533); so to share the freedom (Williams).
[ 132 ]When Paul wrote of the "out-resurrection," he alluded to the event when Christians are raised to eternal life (see Greek and note on Php 3:11).
[ 133 ]TEES DOXEES TOON TEKNOON TOU THEOU, of the glory of the children of God (Marshall 627); the state of being in the next life, the radiance or glory (Arndt 205); the glorious condition of blessedness into which it is appointed and promised that Christians shall enter after their Savior's return from heaven (Thayer 156); literally, the freedom which belongs to the glorification of the sons of God (Conybeare 563); of the glory of the children of God (Lenski 533); the glorious [freedom] of God's children (Williams).

[ 134 ]OIDAMEN GAR HOTI, for we know that (Marshall 627; Lenski 539); OIDAMEN is first person plural, perfect active indicative of OIDA (Han 306); frequently used to introduce a well-known fact that is generally accepted (Arndt 556); it is well-known, acknowledged (Thayer 174); yes, we know (Williams).
[ 135 ]PASA HEE KTISIS, all the creation (Marshall 627); for [introduces] the proof of the hope, not of the bondage (Vincent 3.94); the meaning is in dispute; what we call nature (Thayer 363); the whole creation (Lenski 533); that all nature (Williams).
[ 136 ]SUNSTENAZEI, groans together (Marshall 627); third person singular, present active indicative of SUNTENAZOO (Han 306); groans together [SUN with, STENAZOO, to groan] (Vine 510); lament or grown together [with], of creation groaning together (Arndt 795); groans together (Thayer 608); is groaning together (Lenski 539); has gone on groaning (Williams).
[ 137 ]KAI SUNOODINEI, and travails together (Marshall 627, 628); SUNOODINEI is third person singular, present active indicative of SUNOODINOO (Han 306); [SUN together, with, ODINOO to travail; noun ODIN birth-pang], together refers to the common longing of all the elements of the creation, not to its longing in common with God's children (Vincent 3.94); suffer agony together (Arndt 793); metaphorically, be in travail together (Vine 1163); metaphorically, undergoes agony [like a woman in childbirth] along with; SUN refers to the several parts of which HEE KTISIS [the creation] consists (Thayer 607); and suffering birth pains together (Lenski 539); in agony (Williams).
[ 138 ]ACHRI TOU NUN, until now (Marshall 628; Lenski 539); as a preposition [ACHRI until] takes the genitive of time, until the present (Thayer 91, 430); till the present moment (Williams).
[ 139 ]OU MONON DE, and not only [so] (Marshall 628); not only this (Arndt 528); [not] only, merely (Thayer 418); moreover, not only [the creation] (Lenski 539); not only that (Williams).
[ 140 ]ALLA KAI AUTOI, but also [our]selves (Marshall 628); not only this [is the case], but also (Arndt 38); we ourselves (Dana 106); but also we ourselves (Lenski 539); but this too, we ourselves (Williams).
[ 141 ]TEEN APARCHEEN TOU PNEUMATOS ECHONTES, the firstfruit of the Spirit having (Marshall 628); ECHONTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of ECHOO (Han 306); since we possess the first-fruits of the Spirit, that is, as much of the Spirit as has been poured out so far (Arndt 81); who have the first-fruits [of future blessings] in the Spirit [TOU PNEUMATOS is genitive of apposition] (Thayer 54); who have the first fruits of the Spirit (Lenski 539); we ourselves who enjoy the Spirit as a foretaste of the future [suggested by foretaste] (Williams).
[ 142 ][HEEMEIS] KAI AUTOI EN HEATOIS STENAZOMAN, also [our]selves in ourselves groan (Marshall 628); STENAZOMAN is first person plural, present active indicative of STENAZOO (Han 306); sigh to oneself (Arndt 766); sigh, groan within ourselves, that is, in our souls, inwardly (Thayer 587); even we ourselves in ourselves are groaning (Lenski 539); even we ourselves, keep up our inner groanings (Williams).
[ 143 ]HUIOTHESIAN APEKDECHOMENOI, adoption eagerly expecting (Marshall 628); APEKDECHOMENOI is the present middle participle, nominative plural masculine of APEKDECHOMAI (Han 306); await patiently (Arndt 83); assiduously and patiently wait for, wait for adoption, that is, the consummate condition of the sons of God, which will render it evident that they are the sons of God (Thayer 86, 634); waiting out adoption (Lenski 539); while we wait to enter upon our adoption as God's sons (Williams).
[ 144 ]TEEN APOLUTROOSIN TOU SPOMATOS HEEMOON, the redemption of the body of us (Marshall 628); the freeing of our body from earthly limitations or redemption of our body (Arndt 96); deliverance of the body from frailty and mortality (Thayer 65); the redemption of our body (Lenski 539); at the redemption [redemption in apposition with adoption, but time prominent; hence our translation] of our bodies (Williams).
[ 145 ]TE GAR ELPIDI ESOOTHEEMEN, for by hope we were saved (Marshall 628); ESOOTHEEMEN is first person plural, first aorist passive indicative of SOOZOO (Han 306); in hope (Vincent 3.94); of the spiritual and eternal salvation granted immediately by God to those who believe on the Lord Jesus Christ (Vine 993); [only] in hope have we [thus far] been saved or it is by this hope that we have been saved, or we are saved [or possess salvation] only in expectation [not yet in reality] (Arndt 253, 798); the salvation whereto we were called lies in hope (Conybeare 564); for the [object of] hope were we saved (Lenski 543); for we were saved in such [implied by context] a hope (Williams).
