Introduction to First Peter
Copyright 2003, Charles Hess, Ridgefield, Washington

THE WRITER

The writer of 1 Peter[ 1 ] claims to be "Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ" (1Pe 1:1). He further asserts he was a "fellow elder and witness of the sufferings of Christ" (1Pe 5:1). Apparently, he used an amanuensis[ 2 ] by the name of Silvanus (1Pe 5:12). He calls John Mark "Mark my son"[ 3 ] (1Pe 5:13). To deny these statements is to impugn the honesty of the writer without any reason to do so.

Peter and his wife[ 4 ] moved into a large house in Capernaum.[ 5 ] Their home was a very short walk from the beautiful Sea of Galilee. His father was named John,[ 6 ] with whom he worked as a fisherman along with his brother Andrew. Andrew introduced Peter to Jesus. Peter was the first apostle chosen and is always named first[ 7 ] in the lists (see Mt 10:2-4; Mk 3:16-19; Lu 6:14-16; Ac 1:13, 14). He was also one of the inner circle of three (see Mk 5:37; 17:1; Mk 9:2; Lu 8:51; 9:28).

Peter was a bold, impulsive, energetic, tender-hearted leader of men. He was first to confess his faith at Caesarea Philippi (Mt 16:16). He was quick to rebuke Christ after He foretold His crucifixion (Mt 16:22). He insisted he was willing to go to prison and death for his Lord (Lu 22:34). He spoke for the twelve apostles during the teaching on the Bread of Life (Joh 6:66-69). He cut off the ear of Malchus (Joh 18:10). The same night he denied His Lord. Nevertheless, he was restored and allowed to preached a sermon on Pentecost (Ac 2:14-40). Later, he raised Dorcas from the dead (see Ac 9:36-41) and subsequently to the Gentile household of Cornelius (Ac 10, 11). Although he had moments of vacillation,[ 8 ] he had an absolute trust in Christ.[ 9 ] He had faults to overcome but he was sharp, perceptive and quick to yield in obedience to the Lord's will.

The NT gives very little history of him after about 50 AD. Luke's last mention of him is in Acts 15. In that reference, we see him at Jerusalem as he stands up to recount the first conversion of Gentiles, contending that the yoke of the law should not be placed upon their necks (Ac 15:10). After the close of the book of Acts, Peter is mentioned in Scripture, sometimes as Cephas, in 1 Corinthians 1:12; 3:22; 9:5; 15:5; Galatians 1:18; 2:9 and 1, 2 Peter.


Chart
PERSECUTION (A)
(1 Peter)
  1. Distressed by various trials (1Pe 1:6).
  2. Called for this purpose, since Christ also suffered for you (1Pe 2:21).
  3. If you should suffer for the sake of righteousness (1Pe 3:14).
  4. It is better, if God should will it so, that you suffer for doing what is right (1Pe 3:17).
  5. Beloved, do not be surprised at the fiery ordeal among you (1Pe 4:12).




Chart
PERSECUTION (B)
(1 Peter)
  1. You share the sufferings of Christ, keep on rejoicing (1Pe 4:13).
  2. If anyone suffers as a Christian, let him not be ashamed (1Pe 4:16).
  3. Let those who suffer . . . entrust souls to a faithful Creator (1Pe 4:19).
  4. After you have suffered for a little while (1Pe 5:10).



According to tradition, after the Jerusalem meeting mentioned above, Peter worked and preached among "the Dispersion" and that his wife accompanied him (see notes on 1Co 9:5; 1Pe 1:1). When he wrote 1 Peter, he was apparently in "Babylon"[ 10 ] (1Pe 5:13). Is Babylon is the same as Rome?[ 11 ]

If it is, it is arresting that in Paul's prison epistles, there is no mention of them being imprisoned together as the Catholics claim! Is it possible that the figurative appellation "Babylon" for Rome was taken up at the very onset of the Neronian persecution (see footnote; charts PERSECUTION A and B; WAVES OF PERSECUTION)?


