Peter begins the last chapter[ 1 ] of his final letter with a reminder of prophecies that Christ will come again. He also predicts the advent of mockers who will spread a pseudoscientific dogma that all things continue as always. In spite of talk to the contrary, his readers are assured that the day of the Lord will come. They should take the absolute certainty of the advent of Christ as a convincing motivation for righteous living (see chart 2 PETER 3 OUTLINE).
Chart 2 PETER 3 OUTLINE
- Reminder of prophecies of Christ's coming (2Pe 3:1, 2).
- Mockers, uniformitarians; day of the Lord will come (2Pe 3:3-13).
- Motivation to righteous living (2Pe 3:14-18).
PURPOSE OF THE LETTER
3:1-4 Beloved, I now write to you this second epistle (in both of which I stir up your pure minds by way of reminder), 2 that you may be mindful of the words which were spoken before by the holy prophets, and of the commandment of us, the apostles of the Lord and Savior, 3 knowing this first: that scoffers will come in the last days, walking according to their own lusts, 4 and saying, "Where is the promise of His coming? For since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of creation."
- Beloved, I now write to you (2Pe 3:1).
- But, beloved, do not forget this one thing (2Pe 3:8).
- Therefore, beloved, looking forward to these things, be diligent to be found by Him in peace, without spot and blameless (2Pe 3:14).
- Our beloved brother Paul (2Pe 3:15).
- You therefore, beloved, since you know this beforehand, beware lest you also fall (2Pe 3:17).
Beloved, I now write to you [that I, now that I, I already, am writing, have written, unto you beloved].[ 2 ] The Lord loves all who are in Christ. The tender expression "beloved" occurs four times in this chapter alone (see verses 8, 14, 17; compare verse 15). The present indicative "I write" or "I am writing" suggests that he was then in the process of penning the letter.
This second epistle [this is, this is now, a, the, second letter].[ 3 ] Since the style of 2 Peter resembles that of 1 Peter, and since the writer states that this is his second letter, I understand this to mean that both were written by the same man, namely, the apostle Peter (see Introduction to the epistle of 2 Peter for additional discussion on this point).
TO STIR UP PURE MINDS
In both of which I stir up [in which, in both which, and in both of them, I have aroused, I am stirring up].[ 4 ] "In which" is plural in the Greek. Several commentators and translators recognized it to allude to both of Peter's epistles. Both letters contain well-worded reminders fashioned by the Holy Spirit to wake up sleepy minds. Here are some examples.
Therefore gird up the loins of your mind, be sober, and rest your hope fully upon the grace that is to be brought to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ; 14 as obedient children, not conforming yourselves to the former lusts, as in your ignorance (1Pe 1:13, 14).
But the end of all things is at hand; therefore be serious and watchful in your prayers (1Pe 4:7).
Yes, I think it is right, as long as I am in this tent, to stir you up by reminding you (2Pe 1:13).
Your pure minds [your sincere mind].[ 5 ] Obscure, indistinct or waxed-over flaws in a glass, may be seen when held up to sunlight. In like manner, Deity recognizes inward purity the human mind. Attitudes and conditions of heart are vital in God's sight. When judged by the searchlight of God, the minds of Peter's readers were sincere[ 6 ] and open to the truth. They were honest and pure.
And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your mind, and with all your strength.' This is the first commandment (Mk 12:30).
Casting down arguments and every high thing that exalts itself against the knowledge of God, bringing every thought into captivity to the obedience of Christ (2Co 10:5).
Therefore gird up the loins of your mind, be sober, and rest your hope fully upon the grace that is to be brought to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ (1Pe 1:13).
By way of reminder [in, by, in the way of, putting you in, remembrance].[ 7 ] No matter how open and honest people are, sincerity alone is not sufficient for salvation. Sinners need to learn the gospel. They need to be instructed in the way of truth and obey it. After they become Christians, they need to be reminded frequently of basic doctrines as well as the meat of the word.
[3:2] That you may be mindful [that ye should remember, to be mindful]. [ 8 ] Memory is significant. The OT had many memorials.
Of the words which were spoken before [the words, the predictions, spoken before].[ 9 ] Christians need to understand the words of the Bible. One reason is that words spoke of the coming of Jesus Christ and His church or kingdom. One type of knowledge Christians are to "supply" and "grow in" is the words of Scripture (see 2Pe 1:5; 3:18). Memorization of large sections of Scripture is recommended for any student and teacher of God's word.
By the holy prophets [of the holy prophets].[ 10 ] They spoke His word as they were moved by the Holy Spirit (2Pe 1:21). The first-century churches of Christ had within the membership inspired men and women called prophets and prophetesses who spoke or wrote by inspiration of the Holy Spirit (see Ac 11:27; 13:1; 15:32; 20:10; 1Co 12:28, 29; 14:29, 32, 37; Eph 3:5; 4:11; Re 10:7; 16:6; 18:20; 22:9). God's holy prophets include all the faithful writers of both testaments. In addition, there were many non-writing prophets (see charts OT NON-WRITING PROPHETS; NT NON-WRITING PROPHETS at Heb 11:32).
And of the commandment [and the, and of the, commandments].[ 11 ] The "commandment" (singular) of the Lord is considered by many to be the sum-total of NT truth written and/or spoken by inspiration (see notes on Joh 12:50; 1Co 14:37). They equate "the holy commandment" with "the way of righteousness." This interpretation may have prompted some of them to render the singular word "commandment" as "commandments" (plural).
For it would have been better for them not to have known the way of righteousness, than having known it, to turn from the holy commandment delivered to them (2Pe 2:21).
Of us the apostles of the Lord and Savior [of the Lord and Savior by, through, your apostles].[ 12 ] In one sentence Peter encompasses both NT apostles and the prophets of both testaments. In chapter 1, he called himself an apostle (see 2Pe 1:1). In the present verse, he gives another calm allusion to apostolic authority. This is in line with what would be expected from a true apostle writing a letter to Christians. He does not hesitate to identify the other apostles as being qualified to speak forth God's inspired word (compare Joh 14:26; 16:12, 13; 2Pe 1:3). Like the prophets, the apostles spoke "as the Spirit gave them utterance" (Ac 2:4).
MOCKERS WILL COME
Chart FALSE TEACHERS PREDICTED (A)
- Then many false prophets will rise up and deceive many (Mt 24:11).
- For false christs and false prophets will rise (Mt 24:24).
- After my departure savage wolves will come in among you, not sparing the flock (Ac 20:29).
Chart FALSE TEACHERS PREDICTED (B)
- Deceiving spirits and doctrines of demons (1Ti 4:1).
- There will be false teachers among you, who will secretly bring in destructive heresies (2Pe 2:1).
- You have heard that the Antichrist is coming, even now many antichrists have come (1Jo 2:18).
[3:3] Knowing this first [first of all you must understand this].[ 13 ] The religion of Christ is based upon knowledge and understanding (see Joh 8:32; Ac 2:36). Continuing faithfully is also dependent upon knowledge.
My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge. Because you have rejected knowledge, I also will reject you from being priest for Me; because you have forgotten the law of your God, I also will forget your children (Ho 4:6).
In the Greek, the word "first" has the same significance as it does in English. That is, it may either mean first in order of sequence or first in importance. I think that Peter intends to say that it is important to know that scoffers or mockers will come.
That scoffers will come [ that mockers shall come with scoffing, mocking, mockery, their mocking, that there shall come scoffers].[ 14 ] It is a common tactic of those in error to deride or make light of what they do not understand or cannot refute. The false teachers predicted by Peter and Jude would mock various religious truths. Especially, they would poke fun at the hope of Christ's glorious return. Both Peter and Jude wrote of the worldliness of such mockers:
These are grumblers, complainers, walking according to their own lusts; and they mouth great swelling words, flattering people to gain advantage (Jude 1:16).
How they told you that there would be mockers in the last time who would walk according to their own ungodly lusts (Jude 1:18; see charts MAKING LIGHT OF AUTHORITY A and B at 2Pe 2:10).
The description of false teachers near the end of the first century fits very well some modern university professors and a few radio talk hosts with whom the writer has been acquainted. They did not hesitate to make fun of the Bible.
In the last days [ at the close of the days].[ 15 ] Nothing in the present context negates the interpretation that the "last days" allude to the church age, the final age (see notes on 1Jo 2:18). However, that view does not appear to be convincing. It may be that Peter had in mind the "last days" of the Jewish nation that came to a close in AD 70. The statement about the false teachers, "For this they willfully forget," is in present tense and suggests that the false teachers were mocking at the very time Peter wrote and would continue to do so (see verse 5). Mockers of this genre are still with us (see notes on 1Ti 4:1; Heb 1:2).
Chart LAST DAYS
- [Christ] was manifest in these last times for you (1Pe 1:20).
- Knowing this first: that scoffers will come in the last days, walking according to their own lusts (2Pe 3:3).
- There would be mockers in the last time who would walk according to their own ungodly lusts (Jude 1:18).
Walking according to their own lusts [following, walking after, their own passions].[ 16 ] Obedient followers of Christ share their faith. Their speech is pure and their lives clean. On the other hand, those who are fulfilling selfish desires speak so as to eventually give themselves away.
Brood of vipers! How can you, being evil, speak good things? For out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaks (Mt 12:34).
Chart PETER AND CHRIST'S COMING (A)
- Salvation ready to be revealed in the last time (1Pe 1:5).
- That the genuineness of your faith . . . found to praise, honor, and glory at the revelation of Jesus Christ (1Pe 1:7).
- Searching what, or what manner of time, the Spirit of Christ who was in them was indicating when He testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ and the glories that would follow (1Pe 1:11).
WHERE IS THE PROMISE OF HIS COMING?
[3:4] And saying, Where is the promise of His coming?[ 17 ] Self-indulgent people may be expected to ridicule the way of righteousness and question the promises of Christ. The self-centered cynics Peter described did that very thing (see charts CHRIST'S COMING A, B and C).
Chart PETER AND CHRIST'S COMING (B)
- A partaker of the glory that will be revealed . . . when the Chief Shepherd appears (1Pe 5:1, 4).
- The promise of His coming (2Pe 3:4).
- But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise (2Pe 3:10).
Promises of Christ's final coming are recorded throughout the NT (see Joh 14:3; Ac 3:30; 1Th 4:15-17; 5:2; 2Th 1:7-10; 2Pe 1:16). One possible reason the deriding, hedonistic false teachers in the present context discounted the coming of Christ was that they wanted to put the ordeal of judgment out of their minds (see Mt 25:31-46). Instead of believing and obeying the gospel, they mocked God and His promises (compare Isa 5:19; Jer 17:15; Eze 12:22; Mt 24:48; Lu 12:45). Basically, their question was, "What happened to the promise that Christ will return?" Atheist Woolsey Teller, like them, poked fun at the return of Christ by asking,
Do you know why He has never returned from heaven? It is because He never got there yet![ 18 ]
Apparently, Teller was not conversant with the concept of other dimensions and the swift passage from one to the other by divine power.
Chart CHRIST'S COMING (A)
- When He comes in the glory of His Father with the holy angels (Mk 8:38).
- At an hour you do not expect (Lu 12:40).
- Will so come in like manner as you saw Him go into heaven (Ac 1:11).
Chart CHRIST'S COMING (B)
- The day of the Lord so comes as a thief in the night (1Th 5:2).
- When the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with His mighty angels, in flaming fire taking vengeance on those who do not know God, and on those who do not obey the gospel (2Th 1:7, 8).
- To those who eagerly wait for Him He will appear a second time, apart from sin, for salvation (Heb 9:28).
Chart CHRIST'S COMING (C)
- But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise (2Pe 3:10).
- Behold, He is coming with clouds, and every eye will see Him (Re 1:7).
- Behold, I am coming as a thief. Blessed is he who watches, and keeps his garments (Re 16:15).
For since the fathers fell asleep [for ever since, from the time, from the day that, our ancestors fell asleep].[ 19 ] "Fell asleep" is another way of saying the fathers died (compare Da 12:2; Mt 27:52; Joh 11:11, 12; Ac 7:60; 13:36; 1Co 15:6, 18, 20; 1Th 4:13-16). In Scripture, "the fathers" sometimes allude to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the twelve patriarchs and even pre-flood patriarchs (see Ac 3:13; Ro 9:5; Heb 1:1). Some think they were contemporaries of Peter's original readers who had heard the NT promise of Christ's return but died before this letter was written. Perhaps the phrase, "Since the fathers fell asleep" only means "Since many, many years have passed."
ALL THINGS CONTINUE
All things continue as they were [all things remain thus, have continued as they were].[ 20 ] Peter predicted the rise of uniformitarian thinking in both religious and scientific circles. This unsupported view has been an accepted tenet in universities and science textbooks for several years. The dogma is a fad that attempts to account to account for all geological changes. It is not the opposite of creationism but of catastrophism.[ 21 ] It is mainly a geological doctrine formulated to rule out the work of God. It labors hard to account for all events by existing natural processes that, it is said, are operating in the same fashion as from the beginning.
Some of the agnostic[ 22 ] or unbelieving professors in "Christian" colleges and universities have accepted the theory of uniformitarianism in whole or in part. A number of skeptical clergymen have mimicked their nihilistic[ 23 ] mentors in divinity schools and, as a result, are preaching a weak or faithless gospel.