[ 146 ]Lenski 543; see Romans 8:18, 21.
[ 147 ]ELPIS DE BLEPOMENEE OUK ESTIN ELPIS, but hope being seen is not hope (Marshall 628); BLEPOMENEE is the present passive participle, nominative singular feminine of BLEPOO; ESTIN is third person singular, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 306); here the word is used of the object of hope (Vincent 3.94); hope whose object is seen (Thayer 206); but [an object of] hope seen is not [an object of] hope (Lenski 543); but a hope that is seen is not real hope (Williams).
[ 148 ]HO GAR BLEPI TIS TI KAI ELPIZEI, for what sees anyone why also he hopes (Marshall 628); both BLEPI is third person singular present active indicative of BLEPOO; ELPIZEI is third person singular present active indicative of ELPIZOO (Han 306); a thing hoped for, when it is seen, is no longer hoped for, with indication of what is hoped for: [with accusative of what is hoped] (Arndt 252, 253); hope in a religious sense, to wait for salvation with joy and full of confidence (Thayer 205); for who hopes for what he sees? (Lenski 543); for who hopes for what he actually sees? (Williams).
[ 149 ]EI DE HO OU BLEPOMEN ELPIZOMEN, but if what we do not see we hope [for] (Marshall 628); BLEPOMEN is first person plural, present active indicative of BLEPOO; ELPIZOMEN is first person plural, present active indicative of ELPIZOO (Han 306); seeing contrasted with hoping (Arndt 143); but if we hope for what we do not see (Lenski 543); but if we hope for something we do not see (Williams); EI conditional . . . with the indicative present, when anything is simply and generally assumed to be, or to be done, or to have been done, or to be or about to be, followed in the apodosis by the indicative present (Thayer 169). The apodosis is the part of the verse following then. The part following if is called the protasis.
[ 150 ]APEKDECHOMETHA, we eagerly expect (Marshall 628); first person plural, present middle indicative of APEKDECHOMAI (Han 306); await or expect eagerly (Vine 1205); wait patiently (Arndt 83); assiduously and patiently wait for (Thayer 56); we wait it out (Lenski 543); we keep on waiting for it (Williams).
[ 151 ]DI' HUPOMONEES, through patience (Marshall 628); with patience or fortitude (Arndt 846; [HUPO under, MENOO to abide], transitively, wait for (Vine 840); patiently and steadfastly (Thayer 644); by means of patience (Lenski 543); patiently (Williams).
[ 152 ]HOOSAUTOOS DE KAI, and similarly also (Marshall 628); strengthened form of HOS [like], just so, likewise, in like manner (Vine 710); [in] the same [way], similarly, likewise Arndt 899); in like manner, likewise (Thayer 682); moreover, in like manner also (Lenski 544); in the same way too (Williams).
[ 153 ]TO PNEUMA SUNANTILAMBANETAI, the Spirit takes share in (Marshall 628); SUNANTILAMBANETAI is third person singular, present middle indicative of SUNANTILAMBANOMAI (Han 306); only here and in Lu 10:40, [SUN together, with, ANTI reciprocally, LAMBANOO to take hold]; in Lu 10:40, doing her part, as Martha does hers. It might be paraphrased, therefore, take hold and do her part along with me (Vincent 1.358; 3.94); take hold with at the side for assistance [SUN with, ANTILAMBANOO to take instead of or in turn]; hence, take a share in helping in bearing, help in general, used in the Middle voice in Martha's request to the Lord to bid her sister help her, Lu 10:40; and in the ministry of the Holy Spirit in helping our infirmities (Vine 544); the Spirit helps us in our weakness (Arndt 784); the Spirit lays hand to (Lenski 544). "He lays hold helpfully on our weakness," SUN, along with us he takes hold of the burden in order to help us, ANTI, facing us, "as if two men were carrying a log, one at each end" (Robertson 573, cited by Lenski 545); take hold with another [who is laboring], hence universally to help (Thayer 601); the Spirit is helping us (Williams); see Exodus 18:22; Josephus, Antiquities 4.8.4.
[ 154 ]I am indebted to Guy N. Woods for much of the comparison with Mary and Martha.
[ 155 ]TEE ASTHENEIA HEEMOON, the weakness of us (Marshall 628); [A negative, STHENOS strength], literally want of strength, weakness, indicating inability to produce results (Vine 587); figuratively of timidity, of the lack of religious insight (Arndt 115); want of strength, weakness, infirmity; of soul, want of capacity requisite to bear trials and troubles (Thayer 80); our infirmity (Lenski 544); in our weakness (Williams).
[ 156 ]TO GAR OUK OIDAMEN, for we know not (Marshall 628); OIDAMEN is first person plural, perfect active indicative of OIDA (Han 306); [we] know, with indirect question following, Arndt 556); for we do not know (Lenski 544); for we do not know (Williams).