Chart
WAVES OF PERSECUTION
(1 Peter)
  1. During the reign of Nero (AD 64-68).
  2. During the reign of Domitian (AD 81-96).
  3. During the reign of Trajan (AD 98-117).
  4. (S. J. Case, "Peter, Epistles of")



CATHOLIC EPISTLES

The word "catholic"[ 12 ] is often used as a tag for the six short epistles of Peter, John and Jude. However, the application of these letters is no more general than some of the other inspired Scriptures. Although Peter's work was primarily among Jews (Ga 2:7), "catholic" does describe the universal scope of his letters. There is no doubt that they are inspired. Their acceptance was widespread from the very first.


Chart
ALLUSIONS BY EARLY WRITERS
  1. Polycarp's Epistle to Philippians (about 125 AD).
  2. Epistle of Barnabas (about 80-135 AD).
  3. Justin Martyr (about 150 AD).
  4. Early writers, beginning with Irenaeus (about 170 AD) accept it as being from Peter.
  5. (Zondervan 642)



GENUINENESS

Several early writers allude to or quote from 1 Peter (see chart ALLUSIONS BY EARLY WRITERS). There is a fair amount of external evidence that the writer was the apostle Peter. Irenaeus[ 13 ] quotes from 1 Peter and attributes the letter to

the apostle Peter. Tertullian[ 14 ] and Clement of Alexandria[ 15 ] attribute it to him as well. The Shepherd of Hermas[ 16 ] and the writings of Clement of Rome[ 17 ] allude to statements of Peter. Polycarp,[ 18 ] Papais[ 19 ] and Justin Martyr[ 20 ] either quote or allude to Peter's writings. Eusebius claims that Papias "used witnesses from the first epistle of John and similarly from Peter"[ 21 ] The apostle calls what is known to us as 2 Peter "the second letter" (2Pe 3:1). The relationship that letter sustains to 1 Peter demonstrates that Peter also wrote the first one.

WHEN WRITTEN

There is no known proof that Peter founded a church of Christ in Rome. Certainly the Scriptures do not so state. On the other hand, I cannot prove he did not visit, preach or was imprisoned in that city. Catholics insist it is all true. Roman persecution began in earnest about AD 64. The trials Peter mentioned in his first letter may be those. It is estimated that they began two or three years before his death. It is likely that he wrote the letter between AD 64-67.

TO WHOM WRITTEN

The people to whom Peter wrote were mostly Gentiles.[ 22 ] Their ways were once conformed to lusts in ignorance (1Pe 1:14) which, in some cases, included malice, guile, hypocrisy, envy and evil speaking (see 1Pe 2:1). They had been redeemed from "aimless conduct" or a "futile way of life" inherited from their forefathers (1Pe 1:18). Before their conversion to Christ, they "were not a people" (1Pe 2:10). They lived among Gentiles (1Pe 2:12). They lived like them:

For we have spent enough of our past lifetime in doing the will of the Gentiles-- when we walked in lewdness, lusts, drunkenness, revelries, drinking parties, and abominable idolatries (1Pe 4:3).

As Christians (1Pe 4:16), they lived as aliens in five Roman provinces in Asia that lay east of the Aegean Sea, south of the Black Sea and north of the Mediterranean Sea in what we now call northern Turkey (see notes on 1Pe 1:1). They were "elect" or "chosen" (1Pe 1:2). They were no longer lost sinners, but had been born again unto a living hope (1Pe 1:2). These believers loved Jesus Christ (1Pe 1:7-9, 21) and each other (1Pe 1:22). In spite of the fact that they were "like sheep going astray" (1Pe 2:25), they were of "the house of God" (1Pe 4:17). At the time Peter wrote to them, they were undergoing a "fiery trial" of persecution (1Pe 4:12). At least some of the churches had elders (1Pe 5:1).

CHARACTERISTICS

There is a correspondence between Peter's sermon on Pentecost and the book of 1 Peter (see charts ACTS AND 1 PETER A and B).


Chart
ACTS AND 1 PETER (A)
  1. Holy Spirit sent upon apostles (Ac 2:2-4; 1Pe 1:12).
  2. Christ foreknown (Ac 2:23; 1Pe 1:20).
  3. God raised Christ and gave Him glory (Ac 2:32, 33; 1Pe 1:21).
  4. Baptism and salvation (Ac 2:38; 10:48; 1Pe 3:21).