From the beginning of creation [as from the beginning of the creation].[ 24 ] Some "scientific" writers tend to avoid any mention of a number of known catastrophes that have affected the earth and its biosphere.[ 25 ] One such catastrophe is the universal flood of Noah's day. Major cataclysmic[ 26 ] events, if accepted as historically reliable, spoil the sleepy, carelessly put-together rationalization[ 27 ] called uniformitarianism.
3:5, 6 For this they willfully forget: that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of water and in the water, 6 by which the world that then existed perished, being flooded with water.
For this they willfully forget [for this they willingly, deliberately, ignore, ignore this fact, are ignorant of, is hidden from them through their own wilfulness].[ 28 ] Evidence that supports belief in a universal flood may be ignored in university classrooms and texts for no other reason than to avoid the supernatural.[ 29 ] Indications of the Genesis flood are recorded in sediments as well as in the Bible for everyone to read. However, if one does not want something to be true it is easy to close the eyes to testimony in favor of it.
Chart CREATION BY WORD OF GOD (A)
- Then God said, "Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters" (Ge 1:6).
- Then God said, "Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place" (Ge 1:9).
- By the word of the LORD the heavens were made (Ps 33:6).
- For He spoke, and it was done; he commanded, and it stood fast (Ps 33:9).
Chart CREATION BY WORD OF GOD (B)
- He commanded and they were created (Ps 148:5).
- For it is the God who commanded light to shine out of darkness, who has shone in our hearts (2Co 4:6).
- By faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God (Heb 11:3).
That by the word of God [by the word of God].[ 30 ] Notice the repetitive phrase in the first chapter of Genesis: "Then God said" (see charts CREATION BY WORD OF GOD A and B).
Chart PHYSICAL HEAVENS (A)
(2Pe 3:5, 7, 10)
- The heavens and the earth created (Ge 1:1).
- The Most High is the Possessor of heaven and earth (Ge 14:19).
- Praise Him, you heavens of heavens, and you waters above the heavens! (Ps 148:4).
Chart PHYSICAL HEAVENS (B)
[SUN, MOON AND STARS]
(2Pe 3:5, 7, 10)
- Lights in the firmament of the heavens (Ge 1:14-17).
- You shall not make for yourself a carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath (Ex 20:4).
- When I put out your light, I will cover the heavens, and make its stars dark; I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not give her light (Eze 32:7).
Chart HEAVEN, DWELLING OF GOD
(2Pe 3:5, 7, 10)
- Return, we beseech You, O God of hosts; look down from heaven and see, and visit this vine (Ps 80:14).
- Thus says the LORD: "Heaven is My throne, and earth is My footstool" (Isa 66:1).
- Father in heaven, hallowed be Your name (Mt 6:9).
- For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout (1Th 4:16).
Chart HEAVEN, DWELLING OF RIGHTEOUS
(2Pe 3:5, 7, 10)
- Caught up to third heaven (2Co 12:2).
- From whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named (Eph 3:15).
- Set your mind on things above, not on things on the earth (Col 3:2).
Chart BLESSINGS IN HEAVEN
(2Pe 3:5, 7, 10)
- Reward (Mt 5:12).
- Treasures (Mt 6:20).
- Joy (Lu 15:7; Re 18:20).
The heavens were [heavens, that, that there were, heavens existed].[ 31 ] Jews recognized seven strata of heavens.[ 32 ] However, in the present context, it seems that the heavens consist of at least the atmosphere from whence rains come. Then, possibly, the solar system. Some scholars insist that they consist of that plus the entire material universe (see charts PHYSICAL HEAVENS A and B; HEAVEN, DWELLING OF GOD; HEAVEN, DWELLING OF RIGHTEOUS). The writer declines to make an argument based upon the plurality of the word "heavens" because, in Scripture, the singular and plural of this word apparently are used interchangeably.[ 33 ]
Of old [long ago, from of old][ 34 ] (see note on 2Pe 2:3).
And the earth [and an, the, earth].[ 35 ] Peter now begins to develop a thought about the earth alone with its waters.
Standing out of water [formed, compacted, was standing, having its subsistence, out of the water].[ 36 ] The Greek words tell us that the earth was formed "out of water." The scholarly James Macknight thought the meaning to be, "Since the earth was made of water."[ 37 ] We know that it was compacted and held together by the word of God. We also understand that Christ holds it together. "And He is before all things, and in Him all things consist (Col 1:17). Apparently, He does so by His word. He is "upholding all things by the word of His power" (Heb 1:3).
And in the water [and amidst, by means of, together with, water].[ 38 ] The meaning seems to be that our planet was formed between or through water. Because approximately three-fourths of the earth's surface is covered by water it is sometimes called the "terraqueous"[ 39 ] or "water" planet. The original land mass was formed between the seas (see Ge 10:25; 1Ch 1:19).[ 40 ]
The earth is the LORD'S, and all its fullness, the world and those who dwell therein. 2 For He has founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the waters (Ps 24:1, 2; compare Ge 1:7-10; Ps 89:11).
[3:6] By which [through which waters, means, whereby].[ 41 ] Students have wondered if the plural pronoun "which" in the Greek refers to the singular "word of God". Some have proposed that it alludes to the heavens[ 42 ] and the earth or to one or more of these plus water. It is true that in Scripture, the singular is sometimes put for the plural.[ 43 ] If this is the case here, then the allusion may be to the flood (singular) or the word of God (singular).[ 44 ] We are certain that the pre-flood world perished by water, that is, by the flood. It also perished by the word of God.
The world that then existed [the world that then was, that was then, the then world].[ 45 ] In 2 Peter 2:5, the apostle spoke of God not sparing "the ancient world" but saving Noah. Apparently, "the ancient world" or "the world that then existed" was made up of the people not saved in the ark.
Perished [and perished].[ 46 ] Many people perished in the flood. All "living things" were destroyed from the face of the earth (Ge 6:17; 7:4, 23). In a similar connection, Jude compares the false teachers to others who perished.
Woe to them! For they have gone in the way of Cain, have run greedily in the error of Balaam for profit, and perished in the rebellion of Korah (Jude 1:11).
Being flooded with water [deluged, was deluged, overflowed, with water].[ 47 ] The Genesis flood was widespread. Scripture pictures it as universal.
In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, on that day all the fountains of the great deep were broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened (Ge 7:11; compare 2Pe 2:5).
And the waters prevailed exceedingly on the earth, and all the high hills under the whole heaven were covered (Ge 7:19).
RESERVED FOR FIRE
3:7 But the heavens and the earth which are now preserved by the same word, are reserved for fire until the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men.
But the heavens [but heavens ].[ 48 ] Verse 10 describes the "present heavens" passing away with a great noise on the day of the Lord. The Greek may or may not intimate more than earth's atmospheric regions. Certain OT passages suggest that "the heavens . . . which are now" may include the planets or even the universe with its multitudinous galaxies (see Isa 13:13;[ 49 ] 34:4;[ 50 ] 51:6;[ 51 ] Eze 32:7, 8;[ 52 ] Joel 2:2, 31;[ 53 ] Am 8:9).
And the earth [and earth].[ 54 ]
Which are now preserved [the present, are now, that now are, that now exist, are being, have been, reserved, stored up].[ 55 ]
By the same word [by his word].[ 56 ] God's word caused the earth to be created. It caused the flood to destroy life on it. The teaching about future destruction by fire at the day of judgment is accepted as true (see note on That by the word of God at verse 5). Not only is the revealed word of God is believed and reverenced by Christians, it is obeyed.
Are reserved [have been laid up, stored up, kept, kept in store, being reserved].[ 57 ] The existing heavens and earth are being reserved for fire. The coming conflagration is deferred until the day of judgment. The patience, wisdom and mercy of God are seen in the delay. However, an appropriate time for fiery destruction will eventually come. That day has been "appointed" (see Ac 17:31).
Chart GOD'S IDENTIFYING FIRES (A)
- Pillar of fire (Ex 13:21; 14:24; 40:38; Nu 9:15, 16; 14:14; De 1:33; Ps 78:14; 105:39).
- At Horeb [Sinai] (De 4:11, 12, 15, 33, 36; 5:4, 22-26; 9:10, 15; 10:4).
- Blazing fire from midst of bush (Ex 3:2).
Chart GOD'S IDENTIFYING FIRES (B)
- Consumed offerings (Le 9:24; Jg 6:21; 1Ki 18:38).
- When Elijah was at Horeb (1Ki 19:12).
- Elijah's chariot of fire (2Ki 2:11).
For fire [unto fire].[ 58 ] Several times God has used fire to identify Himself (see charts GOD'S IDENTIFYING FIRES A and B). The fire that consumed Job's sheep and servants was called "the fire of God" by a servant who escaped (Job 1:16). The "great noise" of verse 10 may be the roar of the fire at the time when the present heavens pass away.
Until the day of judgment [against, unto, kept for, being kept until, a day, the day, of judgment].[ 59 ] The day of judgment will be one of material destruction as well as a time of perdition of godless people.
And perdition [and destruction].[ 60 ] After death, the wicked are in a state of torment in flames (Lu 16:23, 24, 28). The Scriptures depict a similar condition at the coming of Christ.
Since it is a righteous thing with God to repay with tribulation those who trouble you, 7 and to give you who are troubled rest with us when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with His mighty angels, 8 in flaming fire taking vengeance on those who do not know God, and on those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. 9 These shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power, 10 when He comes, in that Day, to be glorified in His saints and to be admired among all those who believe, because our testimony (2Th 1:6-10).
But the cowardly, unbelieving, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars shall have their part in the lake which burns with fire and brimstone, which is the second death (Re 21:8).
Of ungodly men [of ungodly people].[ 61 ] "Ungodly men" are irreverent and impious people. They are headed for eternity without Christ. Further descriptions of these godless people are in 1 Corinthians 6:9, 10; Galatians 5:19-21.
ONE DAY AS A THOUSAND YEARS
3:8 But, beloved, do not forget this one thing, that with the Lord one day is as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.
But, beloved.[ 62 ] This is the second of four occurrences of the word "beloved" in this chapter (see chart BELOVED at verse 1).
Do not forget this one thing [forget not, do not ignore, do not be, be not, unaware of, ignorant of, this one fact, let not this one thing be hidden from you].[ 63 ] God's perception of time may be perplexing but it must not be lost sight of. He does not depend upon the number of rotations or revolutions of our planet in order to mark the "passing" of eternity or heavenly "time." He does not need humanly invented clocks and calendars to regulate His thoughts and actions. It is difficult for humans to explain just how He is above and not limited by time as earthlings know or imagine it.[ 64 ]
That with the Lord [with the Lord].[ 65 ] God's thinking is greatly superior to that of Buckley, Edison, Einstein, Michikuku or Smith or (see Isa 55:9; Ps 103:11). Man's ordinary perception of time is thought by some to be an illusion. On the other hand, whatever comprehension is "with the Lord" is the true understanding of time.
One day is as a thousand years [that one day is as a thousand years].[ 66 ] The length of time of a "day" may not matter to God so long as His eternal purpose is fulfilled. We are thankful that there is a day of grace, a day of salvation.
For a thousand years in Your sight are like yesterday when it is past, and like a watch in the night (Ps 90:4; compare Ge 1:1).
And a thousand years as one day [and a thousand years is as one day].[ 67 ] It has been said that in the creation God began "time" (see Ge 1:1) and that when Christ came to earth He entered into "time." According to Scripture, there will be an end to "time"[ 68 ] (Re 10:6 KJV). In the meantime, human beings are concerned with its passing, and properly so.
The days of our lives are seventy years; and if by reason of strength they are eighty years, yet their boast is only labor and sorrow; for it is soon cut off, and we fly away. 11 Who knows the power of Your anger? For as the fear of You, so is Your wrath. 12 So teach us to number our days, that we may gain a heart of wisdom (Ps 90:10-12).
NOT SLACK CONCERNING HIS PROMISE
3:9 The Lord is not slack concerning His promise, as some count slackness, but is longsuffering toward us, not willing that any should perish but that all should come to repentance.
The Lord is not slack [the Lord is not slow, does not delay].[ 69 ] Those who scorn the delay of Christ's return are looking at the wrong point. Instead of ridiculing His future advent, they should be thinking about His longsuffering and goodness (see Ro 2:4; note below on But is longsuffering toward us).
Concerning His promise [in fulfilling, about, his promise].[ 70 ] Peter alludes primarily to God's promise of Christ's return (see charts at verse 4: CHRIST'S COMING A, B and C; PETER AND CHRIST'S COMING A and B).
As some count slackness [as some men account of, think of, slowness, delay].[ 71 ] In Noah's day, skeptics ignored the prediction of the flood. Today, unbelievers not only discount the Bible account of the blood but ignore the promised judgment day. The message is: Do not count the delay as slackness or slowness. Count it as God's patience.
Chart GOD'S PATIENCE (A)
- But in the fourth generation they shall return here, for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet complete (Ge 15:16).
- I will not destroy it for the sake of ten (Ge 18:32).
- The LORD, the LORD God, merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and abounding in goodness and truth (Ex 34:6).
Chart GOD'S PATIENCE (B)
- Yet for many years You had patience with them (Ne 9:30).
- And should I not pity Nineveh, that great city, in which are more than one hundred and twenty thousand persons who cannot discern between their right hand and their left-- and much livestock? (Jon 4:11).
- O Jerusalem, Jerusalem . . . How often I wanted to gather your children together! (Mt 23:37).