[ 157 ]TI PROSEUXOOMETHA, what we may pray (Marshall 628); PROSEUXOOMETHA is first person plural, future middle indicative of PROSEUCHOMAI (Han 306); offer prayers, pray, with accusative of a thing (Thayer 545); always used of prayer to God (Vine 871); with accusative of the thing prayed for, pray for something (Arndt 714); what we shall pray (Lenski 544); how to pray (Williams).
[ 158 ]KATHO DEI, as it behooves (Marshall 628); DEI is a third person singular, present active impersonal verb (Han 306); not with reference to the form of prayer, but to the circumstances: in proportion to the need; as is fitting, as one should (Arndt 390); as a necessity of law and command, of duty, equity (Thayer 126); 314); as necessary (Lenski 544); as we should (Williams).
[ 159 ]ALLA AUTO TO PNEUMA, but it[him]self the Spirit (Marshall 628); note her that the phrase translated "the Spirit itself" in both verses 26 and 16 could just as easily have been translated as "that same spirit" (T. Franklin); but the Spirit himself (Lenski 544); but the Spirit Himself (Williams).
[ 160 ]HUPERENTUNCHANEI, supplicates on [our] behalf (Marshall 628); third person singular, present active indicative of HUPERANTUNCHANOO (Han 306); [ENTUNCHANOO, to light upon or fall in with]; to go to meet for consultation, conversation, or supplication] (Vincent 3.95); make a petition or intercede on behalf of another [HUPER on behalf of, ENTEUXIS a petition, a technical term for approaching a king, and so, for approaching God in intercession], of the work of the Holy Spirit in making intercession (Vine 597); pleads, intercedes (Arndt 840); intercedes for one; as the whole context shows, nothing more than this: "Although we have no very definite conception of what we desire [TI PROSEUCHOOMETHA, what we should pray for], and cannot state it in fit language [KATHO DEI as we ought] in our prayer but only disclose it by inarticulate groanings, yet God receives these groanings as acceptable prayers inasmuch as they come from a soul full of the Holy Spirit" (Thayer 522, 640); intercedes (Lenski 544); pleads for us (Williams).
[ 161 ]STENAGMOIS, with groanings (Marshall 628; Lenski 544); plural, of the intercessory groanings of the Holy Spirit (Vine 510); sighs, groans, colloquial, groanings (Arndt 766); sighings, groanings within ourselves, that is, in our souls, inwardly (Thayer 587); with yearnings (Williams).
[ 162 ]ALALEETOIS, unutterable (Marshall 628; Lenski 544); may mean either unutterable or unuttered (Vincent 3.95); [A negative, LALEOO to speak], inexpressible (Vine 1191); unexpressed, wordless, sighs too deep for words . . . inexpressible (Arndt 34); not to be uttered, not to be expressed in words: [STENAGMOI mute sighs], the expression of which are suppressed by grief (Thayer 25); which [from their nature] cannot be uttered (Meyer, cited by Thayer 25); ;unspeakable (Williams).
[ 163 ]HO DE EREUNOON TAS KARDIAS, and the [one] searching the hearts (Marshall 628); EREUNOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of EREUNAOO (Han 306); searches, examines, of God, as searching the heart (Vine 1004); searches, examines into [the hearts], the center and seat of spiritual life, the soul or mind, as it is in the fountain and seat of the thoughts, passions, desires, appetites, affections, purposes, endeavors [so in English heart, inner man, etc.] (Thayer 249, 325); searches, examines, investigates [the hearts] (Arndt 306); hearts, as the seat of moral decision, the moral life, of vices and virtues (Arndt 404); and he who searches the hearts (Lenski 544); and He who searches our hearts (Williams).
[ 164 ]OIDEN TI TO PHRONEEMA TOU PNEUMATOS, knows what [is] the mind of the Spirit (Marshall 628); OIDEN is third person singular, perfect active indicative of OIDA (Han 306); [fully knows] the mind of the Holy Spirit (Vine 628, 742); what [the Spirit] has in mind, the thoughts and purposes (Thayer 658); knows, with indirect question following (Arndt 555, 556); knows the mind of the Spirit (Lenski 544); knows what the Spirit thinks (Williams).
[ 165 ]HOTI ENTUNCHANEI, because he supplicates (Marshall 628); ENTUNCHANEI is third person singular, present active indicative of ENTUNCHANOO (Han 306); of the intercessory work of the Holy Spirit for the saints (Vine 597); with genitive of person, make intercession for [the dative of the person approached in prayer being omitted as evident from the context] (Thayer 219); of intercession by the Holy Spirit (Arndt 270); complaineth for the saints (Macknight 99); that he intercedes (Lenski 544); for he pleads (Williams).
[ 166 ]HUPER HAGIOON, on behalf of saints (Marshall 628); [for the] saints, Christians consecrated to God (Arndt 10); this appellation is very often in the NT transferred to Christians, as those whom God has selected EK TOU KOSMOU [from the world, Joh 17:14-16], that under the influence of the Holy Spirit they may be rendered through holiness, partakers of salvation in the kingdom of God (Thayer 7); in behalf of saints (Lenski 544); for His people (Williams).
[ 167 ]KATA THEON, according to God (Marshall 628; Lenski 544); with the accusative of the person [God], according to whose will, pleasure, or manner something occurs (Arndt 407); agreeably to the will of [God], as it pleases him (Thayer 328); in accordance with God's will (Williams).