Chart
ACTS AND 1 PETER (B)
  1. The stone rejected became head of corner (Ac 4:10, 11; 1Pe 2:7, 8).
  2. Reviled for Christ (Ac 5:41; 1Pe 4:14).
  3. God's impartiality (Ac 10:34; 1Pe 1:17).
  4. Christ to judge living and dead (Ac 10:42; 1Pe 4:5).



Peter wrote in order to encourage Christians during persecution (see charts PERSECUTION A and B; WAVES OF PERSECUTION). He placed emphasis upon what could be observed. Some words and phrases that allude to seeing are the "day of visitation"[ 23 ] (1Pe 2:12) and Christ as "Overseer," "Bishop" or "Guardian"[ 24 ] of souls (1Pe 2:25). In his second letter, Peter speaks of those who are "shortsighted even to blindness" (2Pe 1:9), of what Lot had been "seeing and hearing" (2Pe 2:8) and of sinful men with "eyes full of adultery" (2Pe 2:14; see chart OBSERVATION WORDS).


Chart
OBSERVATION WORDS
(1 Peter)
  1. A salvation ready to be revealed in the last time (1Pe 1:5).
  2. Christ appeared in these last times for the sake of you (1Pe 1:20).
  3. As they observe your chaste and respectful behavior (1Pe 3:1).
  4. A witness of the sufferings of Christ (1Pe 5:1).
  5. When the Chief Shepherd appears (1Pe 5:4).



In line with Peter's keen sense of observation, his language is colorful, graphic and vivid (see charts PETER'S WORD PICTURES A and B).


Chart
PETER'S WORD PICTURES (A)
  1. Things into which angels long to look [literally, stoop down to gaze intently] (1Pe 1:12).
  2. Fervently [literally, on the stretch] love one another (1Pe 1:22).
  3. Put to silence [muzzle] the ignorance of foolish men (1Pe 2:15).




Chart
PETER'S WORD PICTURES (B)
  1. Freedom as a "cloak" or "covering" for evil (1Pe 2:16).
  2. Masters who are froward, unreasonable [literally, awry or twisted] (1Pe 2:18).
  3. "Arm" yourselves (1Pe 4:1).
  4. "Clothe" yourselves with humility (1Pe 5:5).
  5. "A roaring lion" (1Pe 5:8).




Chart
SPIRITUAL RESPONSES
(1 Peter)
  1. That you may obey Jesus Christ (1Pe 1:2).
  2. Be holy yourselves also in all your behavior (1Pe 1:15).
  3. Long for the pure milk of the word (1Pe 2:1, 2).
  4. Submit yourselves for the Lord's sake to every human institution (1Pe 2:13).
  5. Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example for you to follow in His steps (1Pe 2:21).



Emphasis is placed on responses to God's message (see chart SPIRITUAL RESPONSES). At the Last Supper, Jesus "rose from supper, and laid aside His garments, took a towel and girded Himself" (Joh 13:4). There was a personal conversation with Peter that night (see Joh 13:6-11). After His denial and restoration by the Savior at the lake of Galilee (see Joh 21), Jesus told him about his future violent death.

Most assuredly, I say to you, when you were younger, you girded yourself and walked where you wished; but when you are old, you will stretch out your hands, and another will gird you and carry you where you do not wish (Joh 21:18).

Years later, no doubt recalling Jesus girding Himself with a towel to wash his feet, Peter wrote, "Gird yourselves with humility" (1Pe 5:5 ASV).

The apostle, in his early days, had a problem accepting non-Jews. It is true that he took the gospel to Cornelius but later at Antioch he withdrew and would not eat with Gentiles (Ga 2:12). He eventually completely overcame his bias. Notice the emphasis upon impartiality in his writings as he says:

And if you call on the Father, who without partiality[ 25 ] judges according to each one's work, conduct yourselves throughout the time of your stay here in fear (1Pe 1:17).