Chart GOD'S PATIENCE (C)
- These times of ignorance God overlooked (Ac 17:30).
- Goodness of God leads you to repentance (Ro 2:4).
- In His forbearance God had passed over the sins that were previously committed (Ro 3:25).
Chart GOD'S PATIENCE (D)
- Endured with much longsuffering the vessels of wrath prepared for destruction (Ro 9:22).
- All day long I have stretched out My hands to a disobedient and contrary people (Ro 10:21).
- However, for this reason I obtained mercy, that in me first Jesus Christ might show all longsuffering, as a pattern to those who are going to believe on Him for everlasting life (1Ti 1:16).
- The Divine longsuffering waited in the days of Noah (1Pe 3:20).
But is longsuffering toward us [but he is patient, forbearing, with, to, towards, you, you-ward, us-ward].[ 72 ] The Bible abounds with examples of God's patience and His delays of punishment. He gave Hezekiah fifteen additional years of life (Isa 38:5). He was patient with Israel (Ro 11:11-36). Jezebel was given "time to repent" (Re 2:21; compare Ro 12:1; see charts GOD'S PATIENCE A, B, C and D).
Not willing [not wishing, not wanting].[ 73 ] It is not God's desire to send anyone to hell (see 1Ti 2:4). To prevent that, He phas repared a way of salvation through Christ and His gospel for all who will take advantage of it. There is an implication that the judgment day will end opportunity to be saved. Death apparently closes the door for salvation (see Heb 9:27).
That any should perish [any one to perish].[ 74 ] The Scriptures teach that men must repent or perish (see Lu 13:3, 5; chart PERISH [A WORD STUDY] A and B).
[A WORD STUDY] (A)
- Save us, Lord; APOLLUMETHA we are perishing! (Mt 8:25).
- Whoever believes in Him should not APOLEETAI perish, but have eternal life (Joh 3:16).
- And I give eternal life to them, and they shall never APOLOONTAI perish (Joh 10:28).
- And I guarded them, and not one of them APOOLETO perished but the son of APOOLEIAS perdition (Joh 17:12).
- For all who have sinned without the Law KAI APOLOUNTAI will also perish without the Law (Ro 2:12).
[A WORD STUDY] (B)
- For the word of the cross is to those who APOLLUMENOIS are perishing foolishness (1Co 1:18).
- And because of your knowledge shall the weak brother APOLLUTAI perish (1Co 8:11).
- Then those also who have fallen asleep in Christ APOOLONTO have perished (1Co 15:18).
- Not wishing for any APOLESTHAI to perish (2Pe 3:9).
- And APOOLONTO perished in the rebellion of Korah (Jude 11).
But that all should come to repentance [but wanting all to come to, should reach, repentance].[ 75 ] God has no pleasure in the death of the wicked (Eze 18:32; 33:11). He did not send Christ to condemn the world (Joh 3:17; compare Heb 2:9). It is His gracious desire that everyone be saved. According to His patience, it is His purpose to give everyone occasion or opportunity to repent. It is imperative that all false teachers and other sinners take advantage of it (see Ac 17:30, 31).
For the grace of God that brings salvation has appeared to all men, 12 teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly in the present age, 13 looking for the blessed hope and glorious appearing of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ (Tit 2:11-13).
DAY OF THE LORD TO COME AS A THIEF
3:10 But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will melt with fervent heat; both the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up.
But the day of the Lord.[ 76 ] The day of the Lord is the resurrection day (Joh 5:28, 29). It is the day of the Lord's return (1Th 5:2). It is the judgment day (2Pe 2:9; 3:7). It is not a day to be dreaded by the righteous who are confirmed by the Lord Himself.
Who will also confirm you to the end, that you may be blameless in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ (1Co 1:8; compare 2Co 1:14; Php 1:6; 2Th 2:2).
Will come [shall come].[ 77 ] The patience of the Lord will one day come to an abrupt end just as it did when the flood came on the world of the ungodly. Remember also the fate of angels who sinned, that of the persistent sinners of Sodom (see 2Pe 2:4, 6), the captivity of the Jews and the ultimate destruction of Jerusalem.
As a thief in the night [like, as, a thief].[ 78 ] The coming of Christ will be sudden and unexpected. It will be a surprise because there will be no advance announcement as to the day or hour. There will be no billboards telling the year. Do not expect the late news to give a warning.
For you yourselves know perfectly that the day of the Lord so comes as a thief in the night (1Th 5:2).
Chart COMING LIKE A THIEF
- If the master of the house had known what hour the thief would come, he would have watched (Mt 24:43; Lu 12:39).
- The day of the Lord so comes as a thief in the night (1Th 5:2).
- But you, brethren, are not in darkness, so that this Day should overtake you as a thief (1Th 5:4).
- Therefore if you will not watch, I will come upon you as a thief, and you will not know what hour I will come upon you (Re 3:3).
- Behold, I am coming as a thief (Re 16:15).
In which the heavens [and then, in the which, the heavens].[ 79 ] Some think the heavens in the present context are the atmosphere above us where the birds fly (see notes and charts at verses 5, 7).[ 80 ] Others suppose that they include the sun's planets and beyond.
Will pass away [shall disappear].[ 81 ] The heavens that will pass away do not include the dwelling of God.
With a great noise [with a roar, a rushing, loud noise].[ 82 ] The pronunciation of the Greek RHOIZEEDON approximates a roaring sound. Some have suggested that Peter was witnessing a vision of the actual end of the world in advance. If so, he could hear a loud roar of the flames. It would be so thunderous that the noise of crashing trees and buildings would be insignificant by comparison. He could possibly feel the intense heat and smell the fire!
And the elements will melt [and the elements will be, shall be, dissolved, shall melt].[ 83 ] Elements are fundamental building blocks of the material world. Some ancients regarded them as earth, air, fire and water; others the sun, moon and stars. It is possible that the Holy Spirit anticipated the work of the Russian Dimitri Ivanovich Mendeleev and others who produced Periodic Tables of the Elements. If so, the "elements" are the ninety or more discovered by man plus numerous man-made isotopes[ 84 ] (see verse 12).
With fervent heat [by fire, heat, intense heat].[ 85 ] The heat will cause a melt-down of the materials of earth. Although it is a possibility, the language does not require that matter will be converted into nuclear energy.
Both the earth [and the earth, the earth also].[ 86 ]
And the works that are in it [and the works in it, that are upon it, therein]. [ 87 ] Buildings and manufactured goods of various forms and shapes will blend together in the heat and then lose their identity.
Will be burned up [burning, burnt up, shall be burnt up].[ 88 ] Grass huts as well as fireproof buildings will burn. The Empire State Building and the Pentagon will be ablaze. The Mona Lisa will disappear in a wisp of smoke and fire. Yankee Stadium will crumble and flare up in flames. NASA will explode in conflagration. The British Museum will vanish. These flimsy NT notes will vaporize! Nothing will escape the fire. There may be more truth than fiction in the rendering "will vanish" (TEV) or "will be laid bare" (NIV).
WHAT OUGHT YOU TO BE
3:11, 12 Therefore, since all these things will be dissolved, what manner of persons ought you to be in holy conduct and godliness, 12 looking for and hastening the coming of the day of God, because of which the heavens will be dissolved, being on fire, and the elements will melt with fervent heat?
Therefore, since all these things [since, then being, seeing, seeing then, that, all these things].[ 89 ] "All these things" include the heavens, the elements, the earth and its works.
Will be dissolved [to be, shall be, are to be, are thus to be, all to be, destroyed, destroyed like this].[ 90 ] The continual action indicated by the Greek present participle reminds one of the second law of thermodynamics which basically says there is a continual and universal tendency toward decay, randomness and disorder. Peter, however, speaks of a much more sudden dissolution at the end of time.
What manner of persons [what, what kind of, what sort of, people].[ 91 ] The citizenship of Christians is in heaven (Php 3:20). They are strangers, exiles or sojourners on the earth (see Heb 11:13-16). To them the judgment day is a serious motivation to live right.
How we should live is a topic all should carefully consider. God once reasoned with Israel through Ezekiel, whom He called "son of man." He deliberated about life and death, saying:
Therefore, O thou son of man, speak unto the house of Israel; Thus ye speak, saying, If our transgressions and our sins be upon us, and we pine away in them, how should we then live?[ 92 ] (Eze 33:10 KJV).
Ought you to be [ought ye to be, you must be].[ 93 ] Because of the coming judgment day it behooves every accountable person to re-examine his heart and life and, if necessary, rededicate himself to the Lord. Not only in baptism but in sanctification Jesus Himself set an example for everyone.
And for their sakes I sanctify Myself, that they also may be sanctified by the truth (Joh 17:19; compare 1Pe 2:21).
Paul appealed to the love of Christ and God's promises to motivate Christians to live purer lives.
For the love of Christ compels us, because we judge thus: that if One died for all, then all died (2Co 5:14)
Therefore, having these promises, beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God (2Co 7:1).
John approached the same life-changing idea from the standpoint of hope:
And everyone who has this hope in Him purifies himself, just as He is pure (1Jo 3:3).
In holy conduct [in lives of holiness, in holy, in a holy, in all holy, living, conversation, manner of life].[ 94 ] The holiness of God moves His children to live holy lives.
But as He who called you is holy, you also be holy in all your conduct (1Pe 1:15).
And godliness.[ 95 ] "Godliness" is a term describing one who worships God reverently and devoutly and then obeys His word sincerely.
[3:12] Looking for [waiting for, expecting].[ 96 ] "Hope" has two distinct elements: earnest desire and eager expectation.[ 97 ] The Greek in the present verse means "awaiting" or "looking for."
And hastening [and hasting, hurrying, unto, toward, and earnestly desiring].[ 98 ] "Hastening" suggests the element of intense desire. A similar usage of "hastening" was used by Isaiah.
In mercy the throne will be established; and One will sit on it in truth, in the tabernacle of David, judging and seeking justice and SPEUDOON hastening righteousness" (Isa 16:5).[ 99 ]
Guy N. Woods interpreted the verb "hastening" in the present passage transitively, that is, "causing the day of God to come more quickly by helping to accomplish the things which must occur before it dawns." Vine, Thayer and Lenski agree with Woods. Others suppose the meaning is nothing more than that every person is swiftly moving toward an appointed judgment day (see Ac 17:30, 31).
The coming of the day of God.[ 100 ] The "day of God" is the same as the "day of the Lord" (see verse 10).
Because of which [wherein, in which, by reason of which].[ 101 ]
HEAVENS TO BE DISSOLVED
The heavens will be dissolved [the heavens shall be dissolved, shall dissolve].[ 102 ] (see notes on verses 5, 7; charts DESTRUCTION OF HEAVENS A and B).
Chart DESTRUCTION OF HEAVENS (A)
- They will perish, but You will endure; yes, they will all grow old like a garment; like a cloak You will change them, and they will be changed (Ps 102:26).
- All the host of heaven shall be dissolved, and the heavens shall be rolled up like a scroll (Isa 34:4).
- For the heavens will vanish away like smoke, the earth will grow old like a garment(Isa 51:6).
Chart DESTRUCTION OF HEAVENS (B)
- Heaven and earth will pass away (Mt 24:35).
- They will perish, but You remain; and they will all grow old like a garment; 12 Like a cloak You will fold them up, and they will be changed (Heb 1:11, 12).
- From whose face the earth and the heaven fled away. And there was found no place for them (Re 20:11).
Being on fire [will be kindled][ 103 ] (see notes on verses 7, 10).
And the elements [ and the elements][ 104 ] (see note on verse 10).
Will melt [shall melt].[ 105 ] The apostle speaks of the melting of the elements, the component substances, of the material world. A contemplation of verses 10 and 13 support this opinion. Life on earth will come to an end on this "the last day" (see Joh 6:44; 12:48; 1Co 15:24).
With fervent heat [with fire, intense heat, burning with heat].[ 106 ] The terrible events Peter describes are to occur on the day of judgment and destruction of ungodly men (compare Mt 13:49, 50). This parallels other Scriptures about the final judgment day (see notes on 2Th 1:7-10; Heb 9:27; charts DAY OF JUDGMENT A and B at 2Pe 2:9).
DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM CONSIDERED
The writer has serious doubts that the present section of Peter's letter could describe the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70.[ 107 ] One reason is that his language about the earth and heavens parallels the literal description of the earth's destruction by the flood (see verses 5, 6). Since the destruction by the flood was literal, there is a strong intimation that the destruction of the world by fire will also be literal. There is to be a replacement of the melted world with "new heavens and a new earth." According to some, this describes an era of peace for the Lord's church. Historically, that has not occured for churches of Christ except perhaps during the time of the Roman emperor Constantine who died in AD 337. During my early life, churches of Christ were generally at peace except for many debates between gospel preachers and denominational pastors.
NEW HEAVENS AND EARTH
3:13 Nevertheless we, according to His promise, look for new heavens and a new earth in which righteousness dwells.
Nevertheless we [but we].[ 108 ] Peter uses "we" to encompass all Christians.
According to His promise.[ 109 ] Some students claim to see in the promise God made to Abraham an implication of a new heaven and a new earth (see Ge 12:1-3). Others see a connection with the beatitude: "Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth" (Mt 5:5). In another passage Jesus alludes to "that age" to follow the great resurrection day.