[ 168 ]Franklin, First Century Christian, October 2001, page 13.
[ 169 ]OIDAMEN DE HOTI, and we know that (Marshall 628); OIDAMEN is first person plural, perfect active indicative of OIDA (Han 306); to introduce a well-known fact that is generally accepted (Arndt 556); it is well-known, acknowledged (Thayer 174); moreover, we know that (Lenski 549); yes, we know (Williams).
[ 170 ]PANTA SUNERGEI, all things works together (Marshall 628); SUNERGEI is third person singular, present active indicative of SUNERGEOO (Han 306); are working together, now, while the creation is in travail. Together refers to the common working of all the elements included in PANTA all things, work with or together (Vine 1244); all things, everything helps [or works with] or brings something [good] about (Arndt 633, 787); "For them that love God, God co-working provides all things for good or so that it is well with them" (Thayer 603); all things work together (Lenski 549); that all things go on working together (Williams).
[ 171 ]EIS AGATHON, for good (Marshall 628); for good, to advantage (Arndt 3); to advantage (Thayer 2); for good (Lenski 549); for the good (Williams).
[ 172 ]TOIS AGAPOOSIN TON THEON, to the [ones] loving God (Marshall 628); AGAPOOSIN is the present active participle, dative plural masculine of AGAPAOO (Han 306); [having] affection to God (Arndt 4); when used of love to a master, God or Christ, the word involves the idea of affectionate reverence, prompt obedience, grateful recognition of benefits received (Thayer 4); for those loving God (Lenski 549); of those who keep on loving God (Williams).
[ 173 ]TOIS KLEETOIS OUSIN, to the [ones] called being (Marshall 628); called, invited, an effectual call (Vine 157); those who are called (Arndt 706); invited [by God in the proclamation of the gospel] to obtain salvation in the kingdom of God through Christ (Thayer 350); for those who are called (Lenski 549); who are called (Williams).
[ 174 ]KATA PROTHESIN, according to purpose (Marshall 628); a setting forth [used of the "shewbread"], a purpose, of the purposes of God (Vine 905); according with his purpose, in accordance with God's purpose (Arndt 436, 706); of the cause, through, on account of, from, owing to [in accordance with, that is, in consequence of, by virtue of] (Thayer 328); according to purpose (Lenski 549); in accordance with God's purpose (Williams).
[ 175 ]HOTI HOUS PROEGNOO, because whom he foreknew (Marshall 628; Lenski 549); PROEGNOO is third person singular, second aorist active indicative of PROGINOOSKOO (Han 307); [PRO beforehand, GINOOSKOO to know], aorist indicative of PROGINOOSKOO to foreknow (Zodhiates); of Divine knowledge concerning believers (Vine 449); knew beforehand, in advance, had foreknowledge [of], [chose] beforehand (Arndt 703); whom he [God] foreknew, namely that they would love him, or [with reference to what follows] whom he foreknew to be fit to be conformed to the likeness of his Son (Thayer 538); for those on whom He set His heart beforehand [literally, foreknew, but in Septuagint used as translated] (Williams); plural, does not mean foreordain, not pre-election, but prescience (Vincent 3.95). Prescience means to know beforehand (see Acts 2:23; 26:5; Romans 11:2; 1 Peter 1:2, 20; 2 Peter 3:17.
[ 176 ]KAI PROOORISEN, also he foreordained (Marshall 628); PROOORISEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of PROORIZOO (Han 307); [PRO beforehand HORIZOO bound, set a boundary] denotes to mark out beforehand, to determine before, foreordain (Vine 297); foreordained, appointed beforehand (Thayer 541); decide upon beforehand, predestine of God (Arndt 709); foreordain, to determine or decree beforehand; used with a personal object, the plural relative pronoun HOUS whom [that] applies also to the previous verb PROEGNOO; in Romans 8:29, 30, predestination is used of God's actions in eternally decreeing both the objects and goal of His plan of salvation. PROORIZOO has a person object, the plural relative pronoun HOUS whom. This relative pronoun refers to those previously mentioned as those whom God foreknew [PROEGNOO]. The translation is, "For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate." The objects of predestination are those whom He foreknew. Predestination does not involve a predetermined plan only but also includes the individuals for whom the plan is devised. The goal of predestination is expressed in the phrase, "to be conformed to the image of his Son" (Zodhiates 1058; 1223); He marked off [root meaning of verb] as His own (Williams); see Matthew 11:25, 26; Acts 4:28; 1 Corinthians 2:7; Ephesians 1:5, 11.
[ 177 ]SUMMORPHOUS, conformed to (Marshall 628; Lenski 549); [SUN with, MORPHEE form], with an inner and essential conformity, signifies the same form as another, conformed to (Vine 219); having the same form as another, similar, conformed to (Thayer 596); to be made like (Williams).
[ 178 ]TEES EIKONOS TOU HUIOU AUTOU, of the image of the Son of him (Marshall 628); in all respects, sufferings and moral character no less than glory (Vincent 3.96); of believers, in their glorified state, not merely as resembling Christ but representing Him (Vine 577); the image of the Son of God, into which true Christians are transformed, is likeness not only to the heavenly body [compare 1Co 15:49; Php 3:21], but also to the most holy and blessed state of mind, which Christ possesses (Thayer 175); the image of his Son (Lenski 549); like His Son (Williams); see 2 Corinthians 3:18; Colossians 3:10.