Evidently, the Dispersion were Gentiles (see TO WHOM WRITTEN above). Peter exalted Gentiles, saying to them that they "once were not a people but are now the people of God" (1Pe 2:10; compare 4:3, 4).

Many comforting and challenging doctrinal matters are discussed in 1 Peter (see chart IMPORTANT MATTERS A and B).


Chart
IMPORTANT MATTERS (A)
  1. Begotten by the word, souls purified by obeying the truth (1Pe 1:22, 23; compare Lu 8:11; Jas 1:18; 1Jo 5:1).
  2. Lay aside all evil and desire pure milk of word to grow (1Pe 2:1, 2).
  3. As living stones, built into a dwelling of God, a holy temple (1Pe 2:5).
  4. All Christians are priests (compare 1Co 3:16; 2Co 6:16).




Chart
IMPORTANT MATTERS (B)
  1. Be ready to answer those who ask a reason of the hope (1Pe 3:15).
  2. Speak as the word [oracles] of God (1Pe 4:11).
  3. Be humble (1Pe 5:6).
  4. Be very watchful because the devil goes about as a roaring lion to devour (1Pe 5:8).
  5. Resist the devil with "the faith" (1Pe 5:9) using word of God as weapon [sword of the Spirit] (see Eph 5:17).



PETER'S DEATH

According to tradition, Peter went to Rome and was executed under Nero. It is commonly believed his martyrdom occurred about 65-67 AD. I know of no firm historical evidence to support the story that he was condemned to be crucified under Nero and that he asked to be crucified head downward because he thought himself unworthy to be crucified like his Lord. Many think he went to Rome, wrote his epistles and died there. There is no reason to think that he was ever Bishop of Rome[ 26 ] or that he ever served as Pope.


Chart
1 PETER OUTLINE (A)
  1. Greetings to dispersion (1Pe 1:1, 2).
  2. Living hope, sure salvation (1Pe 1:3-25).
  3. Practical holiness: milk of word, living stones, spiritual priesthood, submit to rulers (1Pe 2:1-20).
  4. Jesus Christ, our example (1Pe 2:21-25).
  5. Godly living: wives, husbands, love one another (1Pe 3:1-13).




Chart
1 PETER OUTLINE (B)
  1. Suffering for righteousness (1Pe 3:14-22).
  2. Spiritual aspect of suffering (4:1-19).
  3. Exhortation to elders, younger men (5:1-7).
  4. Resist devil (5:8-11).
  5. Closing remarks, greetings (5:12-14).



Footnotes:


[ 1 ]The basic text in this introduction is the NKJV. Scripture taken from the New King James Version. Copyright 1979, 1980, 1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved. Alternate phrases in brackets are from ASV, Darby, ESB, KJV and RSV and occasionally another version. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.
[ 2 ]An amanuensis=a secretary.
[ 3 ]Was Peter in Rome when he wrote this letter? Apparently, Mark was with him when he wrote it (1Pe 5:13). Mark had been in Rome during Paul's imprisonment two or three years earlier (Col 4:10), but was about to head out for Colossae. Paul, about AD 67, again from a Roman prison, asked Timothy to "Get Mark and bring him with you, for he is useful to me for ministry" (2Ti 4:11). If we assume 1 Peter was written near the beginning of the Neronian persecution, about AD 65, there might have been time for Mark to have joined Peter in literal or figurative Babylon.
[ 4 ]That Peter was married is proved by Matthew 8:14; Mark 1:30; Luke 4:38; 1 Corinthians 9:5.
[ 5 ]Peter was a native of Bethsaida, a town in Galilee (Joh 1:44), but during Christ's Galilean ministry he lived at Capernaum (Mk 1:21, 29). The house in Capernaum was also called the house of Peter and Andrew (Mk 1:29).
[ 6 ]Peter was son of John or "Bar-Jonah" or "Barjona" (Mt 16:17; Joh 1:42; 21:15-17).
[ 7 ]Because Peter was named first does not mean he was the first Pope. If the other apostles thought he was the most prominent, why were they constantly arguing about who would be greatest (see Mt 20:20-28; Mk 9:33, 34; Lu 22:24-27)?
[ 8 ]By "vacillations," reference is made to his Peter's rebuke of the Lord (Mt 16:22), his three denials (Mt 26:7-175; Mk 14:69-72; Lu 22:58-61; Joh 18:25-27) and his refusal to eat with Gentiles at Antioch (Ga 2:11-13). Prior to his denial of his Lord, Jesus told him, ""When you have returned to Me, strengthen your brethren" (Lu 22:32). This he did.
[ 9 ]The writer once thought that Peter was giving up his faith in Christ when he said, "I am going fishing" (Joh 21:3). It is not necessary to accuse him of unbelief just because he went fishing. Perhaps the disciples were hungry. Maybe they were short of money after the crucifixion, being without those "who provided for Him from their substance" (Lu 8:3). Judas was gone. Where was the money-box (see Joh 13:29)? When he saw the Lord, there was no hesitancy of unbelief. He jumped right into the water and made for shore to bee with Him (Joh 21:7).
[ 10 ]Other than the two literal Babylons [an Assyrian refugee camp in Egypt where Cairo is now located and the other on the Euphrates river], some have proposed figurative interpretations of this term suggesting Rome or Jerusalem.
[ 11 ]Some interpreters cite Revelation 17:5, 18 as "proof" that Babylon=Rome. It may be possible that "Babylon" is used figuratively for more than one location.
[ 12 ]Greek KATHOLIKOS universal [no connection with the Catholic Church]. For the most part, these letters were not addressed to a particular church or individual [except for 2, 3 John], it is not thought that these letters are now any more "universal" than others. It may be that the word was first tacked on to designate them as universally accepted by the church as canonical and not heretical. Today, they are no more universally accepted (canonical) than any other inspired writings.
[ 13 ]Irenaeus [lived about AD 130-216], Against Heresies 4.9.2.
[ 14 ]Tertullian wrote about AD 200.
[ 15 ]Clement of Alexandria wrote about 200 AD, Miscellanies 3.11; Instructor 1.6; Hypotyposes.
[ 16 ]The first part of the Shepherd of Hermas is thought to have been written in the first century, with the balance being finished during the tenure of his brother Pius as "bishop" of Rome, about AD 150-160.
[ 17 ]Clement of Rome wrote about AD 93-97.
[ 18 ]Polycarp died as a martyr in AD 155. The following quotations of Polycarp are from Barclay 168, 169. There is little doubt that they are taken directly from 1 Peter. "Wherefore, girding up your loins, serve God in fear . . . believing on Him who raised up our Lord Jesus Christ from the dead, and gave Him glory" (To the Philippians 2.1; compare 1Pe 1:13, 21). "Christ Jesus who bare our sins in His own body on the tree, who did no sin, neither was guile found in His mouth" (Polycarp 8.1; compare 1Pe 2:22, 24). "Having your conversation blameless among the Gentiles" (Polycarp 10.2; compare 1Pe 2:12).
[ 19 ]Papais wrote between AD 130-140.
[ 20 ]The date of Justin Martyr's death is somewhere about AD 163-165.
[ 21 ]Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.39.17, written about AD 324.
[ 22 ]Although seemingly addressed primarily to Gentile Christians, the letter has a general application to all Christians, both Jew and Gentile, then and now.
[ 23 ]Literally, overlooking (Vincent 1.620).
[ 24 ]Literally, overseer (Vincent 1.620).
[ 25 ]Impartially is literally, without acceptance of faces.
[ 26 ]The Catholic claim is that Peter was Bishop of Rome for twenty-five years.


Copyright ©2003, Charles Hess, Ridgefield, Washington, U.S.A.
This material may be copied for personal study only.
It may not be distributed or published in any form whatever
without the copyright owner's written permission.
This copyright notice must be included on all copies made.

The basic text, and all quotations not designated otherwise, are from the New King James Version, copyrighted ©1982 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. All rights reserved. Used by permission. Bracketed alternatives are drawn from various sources such as the ASV, Darby, KJV and RSV. Greek transliteration follows the BibleSoft method.

Published in The Old Paths Archive (http://www.oldpaths.com)


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