The sons of this age marry and are given in marriage. 35 But those who are counted worthy to attain that age, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry nor are given in marriage (Lu 20:34).[ 110 ]
Look for [wait for, are looking for, look for].[ 111 ] Christians anticipate the future abode prepared for them.
Let not your heart be troubled; you believe in God, believe also in Me. 2 In My Father's house are many mansions; if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you (Joh 14:1, 2).
New.[ 112 ] Will everything on the earth be annihilated and re-created or simply refurbished? Possibly the latter. According to Vine, the word "new" in this verse means "new as to form and quality." The new earth will be fresh, not old, obsolete or worn out (see charts NEW HEAVENS AND EARTH IN ISAIAH 65; NEW HEAVENS AND EARTH IN ISAIAH 66;[ 113 ] NEW THINGS TO BE ENJOYED; HEAVENS TO BE DESTROYED).
Chart NEW HEAVENS AND EARTH IN ISAIAH 65
- For behold, I create new heavens and a new earth (Isa 65:17).Now I saw a new heaven and a new earth (Re 21:1).
- The voice of weeping shall no longer be heard in her (Isa 65:19).And God will wipe away every tear (Re 21:4).
- No more shall an infant from there live but a few days, nor an old man who has not fulfilled his days (Isa 65:20).There shall be no more death (Re 21:4).
Chart NEW HEAVENS AND EARTH IN ISAIAH 66
- From one New Moon to another, and from one Sabbath to another, all flesh shall come to worship before Me (Isa 66:23)The Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are its temple (Re 21:22).
The throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it, and His servants shall serve Him (Re 22:3).
Heavens.[ 114 ] The concept of new heavens and new earth is puzzling because, due to sin, there is now a separation between the heavenly abode of God and the earth. Christ came in order to remove that gap. After He comes again there will no longer be such a separation. The wicked will go to hell and the righteous will dwell with God (see Joh 5:28, 29). A new heaven and earth are pictured in Revelation 21:1-5 as replacements for the "first heaven and the first earth" (see note below on In which righteousness dwells. The new abode of the righteous will be spiritual in the sense that the patriarch Abraham looked for a city with foundations:
For he waited for the city which has foundations, whose builder and maker is God (Heb 11:10)
Chart NEW THINGS TO BE ENJOYED
- A new heaven and a new earth (2Pe 3:13).
- A new name, the believer's (Re 2:17).
- A new name, the Lord's (Re 3:12).
- A new song (Re 5:9).
- New Jerusalem (Re 3:12; 21:2).
- Then He who sat on the throne said, "Behold, I make all things new" (Re 21:5).
Compare Vine 782.
And a new earth.[ 115 ] The writer confesses that he knows little about the new earth. The present earth will be burned up. The new one certainly is not the old one with its earthly Jerusalem to which premillennialists and other future kingdom advocates look.
In which righteousness dwells [wherein dwelleth righteousness].[ 116 ] The plural relative pronoun "which" seems to refer to both the new heavens and the new earth. It is not the entire universe, but where "righteous" persons will reside. "Righteousness dwells wherever righteous people live."[ 117 ] "New heavens and earth" are understood by some scholars as a description of heaven![ 118 ] Others agree that righteousness now dwells in heaven but they say that after the new heavens and earth are re-established, righteousness will dwell in both heaven and earth. At that time, there will be no effective separation between the two as there now is because of sin (see Isa 59:2).
BE DILIGENT TO BE FOUND IN PEACE
3:14-16 Therefore, beloved, looking forward to these things, be diligent to be found by Him in peace, without spot and blameless; 15 and account that the longsuffering of our Lord is salvation-- as also our beloved brother Paul, according to the wisdom given to him, has written to you, 16 as also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things, in which are some things hard to understand, which untaught and unstable people twist to their own destruction, as they do also the rest of the Scriptures.
Therefore [wherefore].[ 119 ] Looking forward toward events at the end of time serve as a present motivation for everyone to change his behavior for the better. Because of those Peter has just listed, Christians maintain a pure and spotless life (see verse 11; chart REASONS FOR RIGHTEOUSNESS).
Chart REASONS FOR RIGHTEOUSNESS
- A day of judgment is coming (2Pe 3:7).
- Perdition of ungodly men (2Pe 3:7).
- The heavens and earth will be burned up (2Pe 3:10, 12).
- But the day of the Lord will come (2Pe 3:10).
- New heavens and a new earth promised (2Pe 3:13).
- In which righteousness dwells (2Pe 3:13).
Beloved.[ 120 ] This is the third occurrence of the tender word "beloved" in this chapter (see chart BELOVED at verse 1).
Looking forward to these things [as ye, since you, seeing that ye, wait for, look for, such things][ 121 ] (see note on verse 13).
Chart BE DILIGENT
- He who leads, with diligence (Ro 12:8).
- Endeavoring to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace (Eph 4:3).
- And we desire that each one of you show the same diligence to the full assurance of hope until the end (Heb 6:11).
- Therefore, brethren, be even more diligent to make your call and election sure (2Pe 1:10).
Be diligent [be zealous, give diligence].[ 122 ] Christians do their utmost to please God. They make every effort to be at peace with Him.
To be found by Him [that ye may be found, be found of him].[ 123 ] "To be found by Him" alludes to the findings of Christ the Judge after the resurrection day. What a joy it will be to hear the verdict, "Well done!" (Mt 25:21, 23). In his first letter, Peter wrote of various trials and their evaluation at the judgment day.
That the genuineness of your faith, being much more precious than gold that perishes, though it is tested by fire, may be found to praise, honor, and glory at the revelation of Jesus Christ (1Pe 1:7).
In peace [and at peace].[ 124 ] Because of the work of Christ and the human response to His gospel, Christians will be found in peace, spotless and blameless. There is great peace of soul for those who are faithful. "For so He gives His beloved sleep" (Ps 127:2).[ 125 ] It is God's desire that all of His children enjoy both grace and peace:
Grace and peace be multiplied to you in the knowledge of God and of Jesus our Lord (2Pe 1:2).
In the present context, Peter is writing of a favorable and peaceful reception on the judgment day. Those found "in peace" will hear the Lord say, "Come, you blessed of My Father" (Mt 25:34). Those not found in peace will hear His, "Depart from Me!" (Mt 7:23; 25:41).
Without spot [spotless].[ 126 ] One of the conditions of being found in peace is to be spotless. That precious state is due solely to the merits of the blood of Christ. It is only through His sacrificial death that sinful people may become clean and without blot or stain. Peter mentions at least six things that people must do (see chart TO BE SPOTLESS; notes on 2Pe 2:12-14)).
Chart TO BE SPOTLESS
- Obey Jesus Christ (1Pe 1:3; compare 1Ti 6:14; Jas 1:27).
- Be sprinkled with His blood (1Pe 1:2).
- Come to repentance (2Pe 3:9).
- Baptism now saves you (1Pe 3:21).
- Add the seven graces (2Pe 1:5-11).
- Avoid following false teachers; not falling from steadfastness (2Pe 2:13; 3:17).
And blameless [or blemish, and blameless in his sight].[ 127 ] "Blameless" means to be without blemish or without rebuke. Because of obedience to the gospel, a dedicated life together with the continual forgiveness of Christ, a faithful Christian will be counted blameless on the judgment day.
[3:15] And account [and count, and consider].[ 128 ] Again, Peter calls on Christians to use their minds. They are to consider, give attention to and bear in mind the meaning of the longsuffering and patience of the Lord.
Chart LONGSUFFERING OF GOD
- The LORD is longsuffering and abundant in mercy, forgiving iniquity and transgression (Nu 14:18).
- For My name's sake I will defer My anger (Isa 48:9).
- Nevertheless My eye spared them from destruction (Eze 20:17).
- Endured with much longsuffering the vessels of wrath prepared for destruction (Ro 9:22).
- The Divine longsuffering waited in the days of Noah (1Pe 3:20).
That the longsuffering of our Lord [the patience, forbearance, of our Lord].[ 129 ] God's patience allows sinful human beings time and opportunity to repent (see verse 9; chart LONGSUFFERING OF GOD).
Is salvation [as, to be, salvation].[ 130 ] In the present verse, "salvation" stands for the occasion or opportunity to be saved. In other words, due to God's patience, man receives an elongated opening in time during which he may obey the gospel and receive forgiveness of sins (see Ac 2:38). God's patience may allow sinful people additional opportunity to prepare for the judgment.
Therefore we make it our aim, whether present or absent, to be well pleasing to Him. 10 For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, that each one may receive the things done in the body, according to what he has done, whether good or bad. 11 Knowing, therefore, the terror of the Lord, we persuade men; but we are well known to God, and I also trust are well known in your consciences (2Co 5:9-11).
PAUL'S DIFFICULT WRITINGS
As also [so also, even as, according as].[ 131 ] Peter introduces a thought that relates to the unity of the early churches of Christ. Peter, apostle to the Jews, recognized with favor the great apostle Paul.
Our beloved brother Paul [our beloved brother Paul also, even as our beloved brother Paul].[ 132 ] Peter held absolutely no animosity toward Paul who once had opposed him to his face (Ga 2:11). He and Paul were on the same team. They loved the same Lord, preached the same gospel and had the same hope.
According to the wisdom given to him [also according to the wisdom given him, unto him].[ 133 ] The wisdom given to Paul was not the wisdom of men (1Co 2:5). It was from above (Jas 3:17). It was "the word of wisdom through the Spirit" (1Co 12:8). He was a gifted apostle. In other words, he spoke and wrote words taught by the Holy Spirit:
These things we also speak, not in words which man's wisdom teaches but which the Holy Spirit teaches, comparing spiritual things with spiritual (1Co 2:13; compare 1Co 14:37).
Has written to you [wrote, hath written, also has written, unto you].[ 134 ] Paul, whose primary mission was to Gentiles, wrote about fourteen NT epistles (see Ga 2:8, 9). Perhaps Peter alluded to Paul's epistles to the Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians and Philemon. These letters were addressed to those in the vicinity of "Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia" (see 1Pe 1:1). Like the other early NT Scriptures His letters were inspired. They were circulated among various churches of Christ. Peter's readers knew about them. They, like all the NT writings, were directly or indirectly written to Peter's readers, as well as to other congregations and to us.
[3:16] As also in all his epistles [as he does in all his letters].[ 135 ] There is a hint here that Paul had written other letters that had not yet reached Peter's immediate readers. For one, 2 Timothy is remained to be written.
Speaking in them of these things [he speaks of this, about these things][ 136 ] (see charts PAUL ON CHRIST'S COMING; PAUL ON THE RESURRECTION).
Chart PAUL ON CHRIST'S COMING
- We shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ (Ro 14:10).
- So that He may establish your hearts blameless in holiness before our God and Father at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ with all His saints (1Th 3:13).
- Now, brethren, concerning the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our gathering together to Him, we ask you, 2 not to be soon shaken in mind or troubled, either by spirit or by word or by letter, as if from us, as though the day of Christ had come (2Th 2:1, 2).
Chart PAUL ON THE RESURRECTION
- Declared to be the Son of God with power . . . by the resurrection (Ro 1:4).
- He was buried, and that He rose again the third day according to the Scriptures (1Co 15:3, 4).
- For we know that if our earthly house, this tent, is destroyed, we have a building from God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens (2Co 5:1).
- That I may know Him and the power of His resurrection (Php 3:10).
In which are some things [there are some things in them, among which, wherein, some things].[ 137 ]
Hard to understand [are hard to be understood].[ 138 ] No matter how difficult certain NT passages may seem, Christians endeavor to understand all of them (see Joh 7:17; 1Co 3:2; 2Ti 2:15; 3:15-17; Heb 5:14).
THE UNTAUGHT DISTORT SCRIPTURES
Which untaught [which the ignorant, the untaught, they that are unlearned].[ 139 ] Some people are more or less innocently uninformed. They may be poorly educated or just inadequately instructed in the Scriptures. Others are ignorant through their own willful rejection or neglect of the truth. A careful reading of the Scriptures leads to saving faith (see Joh 20:30, 31).
And unstable people [and ill-established, unsteadfast].[ 140 ] Some early Christians were not established in all of the truth. Some of the "untaught" were trying to lead astray people who did not have settled convictions on NT doctrine. Lustful false teachers were also beguiling "unstable" souls.
Having eyes full of adultery and that cannot cease from sin, beguiling unstable souls. They have a heart trained in covetous practices, and are accursed children (2Pe 2:14).
Twist [wrest, distort].[ 141 ] It is a terrible sin to add to, take from, pervert or misinterpret Scripture (see De 4:2; 12:32; Pr 30:6; Ga 1:7-9; Re 22:19).
Chart TWISTING SCRIPTURE
- If You are the Son of God, throw Yourself down. For it is written: "He shall give His angels charge over you," and, "In their hands they shall bear you up, lest you dash your foot against a stone" (Mt 4:6).
- As so many, peddling the word of God (2Co 2:17).
- Handling the word of God deceitfully (2Co 4:2).
- Untaught and unstable people twist to their own destruction (2Pe 3:16).
To their own destruction [unto their own destruction].[ 142 ] According to Jesus, not only the blind false teachers are headed for eternal ruin but likewise those who follow their error (see Mt 15:14; Lu 6:39; 1Co 10:11, 12).
As they do also the rest of the Scriptures [as also, as, even as, they do, the other, also the other, Scriptures].[ 143 ] One problem of certain modern teachers is that they have never carefully read the Scriptures. They depend too much upon denominational preaching, creeds, books and traditions. People had much the same problem in Jesus' day.