[ 179 ]EIS TO EINAI AUTON PROOTOTOKON, for the to be him=that he should be firstborn (Marshall 628); EINAI is the present active infinitive of EIMI (Han 307); [PROOTOS first, TIKTOO to beget], [of Christ's] position in relationship to His Church (Vine 434); [he] was the Son of God long before those who by his agency and merit are exalted to the nature and dignity of sons of God, with the added suggestion of the supreme rank by which he excels these other sons (Thayer 556); in order that he may be the Firstborn (Lenski 549); that He might be the eldest (Williams).
[ 180 ]EN POLLOIS ADELPHOIS, among many brothers (Marshall 628); Christians, as those who are destined to be exalted to the same heavenly [glory] which he enjoys (Thayer 11); among many brethren (Lenski 549); of many brothers (Williams).
[ 181 ]HOUS DE PROOORISEN, but whom he foreordained (Marshall 628); PROOORISEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of PROORIZOO (Han 307); [PRO beforehand, HORIZOO bound, set a boundary], aorist tense; see note on He also foreordained (verse 29); now, whom he foreordained (Lenski 550); and those whom He marked off as His own (Williams).
[ 182 ]John Calvin taught the error of "double predestination" of man, that is, his election as well as his damnation (Karl Rahner, Encyclopedia of Theology, the Concise Sacramentum Mundi, Seabury, New York, 1975).
[ 183 ]TOUTOUS KAI EKALESEN, these also he called (Marshall 628, 629); EKALESEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of KALEOO (Han 307); [KAL, English call], aorist tense; used particularly of the Divine call to partake of the blessings of redemption (Vine 155); metaphorically invited to, to participate in it, enjoy it, used thus in the epistles of Paul and Peter of God as inviting men by the preaching of the gospel to the blessings of the heavenly kingdom; but everywhere in the NT epistles only those are spoken of as called by God who have listened to his voice addressed to them in the gospel, hence, those who are enlisted in the service of Christ (Thayer 321; Arndt 399); these he also called (Lenski 550); He also calls (Williams).
[ 184 ]KAI HOUS EKLALESEN TOUTOUS KAI EDIKAIOOSEN, and whom he called, these also he justified (Marshall 629); EKLALESEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of KALEOO; EDIKAIOOSEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of DIKAIOOO (Han 307); aorist tense; especially [justified] is so used, in the technical phraseology of Paul, respecting God who judges and declares such men as put faith in Christ to be righteous and acceptable to him, and accordingly fit to receive the pardon of their sins and eternal life (Thayer 150); and whom he called, these he also declared righteous (Lenski 550); and those whom He calls He brings into right standing with Himself (Williams).
[ 185 ]HOUS DE EDIKAIOOSEN, TOUTOUS KAI EDOXASEN, but whom he justified, these also he glorified (Marshall 629); EDIKAIOOSEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of DIKAIOOO; EDOXASEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of DOXAZOO (Han 307); aorist tense; did honor to, made glorious (Vine 482); of God bringing Christians to a heavenly dignity and condition (Thayer 157); and whom he declared righteous, these he also glorified (Lenski 550); those whom He brings into right standing with Himself He also glorifies (Williams).
[ 186 ]In Genesis 17:5, the New American Standard Version reads, "For I will make you the father of a multitude of nations."
[ 187 ]TI OUN EROUMEN PROS TAUTA, what therefore shall we say to these things (Marshall 629); EROUMEN is first person plural, future active indicative of LEGOO (Han 307); [from EIROO, an obsolete verb, EREOO, future tense, what shall we say? that is, what reply can we make? or to what does that bring us? (Thayer 181); what, then, shall we say to these things? (Lenski 564); what are we then to say to facts like these? (Williams).
[ 188 ]EI HO THEOS HUPER HEEMOON, TIS KATH' HEEMOON, if God on behalf of us, who against us (Marshall 629); be for, be on [our] side (Arndt 838); for [us], that is, on [our] side to favor and further [our cause; against [properly down upon], opposite to HUPER [over] (Thayer 327, 638); if God for us, who against us? (Lenski 564); if God is for us, who can be against us? (Williams).
[ 189 ]HOS GE OUK EPHEISATO, who indeed spared not (Marshall 629); EPHEISATO is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of PHEIDOMAI

(Han 307); [did not] forego the infliction of that evil or retribution which was designed (Vine 1070); [did] not spare (Arndt 854; Thayer 650); he who did not spare (Lenski 564); since He did not spare (Williams); see Genesis 22:16.

[ 190 ]TOU IDIOU HUIOU, the [his] own Son (Marshall 629); his own Son (Vine 1061); belonging to or peculiar to [Him] (Arndt 369); of a person who may be said to belong to one, above all others, preeminently of Jesus, as enjoying the supreme love of God, united to him in affectionate intimacy, privy to his saving counsels, obedient to the Father's will in all his acts (Thayer 297, 636); his proper Son (Macknight 100); his own Son (Lenski 564; Williams); see Mt 12:18; 17:5; Mk 1:11; Eph 1:6; Col 1:13; Heb 5:5.