Jesus answered and said to them, "You are mistaken, not knowing the Scriptures nor the power of God" (Mt 22:29).
Have you not read this Scripture: "The stone which the builders rejected has become the chief cornerstone. 11 This was the Lord's doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes"? (Mk 12:10, 11).
Peter recognized Paul's writings as GRAPHAS Writings or Scriptures. His letters were inspired Scriptures. The apostles taught and wrote by inspiration of the Holy Spirit (see Mt 10:19, 20; Ac 2:1-4; 1Co 2:10-13; 2Ti 3:16, 17; 2Pe 1:20, 21).
The apostle is coming to the close of his final epistle to those of like-precious faith. He has reminded them that all things pertaining to life and godliness are through Christ. He has urged them to add the seven graces. He has reminded them of his own coming death and his desire to leave a permanent reminder after he dies. He has related his experience on the Mount of Transfiguration that mightily confirmed his faith.
He has warned about sensuous, faithless false teachers and the punishment they deserve. He has cited the retribution given to sinful angels, pre-flood sinners, the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah as well as Balaam's punishment. He has used various figures to describe the apostates such as springs without water, a dog eating its vomit and a washed sow again rolling in the mud.
The present chapter gives a reminder of prophecies that Christ will come again. The advent of mockers is predicted. These men will spread a dogma that everything continues as always. In spite of negative talk, Peter's readers are assured that the day of the Lord will come. They are urged to accept as absolute certainty the final coming of Christ as a motivation for righteous living.
LEST YOU FALL
3:17, 18 You therefore, beloved, since you know this beforehand, beware lest you also fall from your own steadfastness, being led away with the error of the wicked; 18 but grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To Him be the glory both now and forever. Amen.
You therefore [ye then].[ 144 ] In particular, the apostle directs a message to his reading constituency. They were not to apply it to others at another time and place. Christians today also need to make a personal application to themselves as well.
Beloved.[ 145 ] This the fourth and final time Peter uses the endearing term "beloved" in the present chapter (see chart BELOVED at verse 1).
Since you know this beforehand [knowing, seeing ye know, these things before].[ 146 ] Peter's readers had been forewarned. They had been alerted to the danger ahead so that they could exercise caution toward any unusual doctrines that might appear on the scene.
Beware lest you also fall [take care, be on guard, so that ye will not, fall, should fall, lose].[ 147 ] If it were not possible to fall from grace, Peter and the other inspired NT writers would not have warned about it.
Stand fast therefore in the liberty by which Christ has made us free, and do not be entangled again with a yoke of bondage. 2 Indeed I, Paul, say to you that if you become circumcised, Christ will profit you nothing. 3 And I testify again to every man who becomes circumcised that he is a debtor to keep the whole law. 4 You have become estranged from Christ, you who attempt to be justified by law; you have fallen from grace (Ga 5:1-4).
From your own steadfastness [and your own stability].[ 148 ] Paul exhorted Christians to be "steadfast, unmovable" (1Co 15:58). By adding to their faith the graces mentioned in chapter 1, Peter's readers were able to gain a secure and safe position in the faith. They became "established" in NT truth. He warns them again lest they fall from their own steadfastness.
Therefore, brethren, be even more diligent to make your call and election sure, for if you do these things you will never stumble (2Pe 1:10).
For this reason I will not be negligent to remind you always of these things, though you know and are established in the present truth (2Pe 1:12).
Being led away [be carried away].[ 149 ] It is possible for true Christians to be seduced by false teachers and led away into error to the extent that they fall from their steadfastness.
With the error [by, along with, the error].[ 150 ]
Of the wicked [of lawless men].[ 151 ] The false teach may be compared with Sodomites who were also "unprincipled" and "wicked" men.
And delivered righteous Lot, who was oppressed by the filthy conduct of the wicked (2Pe 2:7).
GROW IN GRACE AND KNOWLEDGE
[3:18] But grow in the grace [but grow in the grace].[ 152 ] On the one hand, Christians may fall into error. On the other, they may grow in grace and knowledge. To grow in grace is to increase in favor with God (see notes on Lu 2:52; 1Pe 5:12).
And knowledge [and in the knowledge].[ 153 ] The Lord has granted believers "all things that pertain to life and godliness" through the knowledge of Christ (2Pe 1:3). Christians do not grow in grace without growing in knowledge. The two go hand in hand.
Then Jesus said to those Jews who believed Him, "If you abide in My word, you are My disciples indeed. 32 And you shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free" (Joh 8:31, 32).
Stand therefore, having girded your waist with truth, having put on the breastplate of righteousness, 15 and having shod your feet with the preparation of the gospel of peace (Eph 6:14, 15).
As newborn babes, desire the pure milk of the word, that you may grow thereby (1Pe 2:2).
Of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.[ 154 ] Knowledge of the Lord includes material in the four Gospels, Acts of Apostles and the epistles (see Lu 10:16).
To Him be the glory [to him be glory].[ 155 ] For whatever good may be accomplished, for however many souls saved, for every victory over sin and error, Christians give the Lord the glory always.
Both now [now].[ 156 ] The earthly sojourn of faithful Christians brings glory to God. He is glorified in their praise and service (see Col 3:17).
And forever [and to the day of eternity].[ 157 ] Forever is the "day of eternity" or "eon's day."[ 158 ] Throughout eternity Christians will be glorifying their Lord and Savior (see Ro 11:36).
Amen.[ 159 ] "Amen" adds a note of clarity, accuracy and finality to the word of God and to this letter in particular. From the Holy Spirit who inspired the word "Amen" the meaning is, "It is so!" Christians read the letter and believe it. They take it within and respond with a firm, "So be it." They continue in the word by obeying it (see Mt 7:21).
[ 1 ]The basic text in this chapter is the NKJV. Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright 1979, 1980, 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. Alternate phrases in brackets are from ASV, Darby, ESB, KJV and RSV and occasionally another version. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.
[ 2 ]TAUTEEN EEDEE, AGAPEETOI HUMIN GRAPHOO, this now, beloved to you I write (Marshall 929); GRAPHOO is first person singular, present active indicative of GRAPHOO (Han 425); draw up in writing, compose (Thayer 122); of literary composition, write (Arndt 167); denotes already, now already, "the subjective present, with a suggested reference to some other time, or to some expectation;" AGAPEETOI [plural] [from AGAPAOO to love], beloved (Vine 110, 792); the NIV with "to you I have written" is not misleading but is not literally correct.
[ 3 ]DEUTERAN EPISTOLEEN, second letter (Marshall 929); primarily a message [from EPISTELLOO to send to], hence, a letter, an epistle (Vine 368).
[ 4 ]EN HAIS DIEGEIROO, en [both] which (Marshall 929); EN HAIS is plural, referring to both epistles; in [both] which I rouse (Marshall 929); [a strengthened form of EGEIROO raising or rising, DIA through, intensive], signifies rousing, awakening from sleep (Vine 65); in both of which (Williams); in which [plural: both] (Lenski 335).
[ 5 ]HUMOON TEEN EILIKRINEE DIANOIAN, of you the sincere mind (Marshall 929); signifies unalloyed, pure . . . in the NT it is used of moral and ethical purity; literally, a thinking through, or over, a meditation, reflecting, signifies . . . sentiment, disposition [not as a function but as a product] . . . in a good sense (Vine 741, 903); the word rendered pure is often explained tested by the sunlight; but this is very doubtful, since HEILEE, to which this meaning is traced, means heat, and not the light of the sun. Others derive it from the root of the verb HEILISSOO to roll, and explain it as that which is separated or sifted by rolling, as in a sieve; [mind is] singular, not plural. Hence, mind (Vincent 1.703); [properly sifted and cleansed by rapid movement or rolling to and fro], pure, unsullied, sincere (Thayer 175); your unsullied minds (Williams); your sincere mind (Lenski 335).
[ 6 ]Translators who rendered the Greek EILIKRINEE as sincere may have had in mind the Latin SINE CERA without wax.
[ 7 ]EN HUPOMNEESEI, by reminder (Marshall 929); denotes a reminding, a reminder . . . remembrance (Vine 947); by reminders (Williams); in a reminder (Lenski 336).
[ 8 ]MNEESTHEENAI, to remember (Marshall 929; Lenski 335; Williams); the first aorist passive infinitive of MIMNEESKOMAI (Han 425); [from the older form MNAOMAI, in the active voice signifies to remind; in the middle voice, to remind oneself of] hence, to remember, to be mindful of . . . remember (Vine 945, 946).
[ 9 ]TOON PROEIREMEENOON RHEEMATOON, the having been previously spoken words (Marshall 929); PROEIREMEENOON is the perfect passive participle, genitive plural masculine of PROLEGOO (Han 425); that which is spoken, what is uttered in speech or writing (Vine 1242); spoken or said before [a second aorist tense from an obsolete present], is rendered spoken before (Vine 1071); the utterances spoken in advance (Lenski 335); the things foretold (Williams).
[ 10 ]HUPO TOON HAGIOON PROPHEETOON, by the holy prophets (Marshall 929; Lenski 335; Williams); [those] who speak forth or openly, proclaimers of a divine message . . . in general, the prophet was one upon whom the Spirit of God rested, Numbers 11:17-29, one, to whom and through whom God speaks, Numbers 12:2; Amos 3:7, 8 (Vine 894).
[ 11 ]KAI TEES HUMOON ENTOLEES TOU KURIOU KAI SOOTEEROS, and the of you commandment of the Lord and Savior (Marshall 929); collectively, of the whole body of the moral precepts of Christianity (Thayer 218); and the commandment from the Lord and Savior (Lenski 335); and the command of the Lord and Savior (Williams).
[ 12 ]KAI TEES TOON APOSTOLOON HUMOON, and the of the apostles of you (Marshall 929); literally, [those] sent forth [APO from, STELLOO to send] (Vine 55); of your apostles; the Lord is the author of the ENTOLEE [commandment] of the apostles. He sent these apostles with this his commandment, which becomes theirs only in this way (Lenski 335); through your apostles (Williams).
[ 13 ]TOUTO PROOTON GINOOSKONTES, this firstly knowing (Marshall 929); GINOOSKONTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of GINOOSKOO (Han 425); the neuter of the adjective PROOTOS, is used as an adverb, signifying first, firstly, for example, of time . . . of order (Vine 434). in the NT GINOOSKOO frequently indicates a relation between the person knowing and the object known; in this respect, what is known is of value or importance to the one who knows (Vine 628); first of all, you must understand this (Williams); knowing this first (Lenski 338).
[ 14 ]EN EMPAIGMONEE EMPAIKTAI, in mocking mockers (Marshall 929); [a compound of PAIZOO to play like a PAIS, child, to sport, jest, prefixed by EN, in or at], mockers (Vine 750); EMTAIKTAI POREUOMENOI, this is the reading followed by KJ. But the later texts have added EMPAIGMONEE in mockery, occurring only here, though a kindred word for mockings [EMPAIGMOON] is found [in] Hebrews 11:36 (Vincent 1.703); mockers, scoffers (Thayer 208).
[ 15 ]HOTI EP' ESCHATOON TOON HEEMEROON, that during [the] last of the days (Marshall 929); at the days' ends (Lenski 338); that in the last days (Williams).
[ 16 ]KATA TAS IDIAS EPITHUMIAS AUTOON POREUOMENOI, according to the[ir] own lusts of them going (Marshall 929); strong desires of any kind (Vine 697); proceeding according to their own lusts (Lenski 338); living in accordance with their evil passions (Williams).
[ 17 ]POU ESTIN HEE EPANGELIA TEES PAROUSIAS AUTOU, where is the promise of the presence of him? (Marshall 929); EPANGELIA [is] primarily a law term, denoting a summons [EPI upon, ANGELLOO to proclaim, announce], also meant an undertaking to do or give something, a promise (Vine 891); when used of the return of Christ, at the Rapture of the Church, it signifies, not merely His momentary coming for His saints, but His presence with them from that moment until His revelation and manifestation to the world. In some passages the word gives prominence to the beginning of that period, the course of the period being implied (Vine 201); and saying: Where is the promise of his Parousia? (Lenski 338); and saying, Where is His promised coming? (Williams).
[ 18 ]In his Memphis debate in the late 1940's with James D. Bales, Teller, the secretary for the Association for the Advancement of Atheism in America, reasoned that since the nearest star (other than the sun) is over three light-years away, heaven must be so distant that a space-traveler would take many years to get there. He forgot that, to omnipresent Deity, all points in the universe are "here" and all events "now" (see notes on verse 8: One Day is as a thousand years.
[ 19 ]APH' HEES GAR HOI PATERES EKOIMEETHEESAN, from which [day] for=for from the day when . . . the fathers fell asleep (Marshall 929); EKOIMEETHEESAN is third person plural, first aorist passive indicative of KOIMAOO (Han 425); [PATERES is] from a root signifying a nourisher, protector, upholder . . . the patriarchs; [EKOIMEETHEESAN] of the death of the body, but only of such as are Christs . . . of believers since the Ascension (Vine 73, 411, 412); a literal and correct translation of the word, which occurs frequently in the NT, but only here in Peter . . . used in classical Greek to denote death (Vincent 1.704); sleep, fall asleep . . . metaphorically and euphemistically, that is, to die (Thayer 351); for since the fathers fell asleep (Lenski 338); for ever since our forefathers fell asleep (Williams).
[ 20 ]PANTA HOUTOOS DIAMENEI, all things so remains (Marshall 929); DIAMENEI is third person singular, present active indicative of DIAMENOO (Han 425); [MENOO abide, DIA through], of the unchanged course of things (Vine 228); everything has remained (Williams); all things remain (Lenski 338).
[ 21 ]Catastrophism is the view that certain geological changes in the earth have occurred suddenly because of momentous phenomena such as major earthquakes, volcanoes and, especially, the Genesis flood.
[ 22 ]Agnosticism is the kind of unbelief that does not absolutely deny God and His part in the creation but instead says these ideas cannot be known for certain.
[ 23 ]Nihilism is the dogma that traditional beliefs and values including moral truths are unfounded and worthless.
[ 24 ]AP' ARCHEES KTISEOOS, from [the] beginning of creation, since the beginning of creation. (Marshall 929); not a common phrase. It occurs only [in] Mark 10:6; 13:19; Revelation 3:14 (Vincent 1.704); from creation's beginning (Lenski 338); from the beginning of creation (Williams).
[ 25 ]The biosphere is the part of earth where life exists.
[ 26 ]A cataclysm is a violent, dramatic change, especially in the earth's surface. The word "cataclysm" is sometimes used synonymously with the Genesis flood.
[ 27 ]Rationalization is an effort to explain an event or events without careful analysis and logical reasoning.
[ 28 ]LANTHANEI GAR AUTOUS TOUTO THELONTAS, for is concealed [from] them this wishing (Marshall 929); LANTHANEI is third person singular, present active indicative of LANTHANOO; THELONTAS is the present active participle, accusative plural masculine of THELOO (Han 425); to will, used in the present participle in 2 Peter 3:5, literally, "this escapes them [that is, their notice] willing [that is, of their own will]" (Vine 1228); literally, this escapes them of their own will (Vincent 1.704); to be hidden from one; escapes them of their own will, that is, they are purposefully, willfully, ignorant (Thayer 371);for it escapes those in making this claim (Lenski 341); for they willfully ignore the fact (Williams).
[ 29 ]An assistant professor of astronomy in the University of North Carolina, with reference to the origin of the universe, told the writer, "We want to stay away from anything supernatural."
[ 30 ]TO TOU THEOU LOGO, by the of God word (Marshall 929); of the sayings of God; that is, decree, mandate, order (Thayer 380).
[ 31 ]HOTI OURANOI HEESAN, that heavens were (Marshall 929); HEESAN is third person plural, imperfect active indicative of EIMI (Han 425); but the Greek has no article. Render, there were heavens (Vincent 1.704); the vaulted expanse of the sky with all the things visible in it . . . generally: as opposed to the earth (Thayer 464); that the heavens existed (Williams); that there were heavens (Lenski 341).
[ 32 ]Zondervan 340. Cohen (30, 31) states that the Bible has seven different designations for heaven; therefore there must be seven heavens named respectively Vilon, Rakia, Sheckakim, Zebul, Maon, Machon, and Araboth. Vilon (Isa 40:22), Rakia (Ge 1:17), Shechakim (Ps 78:23f), Zebul (1Ki 8:13; Isa 48:15), Maon (Ps 42:8; De 26:15), Machon (De 28:12; 1Ki 8:39), Araboth (Ps 68:4).
[ 33 ]It is interesting that in the Gospel of John, only the singular "heaven" is used.
[ 34 ]EKPALAI, of old (Marshall 929); long ago (Williams); of old (Lenski 341).
[ 35 ]KAI GEE, and earth (Marshall 929); not the earth, but an earth (Vincent 1.704); and an earth (Lenski 341); and the earth (Williams).
[ 36 ]EX HUDATOS . . . SUNESTOOSA, by water . . . having been held together (Marshall 929); SUNESTOOSA is the perfect active participle, nominative singular feminine of SUNISTEEMI (Han 425); incorrect; for the word is, literally, standing together; that is, compacted or formed (Vincent 1.704); consists, nominative singular feminine . . . cannot agree with HOTI OURANOI the heavens which is masculine [but can agree with GEE earth which is feminine] (Macknight 640); no article. Render out of water; denoting not the position of the earth, but the material or mediating element in the creation; the waters being gathered together in one place, and the dry land appearing. Or, possibly, with reference to the original liquid condition of the earth--without form and void (Vincent 1.704); out of water (Williams); existing out of water; he describes the earth as existing [the second perfect feminine participle SUNESTOOSA is to be understood in this sense, "out of water" [having risen out of it] (Lenski 341).
[ 37 ]Macknight 640. Some scientists theorize that hydrogen atoms were the basic building blocks of the universe. A recent theory supposes that droplets water or chunks of ice being hurtled down toward the planets, mostly vaporized before striking the surface.
[ 38 ]KAI DI' HUDATOS, and through water (Marshall 929; Williams); omit the article. DIA has its usual sense here, not amidst, but by means of (Vincent 1.704); and between water (Lenski 341).
[ 39 ]Terraqueous [from Latin TERRA earth, English AQUEOUS pertaining to water], consisting of land and water.
[ 40 ]The name "Peleg" is from the Hebrew PELEGH division. "To Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided; and his brother's name was Joktan" (Ge 10:25; 1Ch 1:19). Some scholars think his name alludes to the division of a land mass known as Pangea, while others see in it the confounding of language at Babel (see Ge 10:32; 11:1-9).
[ 41 ]DI' HOON, through which things (Marshall 929); plural number . . . refers to the word of God. It is no objection that the relative is in the plural number; for as the Hebrews, in order to aggrandize the person and things of which they treat, speak of them in the plural number, although in their nature they are singular, DI' HOON, in verse 6, may, agreeably to the Hebrew idiom, be put for DI HOU; consequently the word of God, though it be singular, may very well be its antecedent (Macknight 32, 640); by which [plural, that is, the earth was formed through His command and through water (Williams); by means of which things [those presented in this whole situation] (Lenski 341).
[ 42 ]See Lenski 343.
[ 43 ]The NIV translators ignored the plural relative pronoun and render "by water also."
[ 44 ]A noun in the singular number is sometimes used for its plural: "one wise man who will be able to decide ANA MESON TOU ADELPHOU AUTOU between his brethren" [1Co 6:5]. "Dangers in the POLEI cities, dangers in the EREEMIA wildernesses" [2Co 11:26]. On the other hand, the sacred writers, to aggrandize the subjects of which they treat, use plural nouns, though the things which they denote are naturally singular: "Sat down EK DEXIOON at the right hands of God" [for right hand of God] [Mk 16:19]; "Now as to TOON CHRONOON KAI TOON KAIROON the times and the epochs" for the time and the epoch [the time when Christ shall return] [1Th 5:1; see also 1Ti 6:15; Tit 1:3]. "But the heavenly things themselves with better THUSIAIS sacrifices than these" [Heb 9:23]. Christ offered only one sacrifice [Heb 7:27; 9:28; see also Mt 21:7; Heb 10:28 and possibly 1Co 15:29] (compare Macknight 32).
[ 45 ]HO TOTE KOSMOS, the then world (Marshall 929; Lenski 341); literally, the then world. The word for world is literally order, and denotes the perfect system of the material universe (Vincent 1.705); also the world (Williams).
[ 46 ]APOOLETO, perished (Marshall 930; Lenski 341); APOOLETO is third person singular, second aorist middle indicative of APOLLUMI (Han 425); perished, lost, ruined, destroyed (Thayer 64); was destroyed (Williams).
[ 47 ]KATAKLUSTHEIS, being inundated (Marshall 929); first aorist passive participle, nominative singular masculine of KATAKLUZOO (Han 425); only here in NT. Cataclysm is derived from it (Vincent 1.705).
[ 48 ]HOI DE OURANOI, but the heavens (Marshall 930); the now heavens, or the present heavens (Vincent 1.705); the vaulted expanse of the sky with all the things visible in it . . . generally: as opposed to the earth . . . the heavens (Thayer 464); on the other hand [it escapes them, that] which now are, and which will one day be burnt up (Lenski 341).
[ 49 ]Isaiah 13 primarily deals with Babylon (see Isa 13:1).
[ 50 ]Isaiah 34 primarily deals with various nations (see Isa 34:1, 2).
[ 51 ]Isaiah 51 primarily deals with Israel (see Isa 51:2, 4).
[ 52 ]Ezekiel 32 primarily deals with Egypt (see Eze 32:2).
[ 53 ]The prophecy of Joel 2:28-32 had its fulfillment on Pentecost when the first gospel sermon was preached and the church of Christ was established.
[ 54 ]KAI HEE GEE, and the earth (Marshall 930; Lenski 341); and earth (Williams).
[ 55 ]NUN TETHEESAURISMENOI, now having been stored up (Marshall 930); TETHEESAURISMENOI is the perfect passive participle, nominative plural masculine of THEESAURIZOO (Han 425); literally, treasured up (Vincent 1.705); kept in store, stored up, reserved (Thayer 290); a construction similar to the then world [verse 6]; are stored up (Williams); the present [heavens] have been treasured up (Lenski 341).
[ 56 ]TOO AUTOO LOGOO, by the same word (Marshall 930; Lenski 341); of the sayings of God; that is, decree, mandate, order (Thayer 380); by the same command (Williams).
[ 57 ]TEEROUMENOI, being kept (Marshall 930; Lenski 341); present passive participle, nominative plural masculine of TEEREOO (Han 425); and are kept (Williams).
[ 58 ]EISIN PURI, are for fire (Marshall 930); EISIN is third person plural, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 425); some construe this with treasured up; stored up for fire; others with reserved [KJV]; others again give the sense stored with fire, indicating that the agent for the final destruction is already prepared (Vincent 1.705); of the fire of hell we find the following expressions,--which are to be taken either tropically [of the extreme penal torments which the wicked are to undergo after their life on earth; so in the discourses of Jesus], or literally [so apparently in the Apocalypse] (Thayer 558); for fire (Lenski 341; Williams).
[ 59 ]EIS HEEMERAN KRISEOOS, being kept in a day of judgment (Marshall 930); reserved [to be burned with fire] (Thayer 622); kept, held, reserved, preserved . . . for a definite purpose or a suitable time (Arndt 814); for the day [when godless men are to be] doomed [and destroyed] (Williams); for a day of judging (Lenski 341).
[ 60 ]KAI APOOLEIAS, and destruction (Marshall 930); and destroyed (Williams); and of perdition (Lenski 341).
[ 61 ]TOON ASEBOON ANTHROOPOON, of the impious men (Marshall 930); for the ungodly men (Lenski 341); godless men (Williams).
[ 62 ]DE AGAPEETOI, but beloved (Marshall 930); [plural] [from AGAPAOO to love], beloved (Vine 110); moreover, beloved (Lenski 344); but, dearly beloved (Williams).
[ 63 ]HEN TOUTO MEE LANTHANETOO HUMAS, one this thing let not be concealed [from] you (Marshall 930); LANTHANETOO is third person singular, present active imperative of LANTHANOO (Han 425); let not this one thing escape you (Lenski 344); you must avoid forgetting this one fact (Williams).
[ 64 ]If Albert Einstein was right in his theory of relativity, and since God is everywhere present, then all events, to Him, must be "now." The writer acknowledges that he used a word that has to do with time (now) to show that God is above time as we may think of it. The reader is asked to find a way to express the idea more clearly.
[ 65 ]PARA KURIOO, with [the] Lord (Marshall 930); with the Lord (Williams; Lenski 344).
[ 66 ]MIA HEEMERA HOOS CHILIA ETEE, one day [is] as a thousand years (Marshall 930); one day [is] as a thousand years (Lenski 344); a single day is like a thousand years (Williams).
[ 67 ]KAI CHILIA ETEE HOOS HEEMERA MIA, and a thousand years as day one (Marshall 930; Lenski 344); and a thousand years are like a single day (Williams).
[ 68 ]HOTI CHRONOS OUKETI ESTAI, that time no longer shall be (Re 10:6; Marshall 985; Lenski Revelation 316).
[ 69 ]OU BRADUNEI KURIOS, not is slow [the] Lord (Marshall 930); the word is, literally, to delay or loiter. . . implies, besides delay, the idea of lateness with reference to an appointed time (Vincent 1.705); slow [from BRADUNOO to delay; be slow] (Littrell); the Lord is not slow (Williams); not slack [or delaying] is the Lord (Lenski 345).
[ 70 ]TEES EPANGELIAS, of the [his] promise (Marshall 930); about His promise (Williams); with his promise (Lenski 345).
[ 71 ]HOOS TINES BRADUTEETA HEEGOUNTAI, as some slowness deem (Marshall 930); HEEGOUNTAI is third person plural, present middle indicative of HEGEOMAI (Han 425); unusually, with the genitive of the thing which one delays to effect, 2 Peter 3:9 TEES EPANGELIAS [KJV is not slack concerning his promise], that is, to fulfil his promise (Thayer 105); in the sense in which some think of slowness (Williams); as some consider slackness (Lenski 345).
[ 72 ]ALLA MAKROTHUMEI EIS HUMAS, but is longsuffering toward you (Marshall 930); MAKROTHUMEI is third person singular, present active indicative of MAKROTHUMEOO (Han 425); but He is really dealing patiently with you (Williams); but he is longsuffering in regard to you (Lenski 345).