[ 191 ]ALLA PAREDOOKEN AUTON, but delivered him (Marshall 629); PAREDOOKEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of PARADIDOOMI (Han 307); of God delivering [over] His Son to expiatory Death (Vine 281); handed Jesus over to be crucified . . . alone, with the meaning hand over to suffering, death, punishment (Arndt 615); delivered up to custody, to be judged, condemned, punished, scourged, tormented, put to death . . . with the addition of for one's salvation (Thayer 481); but delivered him up (Lenski 564); but gave Him up (Williams).
[ 192 ]HUPER HEEMOON PANTOON, on behalf of us all (Marshall 629); in behalf of mankind, the world [us all], we all (Arndt 632, 838); of God giving up his Son [for us] all (Thayer 492, 639); for us all (Lenski 564; Williams).
[ 193 ]POOS OUCHI KAI SUN AUTOO, how not also with him (Marshall 629); how not also with him; not merely in addition to Him, but all gifts of God are to be received, held, and enjoyed in communion with Christ (Vincent 3.97); how shall he not also with him? (Lenski 564); will He not with Him? (Williams).
[ 194 ]TA PANTA HEEMIN CHARISETAI, all things to us will he freely give (Marshall 629); CHARISETAI is third person singular, future middle indicative of CHARIZOMAI (Han 307); in contrast with spared (Vincent 3.97); shall freely give, bestow graciously (Vine 279, 462); give freely or graciously as a favor, of God (Vine 876); give freely or graciously as a favor, of God, all things, Arndt 633, 876; give graciously, give freely, bestow (Thayer 665); graciously grant to us all things (Lenski 564); graciously give us everything else (Williams).
[ 195 ]TIS ENKALESEI, who will bring a charge against (Marshall 629); ENKALESEI is third person singular, future active indicative of ENKALEOO (Han 307); literally, to call something in one, hence call to account; bring a charge against (Vincent 3.97); to bring a charge against, lay to the charge, come forward as an accuser against, that is, to call [something] in or against [someone] (Vine 18); a legal technical term, accuse, bring charges against (Arndt 217); with the accusative of the person, come forward as an accuser against, bring a charge against (Thayer 166); who shall bring an accusation [against] (Lenski 567); who can bring any charge? (Williams).
[ 196 ]KATA EKLEKTOON THEOU, against chosen ones of God (Marshall 629); they are given by God the Father to Christ as the fruit of His Death, all being foreknown and foreseen by God (Vine 352); chosen, select, especially of those whom God has chosen from the generality of mankind and drawn to himself . . . of Christians in particular (Arndt 242); the chosen or elect of God (Thayer 197); against God's elect (Lenski 567); against those whom God has chosen? (Williams).
[ 197 ]THEOS HO DIKAIOON, God [is] the [one] justifying (Marshall 629); DIKAIOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of KATAKRINOO (Han 307); note the article; literally, God is the [One] justifying (Vine 615); of God's activity. For the view [held since Chrystostom] that DIKAIOON in these and other passages means "make upright" [see Goodspeed, "Problems" 143-146, Journal of Biblical Literature 73, '54, 86-91] (Arndt 197); it is God who declared them in right standing (Williams); God is he who declares righteous (Lenski 567); for Thayer on justifies, see notes on Romans 3:26; 8:30.
[ 198 ]TIS HO KATAKRINOON, who the [one] condemning (Marshall 629); KATAKRINOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of KATAKRINOO (Han 307); condemns (Arndt 412); gives judgment against, judges worthy of punishment (Thayer 332); who is he that will condemn? (Lenski 567); who can condemn them? (Williams).
[ 199 ]CHRISTOS 'IEESOUS HO APOTHANOON, Christ Jesus [is] the [one] having died (Marshall 629); APOTHANOON is the second aorist passive participle, nominative singular masculine of APOUNEESKOO (Han 307); Christ Jesus is he who died (Lenski 567); Christ Jesus who died (Williams).
[ 200 ]MALLON DE, but rather (Marshall 629); the comparative degree of MALA, very, very much (Vine 920); what moreover is of greater moment (Thayer 388); yea rather (Lenski 567); or rather (Williams).
[ 201 ]EGERTHEIS [EK NEKROON], having been raised (Marshall 629); EGERTHEIS is the first aorist passive participle, nominative singular masculine of EGEIROO (Han 307); of the raising of the dead, of the resurrection of Christ (Vine 917); who was raised from the dead (Lenski 567); who was raised from the dead (Williams).
[ 202 ]HOS ESTIN EN DEXIA TOU THEOU, who is at [the] right [hand] of God (Marshall 629); ESTIN is third person singular, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 307); to indicate he has become a partner in God's universal government (Thayer 128; Arndt 174); he who is at the right of God (Lenski 567); is now at God's right hand (Williams).
[ 203 ]HOS KAI ENTUNCHANEI HUPER HEEMOON, who also supplicates on behalf of us (Marshall 629); ENTUNCHANEI is third person singular, present active indicative of ENTUNCHANOO (Han 307); makes petition, especially making intercession, pleading with a person, of the intercessory work of Christ (Vine 597); makes intercession (Thayer 219); he who even intercedes for us! (Lenski 567); and is actually pleading for us (Williams); see notes on verse 27; Hebrews 7:25; 9:24.