[ 73 ]MEE BOULOMENOS, not purposing (Marshall 930); BOULOMENOS is the present middle participle, nominative singular masculine of BOULOMAI (Han 425); not willing (Williams); not intending (Lenski 345).
[ 74 ]TINAS APOLESTHAI, any to perish (Marshall 930); APOLESTHAI is the second aorist middle infinitive of APOLLUMI (Han 425); tropically, to incur the loss of true or eternal life; to be delivered up to eternal misery (Thayer 64); perish, die (Arndt 95); to destroy, signifies, in the middle voice, to perish, and is thus used . . . of persons; (Vine 848); see 1 in chart, PERISH [A WORD STUDY] B where perfect force of the verb APOLLUMENOIS [literally, "the perishing"] implies the completion of the process of destruction (Moulton, Prolegomena, page 114, via Vine 848 but Han  says APOLLUMENOIS in 1 Corinthians 1:18 is present passive participle, dative plural masculine of APOLLUMI); for any to perish (Williams); that some perish (Lenski 345).
[ 75 ]ALLA PANTAS EIS METANOIAN CHOOREESAI, but all men to repentance to come (Marshall 930); CHOOREESAI is the first aorist active infinitive of CHOOREOO (Han 425); properly, to leave a space [which may be occupied or filled by another], to make room, give place, yield . . . to betake one's self, turn one's self: EIS METAINOIAN unto repentance (Thayer 674); room for repentance (Williams 527); CHOOREESAI, move on to repentance (Woods 186).
[ 76 ]DE HEEMERA KURIOU, but [the] day of [the] Lord (Marshall 930); the last day of the present age, the day in which Christ will return from heaven, raise the dead, hold the final judgment, and perfect his kingdom (Thayer 278); the day of the Lord (Williams); although it is without the article, HEEMERA is definite, is made so by the genitive; but [there will come] the Lord's day (Lenski 346).
[ 77 ]HEEXEI DE, but will come (Marshall 930); HEEXEI is third person singular, future active indi8cative of HEEKOO (Han 425); but there will come (Lenski 346); will come (Williams).
[ 78 ]HOS KLEPTEES, as a thief (Marshall 930; Lenski 346); omit in the night (Vincent 1.705); night is supported by Manuscripts C, H, L, S and others [see 1Th 5:2] (Littrell); like a thief (Williams).
[ 79 ]EN HEE HOI OURANOI, in which the heavens (Marshall 930; Lenski 346); [probably akin to ORNUMI to lift, to heave], used in the NT of the aerial heavens, the sidereal and the eternal dwelling place of God . . . the present heavens with the earth are to pass away (Vine 538, 539); the vaulted expanse of the sky with all the things visible in it . . . generally: as opposed to the earth (Thayer 464); on that day the heavens (Williams).
[ 80 ]See Woods 186; compare Genesis 1:20.
[ 81 ]PARELEUSONTAI, will pass away (Marshall 930; Williams); third person plural, future middle indicative of PARERCHOMAI (Han 425); pass away, perish (Vine 836); shall pass away (Lenski 346).
[ 82 ]RHOIZEEDON, with rushing sound (Marshall 930); an adverb peculiar to Peter, and occurring only here. It is a word in which the sound suggests the sense [RHOIZEEDON]; and the kindred noun, RHOIZOS, is used in classical Greek of the whistling of an arrow; the sound of a shepherd's pipe; the rush of wings; the [s]plash of water; the hissing of a serpent; and the sound of filing (Vincent 1.706); [from RHOIZOS the whistling of an arrow], signifies "with rushing sound," as of roaring flames, and is used in 2 Peter 3:10, of the future passing away of the heavens (Vine 787); with a loud noise (Thayer 563); roar [from RHOIZEEDON, a roar; a great rushing sound (Littrell); with a cracking crash [Moulton and Milligan 464] (Lenski 346); with a roar (Williams).
[ 83 ]STOICHEIA DE LUTHEESONTAI, and [the] elements will be dissolved (Marshall 930); LUTHEESONTAI is third person singular, future passive indicative of LUOO (Han 426); [derived from STOICHOS a row], and meaning originally one of a row or series; hence a component or element. . . . applied to the four elements--fire, air, earth, water; and in later times to the planets and signs of the zodiac. . . Here the word is of course used in a physical sense, meaning the parts. Some take it as meaning the heavenly bodies, but the term is too late and technical in that sense; more literally, shall be dissolved (Vincent 1.706); the elements from which all things have come, the material causes of the universe; something coherent dissolved into parts, destroyed (Thayer 385, 589); loosed, used of the future demolition of the elements or heavenly bodies; "shall melt" represents the verb LUOO to loosen, dissolve, "shall be dissolved," passive voice, so in verses 11, 12 (Vine 316, 730); the heavenly bodies will be destroyed (Williams); moreover, elements [being heated] shall be dissolved (Lenski 346).
[ 84 ]An isotope is a particular kind of atomic nucleus that may identified by its number of protons and neutrons (see GE's Chart of the Nuclides).
[ 85 ]KAUSOUMENA, burning (Marshall 930); the present middle participle, nominative plural neuter of KAUSOMAI (Han 426); literally, being scorched up (Vincent 1.706); was used as a medical term, of a fever; in the NT, to burn with great heat [akin to KAUSON a burning heat], said of the future destruction of the natural elements, 2 Peter 3:10, 12, "with fervent heat," passive voice, literally, "being burned" (Vine 538); burned up, set fire to (Thayer 342); being heated (Lenski 347); by being burned up (Williams).
[ 86 ]KAI GEE, and [the] earth (Marshall 930);and the earth (Williams); and earth (Lenski 346).
[ 87 ]KAI TA EN AUTEE ERGA, and the in it works (Marshall 930); any product whatever, any thing accomplished by hand, art, industry, mind . . . the works of nature and of art (Thayer 248); with all its works (Williams); and the works in it (Lenski 346).
[ 88 ]HEURETHEESETAI, will be discovered (Marshall 930); third person singular, first future passive indicative of HEURISKOO (Han 426); shall be found, namely, for destruction, that is, will be unable to hide themselves from the doom decreed them by God (Thayer 261); the addition of the negative which is actually found in the Sahidic version, would clear up the best-attested and difficult reading of 2 Peter 3:10 KAI GE KAI TA EN AUTEE ERGA HEURETHEESETAI; other proposals in Nestle (Arndt 325); will melt away (Williams); shall be burned up (Lenski 346).
[ 89 ]TOUTOON HOUTOOS PANTOON, these things thus all (Marshall 930); OUN [Westcott-Hort HOUTOOS] (Thayer 464); all these things thus (Lenski 347); if all these things are (Williams).
[ 90 ]LUOMENOON, being dissolved (Marshall 930); present passive participle, genitive plural masculine of LUOO (Han 426); present participle, are in the process of dissolution (Vincent 1.706); loosed, used of the future demolition of the elements or heavenly bodies (Vine 316); dissolve something coherent into parts, destroy, passive (Thayer 385); to be dissolved (Williams); being dissolved (Lenski 347).
[ 91 ]POTAPOUS, what sort of men (Marshall 930); primarily, from what country, then, of what sort, is rendered "what manner of man" (Vine 710); POTAPOUS is not used in indirect questions and thus should be regarded as exclamatory with a note of hortation: "What kind of persons ought you to be!"; what kind of people (Lenski 347).what men (Williams).
[ 92 ]Some modern translations have changed the Hebrew "live" to "survive" and make the question, "how then can we survive?" However, the answer to the KJV question of "how should we then live?" appears in the following verse where God admonishes His people, "Turn back, turn back from your evil ways!" (Eze 33:11; see the volume, How Should We Then Live? by Francis A. Schaeffer, Revell, Old Tappan, 1976).
[ 93 ]DEI HUPARCHEIN [HUMAS], it behooves to be you (Marshall 930); HUPARCHEIN is the present active infinitive of HUPARCHOO (Han 426); DEI denotes "it is necessary," one must [be] (Vine 819); denotes continuous being . . . ought to be constantly engaging in all holy living and godliness (Woods 187); you ought to be! (Williams); ought you to be (Lenski 347).
[ 94 ]EN HAGIAIS ANASTROPHAIS, in holy conduct [plural] (Marshall 930); plural, holy livings (Vincent 1.707); literally, a turning back [compare ANASTREPHOO to turn back, ANA back, STREPHOO to turn], manner of life, living (Vine 105); in holy conduct (Lenski 347); what holy lives you ought to lead (Williams).
[ 95 ]KAI EUSEBEIAIS, and piety [plural] (Marshall 930); plural, godlinesses (Vincent 1.707); [EU well, SEBOMAI to be devout], denotes that piety which, characterized by a Godward attitude, does that which is well-pleasing to Him; plural, signifying acts of godliness (Vine 492); and godliness (Lenski 347); and pious (Williams).
[ 96 ]PROSDOKOONTAS, awaiting (Marshall 930); the present active participle, accusative plural masculine of PROSDOKAOO (Han 426); same verb as in Luke 1:21, of waiting for Zacharias. Cornelius waited [Ac 10:24]; the cripple expecting to receive something [Ac 3:5] (Vincent 1.707); awaiting, expecting [PROS to or towards, DOKEOO to think, be of opinion], looking for (Vine 686); expecting (Lenski 347); since you are awaiting (Williams).
[ 97 ]ELPIS, hope, desire of some good with expectation of obtaining it (Zodhiates 570). In Greek the word "hope" generally means favorable and confident expectation (Vine 562); hope, expectation (Liddell). The happy anticipation of hope has within it both desire and expectation. There is, however, at least one example in the Septuagint of an evil hope (see Isa 28:19).
[ 98 ]KAI SPEUDONTAS, and hastening (Marshall 930; Williams); SPEUDONTAS is the present active participle, accusative plural masculine of SPEUDOO (Han 426); transitively, desiring earnestly (Vine 527); desire earnestly (Thayer 584); and eager for (Lenski 347, 348).
[ 99 ]Greek is from Septuagint. And be prompt in righteousness (NASB).
[ 100 ]TEEN PAROUSIAN TEES TOU THEOU HEEMERAS, the presence of the of God day (Marshall 930); for the eventual development of the Divine purposes in relation to the human race see 2 Peter 3:12, "the Day of God" (Vine 263); the last day of the present age, the day in which Christ will return from heaven, raise the dead, hold the final judgment, and perfect his kingdom (Thayer 278); the Parousia of the day of God (Lenski 348); the coming of the day of God (Williams).
[ 101 ]DI' HEEN, on account of which (Marshall 930; Lenski 348); by reason of which (Vincent 1.707); which will cause (Williams).
[ 102 ]OURANOI LUTHEESONTAI, [the heavens] will be dissolved (Marshall 930); LUTHEESONTAI is third person plural, future passive indicative of LUOO (Han 426); literal, stronger than the word in verses 10, 11. Not only the resolving, but the wasting away of nature (Vincent 1.707); loosed, used of the future demolition of the elements or heavenly bodies (Vine 316); dissolved something coherent into parts, destroyed (Thayer 385); heavens [set on fire] shall be dissolved (Lenski 348); the heavens to blaze and dissolve (Williams).
[ 103 ]PUROUMENOI, being set on fire (Marshall 930); present passive participle, nominative plural masculine of PUROOO (Han 426); middle voice, being on fire (Vine 432); set on fire (Lenski 348); to blaze (Williams).
[ 104 ]KAI STOICHEIA, and [the] elements (Marshall 930); in the NT it is used of the substance of the material world (Vine 352); and the heavenly bodies (Williams); and elements (Lenski 348).
[ 105 ]TEEKETAI, melts (Marshall 931); third person singular, present passive indicative of TEEKOO (Han 426); melt (Vincent 1.707); melt, melt down, used in the passive voice, shall melt, literally, "shall be melted" (Vine 730); make liquid; passive, become liquid, melt; perish or be destroyed by melting . . . the present third person singular TEEKETAI gives the future TAKEESETAI (Thayer 621); passive, be melted, dissolve . . . at the end of the world (Arndt 814); the original word is applied to the melting of metals by fire (Macknight 642); shall be melted (Lenski 348); and melt away (Williams).
[ 106 ]KAUSOUMENA, burning (Marshall 930); present middle participle, nominative plural neuter of KAUSOOMAI (Han 426); was used as a medical term, of a fever; in the NT, to burn with great heat [akin to KAUSON a burning heat], said of the future destruction of the natural elements, 2 Peter 3:10, 12, "with fervent heat," passive voice, literally, "being burned" (Vine 538); to burn up (Williams); being heated (Lenski 348).
[ 107 ]Some who argue that this refers to the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70 appeal to Isaiah 34:1-4, where similar language is used to describe God's wrath against nations (Idumea). "All the host of heaven shall be dissolved, and the heavens shall be rolled up like a scroll; all their host shall fall down as the leaf falls from the vine, and as fruit falling from a fig tree (Isa 34:4; compare Eze 32:7; Joel 2:10, 30, 31; Am 8:9; Hag 2:6; Mt 24:29).
[ 108 ]DE KATA, but according to (Marshall 931; Lenski 349); in accordance with (Williams).
[ 109 ]TO EPANGELMA AUTOU, the promise of him (Marshall 931); with His promise (Williams); his promise (Lenski 349).
[ 110 ]If the date of the destruction of Jerusalem was what the Lord had in mind, after AD 70 no one after that date should have gotten married!
[ 111 ]PROSDOKOOMEN, we await (Marshall 931); first person singular, present active indicative of PROSDOKAOO (Han 426); awaiting, expecting [PROS to or towards, DOKEOO to think, be of opinion], looking for (Vine 686); we are expecting (Williams; Lenski 349).
[ 112 ]KAINOUS, new (Marshall 931; Lenski 349; Williams); new as to form or quality, of different nature from what is contrasted as old (Vine 781); new, as respects form; recently made, fresh, recent, unused, unworn [opposite to PALAIOS old, antiquated] (Thayer 317); in the sense that what is old has become obsolete, and should be replaced by what is new. In such a case the new is, as a rule, superior in kind to the old . . . especially in eschatological usage [Isa 65:17; 66:22; 2Pe 3:13; Re 21:1 (Arndt 394); that which is fresh in contrast to that which is worn out (Woods 188).
[ 113 ]Since the OT law had been taken out of the way, Isaiah's reference to the new moon and the sabbath precludes an interpretation that complete fulfillment of Isaiah 66 took place on earth during the early church age (see Isa 66:23; Col 2:14-16).
[ 114 ]OURANOUS, heavens (Marshall 931; Lenski 349; Williams); [probably akin to ORNUMI to lift, to heave], used in the NT of the aerial heavens, the sidereal and the eternal dwelling place of God . . . the present heavens with the earth are to pass away; new heavens and a new earth are to be created (Vine 538, 539); better heavens which will take the place of the present after the renovation of all things (Thayer 464); heavens, standing independently beside the earth or contrasted with it . . . will give way in the last times to the OURANON KAINON new heaven and the GEEN KAINEEN new earth, Revelation 21:1 [compare Isa 65:17; 66:22] (Arndt 594).
[ 115 ]KAI GEEN KAINEEN, and earth a new (Marshall 931); new as to form or quality, of different nature from what is contrasted as old (Vine 781); and an earth new (Lenski 349); and a new earth (Williams).
[ 116 ]EN HOIS DIKAIOSUNEE KATOIKEI, in which righteousness dwells (Marshall 931; Lenski 349); KATOIKEI is third person singular, present active indicative of KATOIKEOO (Han 426); in which uprightness will have its permanent home (Williams).
[ 117 ]Woods 188.
[ 118 ]George DeHoff took the view that the new heavens and the new earth were heaven itself.
[ 119 ]DIO, wherefore (Marshall 931; Lenski 350); therefore (Williams).
[ 120 ]AGAPEETOI, beloved (Marshall 931; Lenski 350); [plural] [from AGAPAOO to love], beloved (Vine 110); dearly beloved (Williams).
[ 121 ]TAUTA PROSDOKOONTES, these things awaiting (Marshall 931); PROSDOKOONTES is the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of PROSDOKAZOO (Han 426); awaiting, expecting [PROS to or towards, DOKEOO to think, be of opinion], looking for (Vine 686); since you are expecting this (Williams); expecting these things (Lenski 350).
[ 122 ]SPOUDASATE, be diligent (Marshall 931; Lenski 350); second person plural, first aorist active imperative of SPOUDAZOO (Han 426); be earnest, zealous, or to hasten to do a thing, to exert oneself, endeavor, give diligence . . . of being found in peace without fault and blameless, when the Lord comes (Vine 304); be in earnest (Williams).
[ 123 ]AUTOO HEURETHEENAI, by him to be found (Marshall 931); HEURETHEENAI is the first aorist infinitive of HEURISKOO (Han 426); to be found by him (Lenski 350; Williams).
[ 124 ]EN EIREENEE, in peace (Marshall 931; Lenski 350); at peace (Williams).
[ 125 ]Some translators have supplied "even in his" to give a somewhat different meaning: "For He gives to His beloved even in his sleep" (Ps 127:2).
[ 126 ]ASPILOI, spotless (Marshall 931); [A negative, SPILOO a spot or stain], of the believer . . . free from all defilement in the sight of God (Vine 1080); as spotless (Lenski 351); without a blot (Williams).
[ 127 ]KAI AMOOMEETOI, and unblemished (Marshall 931); without blemish, without rebuke, blameless (Vine 122); and unblemished (Lenski 350); without reproach (Williams).
[ 128 ]KAI HEEGEISTHE, and deem (Marshall 931); HEEGEISTHE is second person pl7ural, present mniddle imperative of HEGEOMAI (Han 426); primarily signifies to lead; then, to consider; it is translated "accounting" in Hebrews 11:26 . . . account (Vine 16); always think of (Williams); and consider (Lenski 361).
[ 129 ]TEEN TOU KURIOU HEEMOON MAKROTHUMIAN, the of the Lord of us longsuffering (Marshall 931); forbearance, patience, longsuffering [MAKROS long, THUMOS temper], is usually rendered "longsuffering;" patience with regard to antagonistic persons. It must be observed, however, that in Hebrews 6:15 the verb MAKROTHUMEOO is used of Abraham's patience under the pressure of trying circumstances [compare also James 5:7 8] (Vine 446, 684); our Lord's patience (Williams); our Lord's longsuffering (Lenski 361).
[ 130 ]SOOTERIAN, salvation (Marshall 931); as salvation (Williams; Lenski 351).
[ 131 ]KATHOOS KAI, as indeed (Marshall 931); just as (Williams); even as also (Lenski 351).
[ 132 ]HO AGAPEETOS HEEMOON ADELPHOS PAULOS, the beloved of us brother Paul (Marshall 931); [from AGAPAOO to love], beloved (Vine 110); our dearly beloved brother Paul (Williams; Lenski 351).
[ 133 ]KATA TEEN DOTHEISAN AUTOO SOPHIAN, according to the given to him wisdom (Marshall 931); DOTHEISAN is the first aorist passive participle, accusative singular feminine of DIDOOMI (Han 426); the insight into the true nature of things (Vine 1233); with the wisdom granted him (Williams); according to the wisdom given to him (Lenski 351).
[ 134 ]EGRAPHEN HUMIN, wrote to you (Marshall 931); EGRAPHEN is third person singular, first aorist active indicative of GRAPHOO (Han 426); wrote . . . to give information, directions, etc. (Thayer 122); wrote to (Arndt 167); wrote you to do (Williams); has written to you (Lenski 351).
[ 135 ]HOOS KAI EN PASAIS EPISTOLAIS, as also in all [his] epistles (Marshall 931); primarily messages [from EPISTELLOO to send to], hence, letters, epistles; the Apostle includes the Epistles of Paul as part of the God-breathed Scriptures (Vine 368); as also in all [his] letters (Lenski 351); as he does in all his letters (Williams).
[ 136 ]LALOON EN AUTAIS PERI TOUTOON, speaking in them concerning these things (Marshall 931); LALOON is the present active participle, nominative singular masculine of LALEOO (Han 426); speaking in them of these things (Lenski 351); speaking of it (Williams).
[ 137 ]EN HAIS ESTIN TINA, in which is [are] some things (Marshall 931); ESTIN is third person singular, present active indicative of EIMI (Han 426); in which [feminine: letters of Paul] there are some things (Lenski 354); in them are some things (Williams).
[ 138 ]DUSNOEETA, hard to understand (Marshall 931); hard to be understood [DUS a prefix like English mis- or un-, and NOEOO to perceive with the mind] (Vine 1181); difficult to understand (Lenski 354); hard to understand (Williams).
[ 139 ]HA HOI AMATHEIS, which the unlearned (Marshall 931); unlearned [MATHANOO to learn] (Vine 1183); which the ignorant (Lenski 354; Williams).
[ 140 ]KAI ASTEERIKTOI, and unsteady (Marshall 931; Williams); and unstable (Lenski 354).
[ 141 ]STREBLOUSIN, twist (Marshall 931; Williams); third person 0plural, present active indicative of STREBLOOO (Han 426); originally, to hoist with a windlass or screw; to twist or dislocate the limbs on a rack. It is a singularly graphic word applied to the perversion of scripture (Vincent 1.708); twist, torture [from STREBLEE a winch or instrument of torture, and akin to STREPHOO to turn], is used metaphorically of wresting the Scriptures on the part of the ignorant and unstedfast (Vine 1251); wrest (Lenski 354).
[ 142 ]PROS TEEN IDIAN AUTOON APOOLEIAN, to the[ir] own of them destruction (Marshall 931); of persons, signifying their spiritual and eternal perdition . . . signifies the proper destiny of the person mentioned . . . of those who wrest the Scriptures (Vine 296); to their own perdition (Lenski 354); to their ruin (Williams).
[ 143 ]HOOS KAI TAS LOIPAS GRAPHAS, as also the remaining scriptures (Marshall 931); showing that Paul's epistles were ranked as scripture (Vincent 1.708); signifies remaining, the rest; of the OT Scriptures [those accepted by the Jews as canonical] and all those of the NT which were to be accepted by Christians as authoritative (Vine 818, 1001); as also the rest of the Scriptures (Lenski 354); as they do the rest of the Scriptures (Williams).
[ 144 ]HUMEIS HOUN, ye therefore (Marshall 931); you, on your part, then (Lenski 357); so (Williams).
[ 145 ]AGAPEETOI, beloved (Marshall 931); [plural], [from AGAPAOO to love], beloved (Vine 110); dearly beloved (Williams).
[ 146 ]PROGINOOSKONTES, knowing before (Marshall 931); the present active participle, nominative plural masculine of PROGINOOSKOO (Han 426); of human previous knowledge, of facts (Vine 629); realizing [these things] in advance (Lenski 357); since you have been forewarned (Williams).
[ 147 ]PHULASSESTHE HINA MEE EKPESEETE, guard lest ye fall from (Marshall 931); PHULASSESTHE is second person plural, present middle imperative of PHULASSOO; EKPESEETE is second person plural, second aorist active subjunctive of EKPIPTOO (Han 426); literally, "fall out of" (Vincent 1.708); guard, watch, keep, used in the middle voice, of being on one's guard against [the middle voice stressing personal interest in the action] "beware"; fall out of [EK out, PIPTOO to fall], of the believer who is warned lest he fall away from the course in which he has been confirmed by the word of God (Vine 116, 404); keep on guarding yourselves lest you fall (Lenski 357); you must always be on your guard and so against falling (Williams).
[ 148 ]TOU IDIOU STEERIGMOU, the [your] own stability (Marshall 931); a setting firmly, supporting, then fixedness, steadfastness [akin to STERIZOO to establish] (Vine 1086); your own stability (Lenski 357); your present firmness (Williams).
[ 149 ]SUNAPACHTHENTES, being led away with (Marshall 931); the first aorist passive participle, nominative plural masculine of SUNAPAGOO (Han 426); carried away. . . used by Paul of Barnabas, when he dissembled with Peter at Antioch. "Barnabas was carried away with their dissimulation" [Ga 2:13] (Vincent 1.708); carried away with [SUN with, APAGOO to lead away, APO from, AGOO to lead], being carried away with (Vine 162, 163); by having been led off (Lenski 357); being led astray (Williams).
[ 150 ]TEE PLANEE, by the error (Marshall 931); a wandering, a forsaking of the right path . . . in doctrine (Vine 369); with the error (Lenski 357); by the errors (Williams).
[ 151 ]TOON ATHESMOON, of the lawless (Marshall 931); lawless [A negative, THESMOS law, custom] (Vine 1227); of the nefarious ones (Lenski 357); of lawless men (Williams).
[ 152 ]AUXANTE DE EN CHARITI, grow ye but in grace (Marshall 931); AUXANTE is second person plural, present active imperative of AUXANOO (Han 426); grow or increase, of the growth of that which lives, naturally or spiritually; a state of grace (Vine 500, 511); but keep growing in grace (Lenski 357); but instead, you must continue to grow in the spiritual strength (Williams).
[ 153 ]KAI GNOOSEI, and knowledge (Marshall 931; Lenski 357; Williams); nor is such knowledge marked by finality (Vine 628).
[ 154 ]TOU KURIOU HEEMOON KAI SOOTEEROS 'IEESOU CHRISTOU, of the Lord of us and Savior Jesus Christ (Marshall 931); from our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ (Lenski 357); of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ (Williams).
[ 155 ]AUTOO HEE DOXA, to him [is]=His is the glory (Marshall 931); due acknowledgement of the exhibition of His attributes and ways (Vine 483); to him the glory (Lenski 358); to Him be glory (Williams).
[ 156 ]KAI NUN, both now (Marshall 931; Lenski 358); now (Williams).
[ 157 ]KAI EIS HEEMERAN AIOONOS, and unto a day of age=for ever; "?an age-lasting [that is, eternal] day (Marshall 931); literally, "unto a day of an age," "forever" (Vine 377); and for eon's day (Lenski 358); and forever (Williams).
[ 158 ]"Eon's day" is in Sirach 18:8.
[ 159 ][AMEEN], "Amen" said by God="it is and shall be so," and by men, "so let it be" (Vine 45); the "Amen" is omitted by Marshall, Lenski and Williams. It may be a later addition to the text.
Copyright ©2003, Charles Hess, Ridgefield, Washington, U.S.A.
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The basic text, and all quotations not designated otherwise, are from the New King James Version, copyrighted ©1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. All rights reserved. Used by permission. Bracketed alternatives are drawn from various sources such as the ASV, Darby, KJV and RSV. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method. To Second Peter Chapter Two
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