[ 204 ]TIS HEEMAS CHOORISEI, who us will separate (Marshall 629); CHOORISEI is third person singular, future active indicative of CHOORIZOO (Han 307); put [us] asunder, separate (Vine 1018); separate, divide, part, put asunder (Thayer 674); active, divide, separate (Arndt 890); what shall separate us? (Lenski 572); who can separate us? (Williams).
[ 205 ]APO TEES AGAPEES TOU CHRISTOU, from the love of Christ (Marshall 629; Lenski 572); [from the] affection, good-will, love, benevolence, of the love of Christ towards men (Thayer 4); the genitive case is subjective when the noun in the genitive case is the name of the subject of the action denoted by the word on which it depends, the love Christ feels for us (Nunn 27); of Jesus' love (Arndt 6); from Christ's love (Williams); see John 13:1; 15:9.
[ 206 ]THLIPSIS, affliction (Marshall 629); anything which burdens the spirit, Vine 31; oppression, affliction, tribulation, distress, straits (Thayer 291; Arndt 362); tribulation (Lenski 572); can suffering? (Williams).
[ 207 ]EE STENOCHOORIA, or distress (Marshall 629); literally, narrowness of place [STENOS narrow, CHOORA a place], metaphorically came to mean the distress arising from that condition, anguish, of anguish or distress in general (Vine 49); dire calamity, extreme affliction (Thayer 587); distress that is brought about by outward circumstances (Arndt 362); or anguish (Lenski 572); or misfortune (Williams).
[ 208 ]Some of the temporal consequences of sin are not removed when people obey the gospel. Some painful effects of sin linger on even though the sin is forgiven.
[ 209 ]EE DIOOGMOS, or persecution (Marshall 629; Lenski 572; Williams; being pursued, persecution (Vine 850); persecution (Thayer 153; Arndt 201).
[ 210 ]EE LIMOS, or famine (Marshall 629); famine (Vine 407); hunger (Thayer 378; Arndt 475); or hunger (Lenski 572; Williams).
[ 211 ]EE GUMNOTEES, or nakedness (Marshall 629; Lenski 572); want of sufficient clothing (Vine 771); want of clothing (Thayer 122); destitution, lack of sufficient clothing (Arndt 168); or destitution (Williams).
[ 212 ]EE KINDUNOS, or peril (Marshall 629; Lenski 572); peril, danger (Vine 258); danger, peril (Thayer 347); danger, risk (Arndt 432); or danger (Williams).
[ 213 ]EE MACHAIRA, or sword (Marshall 629; Lenski 572); a short sword or dagger (Vine 1113); of the sword as the instrument of a magistrate or judge: death by a sword (Thayer 393); figurative for violent death (Arndt 496); or the sword (Williams).
[ 214 ]KATHOOS GEGRAPTAI, as it has been written[,] (Marshall 629); even as it has been written (Lenski 572); as Scripture says (Williams).
[ 215 ]HOTI ENEKEN SOU, for the sake of thee (Marshall 629); on account of, for the sake of, for (Thayer 217); improper preposition with genitive, because of, on account of, for the sake of (Arndt 264); for thy sake (Lenski 572); for your sake (Williams).
[ 216 ]THANATOUMETHA HOLEEN TEEN HEEMERAN, we are being put to death all the day (Marshall 629); THANATOUMETHA is first person plural, present passive indicative of THANATOOO (Han 307); put to death [THANATOS death] (Vine 620); passive, by rhetorical hyperbole, to be in the state of one who is being put to death (Thayer 283); be in danger of death (Arndt 351); we are killed (Lenski 572); we are being put to death the livelong day (Williams).
[ 217 ]ELOGISTHEEMEN HOOS PROBATA, we were reckoned as sheep (Marshall 629); ELOGISTHEEMEN is first person plural, first aorist passive indicative of LOGIZOMAI (Han 307); deliberated [as], and so supposed, accounted [as] sheep, figuratively, by way of simile, of true followers of Christ in general (Vine 1031); reckoned or accounted and treated accordingly [as] sheep destined for the slaughter (Thayer 379, 537); as an animal to be slaughtered (Arndt 703); we were reckoned as slaughter-sheep (Lenski 572); we are treated like sheep (Williams).
[ 218 ]SPHAGEES, of (for) slaughter (Marshall 629); to be slaughtered (Arndt 795; Williams); sheep destined for slaughter (Thayer 609); the quotation is set in a strain of triumph, the passage quoted [Ps 44:22] being an utterance of sorrow (Vine 1052); as slaughter-sheep (Lenski 572).
[ 219 ]ALL' EN TOUTOIS PASIN, but in these things all (Marshall 629); all things taken together (Thayer 493); these all, all these (Arndt 632); but in all these things (Lenski 572); and yet in all these things (Williams).
[ 220 ]HUPERNIKOOMEN, we overconquer (Marshall 629); first person plural, present active indicative of HUPERNISKIAOO (Han 307); a victory which is more than a victory (Vincent 3.98;) [HUPER over, NIKAOO to overcome], literally, "we are hyper-conquerors," that is, we are pre-eminently victorious (Vine 220); more than conquerors, gaining a surpassing victory (Thayer 641); we are winning a most glorious victory (Arndt 841); we keep on gloriously conquering (Williams 345); we more than conquer (Lenski 572); we keep on gloriously conquering (Williams).
[ 221 ]DIA TOU AGAPEESANTOS HEEMAS, through the one having loved us (Marshall 629); AGAPEESANTOS is the first aorist active participle, genitive singular masculine of AGAPAOO (Han 307); the One loving us (Green 878); of the benevolence which God, in providing salvation for men, has exhibited by sending his Son to them and giving him up to death (Thayer 3); to human beings: God's love to man (Arndt 4); through him who did love us (Lenski 572); through Him who loved us (Williams).
[ 222 ]PEPEISMAI GAR, for I have been persuaded (Marshall 629); PEPEISMAI is first person singular, perfect passive indicative of PEITHOO (Han 307); persuaded, believe (Vine 851); believe [compare English be persuaded] (Thayer 497); convinced, certain (Arndt 639); for I am persuaded (Lenski 575); for I have full assurance (Williams).
[ 223 ]HOTI OUTE THANATOS OUTE ZOOEE, that not death nor life (Marshall 629); the death of the body, that is, that separation [either natural or violent] of the soul from the body by which the life on earth is ended, opposite to [contrasted] ZOOEE [life] (Thayer 273, 282); of natural death, opposite to ZOOEE [life] (Arndt 350); that neither death, nor life (Lenski 575; Williams).
[ 224 ]OUTE ANGELOI OUTE ARCHAI, nor angels nor rulers (Marshall 629); angelic, higher than mere angels (Vincent 3.98); of evil angels (Vine 885); angels and demons holding dominions entrusted to them in the order of things (Thayer 77); intermediary beings generally with no reference to their relation to God . . . ANGELOI as serving spirit-powers seem to be differentiated from the ARCHAI who rule--angelic and demonic powers, since they were thought of as having a political organization (Arndt 8, 112); nor angels, nor principalities (Lenski 575; Williams).
[ 225 ]Conybeare 365.
[ 226 ]OUTE DUNAMEIS, nor powers (Marshall 629; Lenski 575); sometimes used by metonymy of persons and things (Vine 868); angels, as excelling in power, are called DUNAMEIS [powers] (Thayer 159); powers as personal supernatural spirits or angels (Arndt 208); nor evil forces (Williams).
[ 227 ]OUTE ENESTOOTA, nor things present (Marshall 629; Lenski 575); literally, to stand in sight; hence to impend or threaten, of something that has set in or begun (Vincent 3.98); of the present in contrast with the past, Vine 878; [things] present (Thayer 216); the present age (Arndt 266); nor the present (Williams).
[ 228 ]OUTE MELLONTA, nor things coming (Marshall 629); MELLONTA is the present active participle, nominative or accusative plural neuter of MELLOO (Han 307); [from MELLOO to be about to] (Thayer 396); the things to come, opposite ENESTOOTA [things present] (Arndt 501); nor things to come (Lenski 575); nor the future (Williams).
[ 229 ]OUTE HUPSOOMA OUTE BATHOS, nor height nor depth (Marshall 629; Lenski 575); of a height, as a mountain or anything definitely determined, a height, [nor] of deep water [metaphorical] (Vine 276, 541); thing elevated, height, properly of space, opposite to BATHOS depth (Thayer 92, 647); of the space above the horizon; since they are said to be creatures, and the context speaks apparently only of superabundance forces, and probably astral spirits, they are both astronomical technical terms and BATHOS means the celestial space below the horizon from which the stars arise (Arndt 130); above or beneath (Williams).
[ 230 ]OUTE TIS KTISTIS HETERA, nor any creature other (Marshall 630); any [other] created thing (Thayer 254, 363); any other creature (Arndt 455); nor any other creation (Lenski 575); nor anything else in all creation (Williams).
[ 231 ]DUNEESETAI HEEMAS CHOORISAI, will be able us to separate (Marshall (630; Lenski 575); CHOORISAI is the first aorist active infinitive of CHOORIZOO (Han 307); be able, have power [to] put asunder (Thayer 158, 674); put asunder, separate (Vine 1018); divide, separate (Arndt 890); will be able to separate us (Lenski 575; Williams).
[ 232 ]APO TEES AGAPEES TOU THEOU, from the love of God (Marshall 629; Lenski 576; Williams); of the love of God towards men (Thayer 4).
[ 233 ]TEES EN CHRISTOO 'IEESOU TOO KURIOO HEEMOON, in Christ Jesus the Lord of us (Marshall 629); ingrafted as it were in Christ, in fellowship and union with Christ, with the Lord (Thayer 211); love in Christ (Arndt 259); as shown in Christ Jesus our Lord (Williams); which is in Christ Jesus, our Lord (Lenski 576); see note on verse 1.

Copyright ©2004, Charles Hess, Lakeside, California, U.S.A.
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The basic text, and all quotations not designated otherwise, are from the New King James Version, copyrighted ©1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. All rights reserved. Used by permission. Bracketed alternatives are drawn from various sources such as the ASV, Darby, KJV and RSV. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.

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